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Full text of "An introduction to Greek and Latin palaeography"

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This b09k belongs to 
THE CAMPBELL COLLECTION 
purchased with the aid of 
The MacDonald-Stewart Foundation 
and 
The Canada Council 



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AX IXTnOl)I
CTIOX TO 


GREEI( 


AXD 


LJ.tTIX 


P ALAEOG }{,Ål>HY 


BY 


SIR ED"
ARD 
IAUXDE TH03IPSOX 
G.c. Boo I.S.O. 


BOX. D.('.L.. OXl'ORD A
D DURHA": BOS. LJ..D.. ST. A
DREWS 
HOX. UTT.D., '[A'CHE:>T.ER; HON. }".ELLO\\ OF LXn-.ERSITY COLLI:G.E 
OXFORD; F.ELLO\\" OF TH.E RRrIISH ACAD.E
IY; CORRESI'OXDI.... 
'I.E'IBER 0'" TH.E I
SI"ITI TE OF '"RA'i"C.E, AXD OF TH.E ROYAL 
I'Hi S..;,IAS" Al"ADE\IY OF Sl"I.EXl"E...; 
O'IE'n'IE DIRECTOR AXD 
PRI'i"CIPAL LIRRARIAX OF TH.E BRITISH 'II;"E(:'I 


OXFORD 
AT THE CLAREXDOX PRESS 


IHl2 



HENRY FROWDE, )I.A. 


PUELISHER TO THE UXIYERSITY OF OXFORD 


LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK, TORONTO 
:MELEOURNE AND EmmA Y 



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DEDICAT DI
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rHEF_\CE 


\VUEX, twenty 'years ago, at the invitation of Messr::;. Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Truebner & Company, 1 contributed to their 
International 
cientific ;:,eries a Hwulbook of Greek and Latin 
PalacograjJh!l, I hanlly dareù to hope that ::;uch a work would 
appe<ll to more th<ln a limited number of students. Yet, even 
at that time, the study of Palaeography had begun to take 
a 'v iller r<Ulge; and the over-growing output of photogmphic 
repruduction
 and e:-:pecially the interest arollsed by the 
recovery I)f valuable relics of Greek Literature which so 
frE'quently were cuming to light among the newly-found papyri 
from Egypt combined to give it a greater stimulu:-:. For this 
reason, and rather because it happened to be the only book of 
its kind in the English language than for any particular merit 
of its own, the Handbook attained a larger circulation than had 
been anticipated, and served more effectually the purpose, for 
which it was written, of a geneml guide to the subject. 
A certain inconvenience, however, embarrassed the useful- 
ne:-:s which might be claimed for the hook, almost from the 
fir:-:t. The small form of the volume and the modemte price of 
the 
erit'-; prohihited illustration on more than a limited scale; 
and although the fac:-:imiles. as issued, may lw,ve proved 
sufficient as an accomp<lniment of the text, their value as 
palaeogrnphical :-:pecimen
, representing as they did only very 
small sections uf the pages of the 1\188. from which they were 
selected, could not count for much. l\Ioreover, the letter-pres::, 
being stereotyped, the introduction of new matter in any satis- 
factory degree was attended with ùifficultie". Therefore, when, 
in 190G, a third edition of the Handbook was called for, it was 
suggested to the publishers that the time had arrived for a 
fuller tre<1Ìment of the subject huth in text <1nd in illustration. 
They were, however, of opinion that the Handbook, as it stood, 
still had it:-; value; at the same time they very lw.ndsomely 



VI 


PREFACE 


gave me authority to make use of it as a basis for a larger 
work. I here de:-:;ire to record my grateful thanks for this 
conceSSIOn. 
This, then, is the origin uf the present Introduction. It is 
an enlarged edition of the Handbook, following the same lines, 
but being in many parb rewritten a:-:; well as re\'ised, and. it is 
hoped, giving a fairly complete account of the history and 
progress of Greek and Latin Palaeogrnphy, especially in its 
literary aspect, from the earliest periods represented by sur- 
viving l\IS:-s. down to the close of the fifteenth century; and 
embodying detaib of the more recent discoveries 1.1lld the 
resÜlts of modern research. _\ further advantage is the im- 
pron
J scale of the facsimile::.. which the larger format of the 
Introduction has rendered possible. POl' this and for other 
facilities I am indebted to the liberality of the Delegates of the 
Clarendon Press, to whom their ready acceptance of responsi- 
bility for the publication of this work has placeu me under 
peculiar obligatiolls. 
The section of this Introduction which in the future may 
need modification, as the re
ult of further di:-;co\Teries, is that 
which deal::; with the Literary and Cursive hands of the Greek 
papyri. In the case of the Litl'rary hands, it will be seen that 
we are still far from being in a position to speak, in all 
in:-;tances. with approximate certainty as to the periods of the 
l\I
S. already before us. Fresh discoveries lllay require us to 
qualify uur present views. As regards the Cursive hands, our 
po:-;ition is stronger; but there are still very wide chronological 
gaps to be filled before the palaeographer can have an unbroken 
series of dated documents at his dispo;-,;al. As an aid to the 
hetter understandi
lg of this difficult l'ioction, and to assist in 
the deciphering of pa:-:;sages in which the fac:-;imiles, from the 
condition of the originals. may 111.1\'e proved obscure, the Tabl! 
of Literary Alphabet;-,;, showing the forms of letters employed 
in the several l\D::;;-). will, it is hoped, be fou1ll1 useful; and, not 
leb;-; 
o, the Table of Cursive Alphabetb, in tho compilation 
of which upwards of two hundrod (bted papyri have been 
analyzed. 
The Facsimile:-; throug"hout lwve been solected with care. It 



PREL\CE 


'"II 


will he ob:::;cJTed that a large proportion of them ha
 been 
reprodu
èd from the plate
 of the Palaeogri.1phical Society. 
This ha
 been done purpn:::;ely. The -;eries of Fac:-;imilf'-; puh- 
li:-;hed hy the 
í)ciety, hoth in the old i
,.,nes and in the one 
till 
in progre:::;
, haye hecn cho--cn with a yiew to palaeographical 
in:::;truction, and therefore ofl't'r the he,.,t field in which to gather 
illustrations for 
11Ch i.Ul Introduction a
 the present one: and, 
in addition, they me probahly more acee,...
ible than any other 
series of reprodudions to Engli
h :::;tudents. for whom thi<; work 
i:::; more e::::pecially de:-;i
ne(1. My Le--t thank", are due to the 
Society for permi:-;"ion to make u
t:' of their plate,.;. 
üthers al",o I have to thank for similar favour,,; and I gladly 
acknowledge my ohligation:-; to :\Ion:;ieur Hcnri Omont, the 
Keeper of the 1\I

. in the Bibliothèque Kationale; to ProfetNlr 
'V. 1\1. Lind:-;i.1Y. of bt. Anùrews; to Profe...",or Franz Stefl'en:,., 
of Freiburg (Switzerland); and to Prof('--
or Y. li-ardthau::,en. of 
Leipzig. 
On the indulgence of many of my former colleague" in the 
British l\Iuseum I fear I haye trespa",
ed too freely; but their 
patience has been inexhau:-;tihle. To my snCCê:::;sor in the oflke 
of Director and Principal Librarii.ln, ::;ir Frederic G. Kenyon, 
I am specii.llly indebted for much yaluable adyice and a<;:::;istance 
and for his trouble in kindly readin
 the proof:::; of the portion 
of this book relating to Greek Palaeogmphy. To Sir George F. 
"... arner, late Keeper of the Department of 1\lanuscriph, to 
1\11'. .T. P. Gilson, the pre
ent Keeper, and to 1\Ir. H. Idri" Bell 
and :Mr. G. T. Longley. of that Department; to Mr. G. K' 
Forte5cue, Keeper of the Printed Book:::;; to Dr. L. D. Barnett, 
Keeper of the Oriental Printed Book:::; and 1\Ianu:::;cripts; to 
1\lr. H. A. Grueher. Keeper of the Coin... and Medi.1b; i.1nd 
to ::\lr. A. Hamilton Smith, Keeper of the Greek and Roman 
Antiquities, I return my best thank:,. for all their kindly aid. 
In conclu:::;ion. ] gratefully acknowledge the care be:::;towed 
by the Delegi.lte:,; of the Clarenùon Pré:--" on the production of 
thi:::; yolume. 


l\LUFIELD, bt:SSEX, 
July 1, 1912. 


E. 1\1. T. 



TABLE OF Cl L\PTERS 


CH.\.PTER I 
History of the Greek and Latin Alphabets 


PAGE 
1 


CHAPTER II 


Materials used to receive writing: Leaves-Eark-Linen-Clay and 
Pottery- 'Vall-spaces-Precious Metals-Lead-Bronze-'Vood- 
Waxe(l and other Tablets-Greek .Waxed Tablets-Latin Waxed 
Tablets 8 


CHAPT Ell III 
'Iaterials used to receive writing (continued): Papyrus-Rkins-Parchment 
and Yellum-Paper 21 


CHAPTEH IV 
'Yriting implements: The Stilus, Pen, etc.-Inks-Various implements 39 


CHAPTER V 
Forms of Eooks: The Roll-The Codex-The Text-Punctuation-Accents, 
etc.-Palimpsests 44 


CHAPTER n 
Stichometry and Colometry- Tachy::rraphy-Cryptography 


67 


CHAPTER YII 


Abbreviations and Contractions-Numerals 


75 


CHAPTER nn 
Greek Palaeography: PapYI'Ï-Antiquity of Greek writing-Divisions of 
Greek Palaeography. 93 


CHA.PTER IX 
Greek Palaeography (continued): The Literary hand or Book-hand III 
Papyri-Literar
y Alphabets 104 


CHAPTElt X 
Greek Palaeography (continued): Cursive Script III Pap
Ti-Cursive 
Alphabets-Comparison of Literary and Cursive Alphabets 148 



TABLE OF CHAPTER
 I" 


CH.\PTEH XJ PAGE 


Grt"t"k Palaeogmphy (cc,ntinl'l'd): The rn.:ial Book-band in YeHum Codices 198 


CH.U'TEr. XII 
Greek Palaeography (col/ti/l/l(,/): The "inu
cule Book-hand III the )Iiddle 
.\
es-Greek writinp- in We
tern Europe 218 


l'H.-\PTE11 XIII 
Latin Palaeography: The -'ll1ju
cule Hook-hllJ1d-:-iqul1re ('apital!"-Rustic 
Capital-<-1-n.:ials 
72 


CHAPTER SlY 
Ll1tin Palaeogmphy (collti/wed): The -'Iixcd Uncial and )Iinmcule Book- 
hand-The Ha}f-uncial BQnk-hand 298 


CHAPTEI: \T 


Latin Palaeography (cuI/tim' Ii): Th.. Boman ('ur
iYe Script-Cur
ive 
Alpbabets 310 


CHAPTER xn 
Latin Palaeography (c()nti'l'll
d): Xational :Minuscule Pook-hamls-Yisi- 
got hic- Lombardic-lIerovingian- Fmnco- Lombardic- Pre-Carulin- 

inn-The ('arolin
ian RefOlm . 340 


CHAPTER Xnl 
Latin PalaeogIRpby (colltinued';: The Iri
h Half-uncial and -'Iinuscule 
Erok-hand- The Ear]
- Engli
h Book-nann 371 


CH.WTEH XnJI 
Latin Palaeograpby (colltiJlued): The -'Iinuscule Book-hl1l111 in the -'Iiddlc 
_\ges- The ElIgli!'h YellHu'ulal' Rook-band in the Middle Ages 403 


C RAPTER XIX: 
Latin Palaeograpby (cOìltinued): Official and Legal Cuni,-e 
crjpts 
(Xational nands)- The PalmI Chancery-The ImpeIi,ll Chancery- 
EJlp-lish Charter nand-Engli!'h Chnncer
- hand-English Court hand - 491 


TABLE
 OF ALPHABET
 


The Greek and Latin Alphabets 
(';'reek Literary Alphabeb 
l';'reek Cursive Alphabet,.: 
Latin Cursive AlphalJets 


7 


144-7 
191-4 
335-7 



LI
T OF F.LlCSI3IILEð 


({;reek Literary PapY1'i) 



O. 
1. TDIOTHEUS, Pasae: 4th cent. B. c. [Berlin 
Iuseums] 
2. PLATO, Ph(tp(lo; 3rd cent. B. c. [Brit. 
Ius., Pap. 488 J 
3. DIALECTICAL TREATISE; befure lUO B.C. [Paris, 
Iusée du Louvre, 
Pap. gorec. 2J . 
4. HYPERIDES, Athenogmes; 2nd cent. B. c. L Paris, 
Iusée du Louvre] . 
5. 
IETRODO}(US: 1st cent. B. C. [
aple", 
Iuseo Kazionale J . 
ß. BACCHYLIDES; 1st cent. B. c. CBrit. )Iu
.. Pap. 733J 
7. PETI"fIOK; about 10 B. c. [Erit. 
Ius., Pap. 354J . . 
8. HO:\IER, Odyssey iii ; about A. D. 1. [Erit. 
lus., Pap. 271 J . 
9. HYPERIDES, EU;I"Cllipp
s; 1st cent. IBrit. lUus., Pap. 115J . . 
10. HO:\IER. Iliad xviii (Ha.rris1/01l1e.r); 1st cent. [Brit.lIus., Pal). 107J 
11. ARISTOTLE. Constitution of .A thEIIs; ahout A. D. 90. [Brit. lUus.. 
Pap. 131] . 
12. HO:\IER, Iliad xiii; 1st or 2nd cent. [Erit. 
l us., Pap. 732]. . 
13. CO!IDIEXTARY ox THE THEAETETUS OF PLATO: 2nd cent. [Eerlin 
lUuseums, Pap. 9ï82] . 
14. .huus AFRICAXUS; 3rd cent. [Egypt Explor. Fund, OJ\.. Pap. 412J . 
15. HO:\IER, Iliad v; 3rd cent. [Eodleian LiLrnr.r, l;r. class. Å. 8 (1')] . 
lG. DEED OF SALE; A.D. 8S. [Brit. Mu o ., Pap. 141]. . . . 
1 i. HO:.\IER, Iliad xxiv (Bankes Homer): 2nd cent. [Brit. 
Ius., Pap. 114] 
1 r\. HO:\IER, Iliad ii (llmca/"(( Homer); 2nd cent. [Bodleian Library, 
Gr. class. A. 1 (1))] .. 
(Gree!..
 rl/rsÙ:e PaJ1!J'1"Ï) 
19. OHICIAL LETTER; 242 B. c. [Bodleian Librnry, Gr. class. C. 21 (1')] 
20. PETITIOX; 223 B. c. [Brit. Mus., Pnp. lOG]. . . . . 
21. TAX l1ECEIPT; 210-209 B. c. [Bl'it. 
lllS., Demot. Pap. 104G3] 
22. PETITIOK; IG3 B. c. [Erit. 
Ius., Pap. 2-1] . 
23. PETITIOX; IG2 B.C. [Brit. 
Ius., Pap. 21] . . 
24. SALE OF LAKD; 123 B. c. [Brit. )lus., Pap. 879 (i)J 
23. SALE OF LAXD; 101 B. C. [Brit. lUus., Pap. 882]. . 
2G. 
IARRIAGE SETTLE:\IEXT; 15-5 B. c. [Berlin 
luseums, Pap. GG 11 J. 
27. LEASE; A. D. 17. [Brit. 
Ius., Pap. 793]. .. 
28. SALE OF LAKD; A.D. G9-79. [Brit. 
Ius., Pap. 140] . 
29. BAILn'p's ACCOL'XTS; A.D. 78-9. I Brit. 
Ius., Pap. 131]. 
30. 
RISTOTLE; abont A. D. 90. [Bri.t. )Ius., Pap. 131 J . 
31. SALE OF AX As
; A.D. 142. TEnt. Mus., Pap. 303J 
32. DIPLO:\IA; A.D. 194. [Brit. 
lus.. Pap. lliSJ . . 
33. TAXATIOX HETCRX; A. D. 221. [Brit. ?Ius., Pap. 353] 
3-1. SALE; A. D. 22ß-7. [B1'Ît. Mus., Pap. 1158J. . 
33. 
hLlTARY ACCOUXTS; A. D. 295. [Brit. 
Ius., Pap. 7 -18] 
3G. LETTER; about A. D. 330. [Brit. 
Ius.. Pap. 23-1 J 
37. HECEIPT: A.D. 4-11. [Eerlill ::\Iuscums, Pap. i-152]. 


PAGE 
lOG 
110 


112 
114 
11G 
11
 
121 
123 
124 
12G 


128 
129 


132 
13-1 
13b 
138 
140 


1-12 


150 
1 _') 
J_ 
134 
135 
156 
158 
15!1 
160 
IG2 
1 ß-.I 
1ß3 
IGí 
IG8 
1ß9 
171 
172 
lï3 
175 
Hi 



LI
T 0 F F AC::-.DnLE
 


Xu. 
38. AGUEE'rEXT I-OR LEASE; A. D. 33G. [Eerlill )lu!'eums, Pap. 23;)1'-] 
39. COXTRACT FOR LEASE; A. D. 39.3. [Brit. 
lus., Pl1p. 113]. 
40. LEASE; A. D. G33. L Erit. 
lus., Pap. 1012J. . 
41. Pl"BLIC Acco{;xn,; A. D. iOO-iO.3. [Brit. 
lu!'., Pal" 1-148J 
42. PUBLIC 
 OTlCE; 8th cent. [Brit. :Mus., Pap. 32] 


(Greek 
'Ilcillls) 
43. HOMER, Iliad; 3rd cent. (!). [:Milan, Ambro'iian Libnu'
', F. 203. inf.ï 
44. BIBLE (Codex Vaticaml."); 4th ct'nt. [Home, Yatican LibraIY. Cod. 
Yat. 12091 
4.3. BIBLE (Codex Sinaiticus); late 4th cent. [Leip.lig. Royal Libmr
. 
Cod. Frid.-Aug.] 
4G. EIBLE (Codex .lle
:alldri7lus); 5th cent. [Brit. 
I us., Ho}al1[:-:. 1 D. 
v-viii] . . 
4 Î. DlOsroRlDE!'; early Gth cent. [Yiellna, Imperial Libl ary, Cod. Gu\ec..3] 
48. M.\THE:lrATICAL TRE\TISE; ith cent. [Milan, _\mbrosiall Lihrnry, 
L. 99. f>Up.]. . 
4
1. PSALTER; A. D. 8G2. [Library of Bp. r 
pensl<
 ]. . . 
5U. GOSPEL:'; A. D. 9-!9. [Rome, Yatican Library, -'If.;. Gmec. 33-!J 
:n. EYAXGELlARIU)r; A. D. 993. [Brit. 
IUI".. Harle
' 
I:-:. 53
)8] 


(Creek J[i7luscules) 
8th cent. [Rome, "atican Librar
-, Colonna 


5
. 'fHI-;OLOGICAL \\TORR::' ; 
:M::;. 39] 
53. EUCLID; A. D. 888. [Bodleian Library, Ù'Orville 
lS. x. 1] . 
.")-!. PLATO, Dialogues; A. D. 896. [Bodleian Liblary. Clarke -'1:-:. 39] 
53. GO::'PELS; earl
- 10th cent. [Brit. )Ius., Add. )IS. 11300] 
36. LUClAx; about A. D. 915. [Brit. JIus., Harley )I
. 5G9-! 
 . . 
57. 'fU{;CYDlDES; 10th cent. [Florence. Lanreutiall Libr!\l'
', Plut.lxix. 2] 
58. PLUTARCH; 10th cent. [FIOI encl'. Laurentian LilJHtry, -'1:-:. 206J 
59. PSALTER; about A. D. 930. [Bodleian Lihrary, Gk. 
lisc. 5] 
GO. ST. 
IA..xDIUs; A. D. 970. [-'lount At1l0s. Laura, 
IS. B. 3iJ 
G1. ST. CHRYSOSTO,r; A. D. 9i6. [Bodleian Lihrary, Laud :MS. Gk. i 31. 
6:!. l
OSPELS; A. D. 1023. '['lilan. AmLrosian Librar
-, n. 56. 
up.J - 
G3. :ll. E::iELLUS; A. D. 1041). [Heidelherg,"C niversity Lihrary, Cod. 
Palat. cchxxi] . 
6-!. DE:lWSTHEXES; earl
- 1.1 th Cellt. [Florence, Laurentian Librar
-. Pluto 
lix. 9] 
G5. CASOXS; A. D. 1042. [Bodleian Library, Earocei 
IS. 1%] 
GG. HmrER, Iliad (Tu/I"uley Homer); A. II. 1059. [El'it. 
lu
., Burnc
- 
1[:-;. 86] . . 
G7. EPISTLE,., etc.; A. D. 111l. [Erit. 
lus., Adù. )1:-;. 2b8Iß] 
G8. GOSPELS; A. Ð. 1128-9. [Home, Yatican Library, Cod. "Crhinu-Yat. 
Gr. 2) 
G9. 
L\nTlROLO(;Y; A.D. 118-!. Hrit. 
lus., Burnev -'1:-:.44] 
iO. CmDIE:STAR\ ox PORPHYR1; A. D. 1223. [P
ris, Eibl. Xat., MS. 
grec. 2089] . _ _ . . . . . 
i1. CmDIEXTARY ox THE OCTO.ECHrs: A. D. 1232. [Erit. 
Iu!"., _\dll. 

1S. 27339J . . . . - 
i2. HE
IOD; A. D. 1280. [FlOIence, Laurentian Lihrar
, Pluto xnii. 113] 
i3. GOSPFLS; A. D. 12
2. pIonastel
. of Seal's, 
Iacedunia. :ll
. r. 10J 
i4. GOSI'ELS; A. D. 1314-1.3. [Brit. -'Ius., Add. 1[
. 3i002J. . . 
,.3. HERODÙTL::;; A. D. 1318. [}"IOlence. Laurentian LiLrar
-. PInt. hx. G] 


Xl 


PAf;E 
1,8 
li!1 
181 
18:! 
183 


201 


2ù:! 


:!o-! 


:!Otì 
210 


212 
213 
215 
21ß 


219 
223 
22-! 
2:!li 
22ï 
229 
230 
231 
233 
23ß 
23M 


239 


2-!fI 
2-!:! 


24-1 
2H 


248 
:!-!!1 


231 


'J -<) 
_J_ 
2.3li 
258 
:!GO 

ül 



XII 


LIST OF FACSDIILES 



O. 
76. ST. ATHAXASIUí"; A.D. 1321. [Brit. 
hlS., Harley)[8. 5579] 
77. LIYES OF THE FATHERS; A. D. 1362. [Brit. lIu
., Burlle
' MS. 50] 
78. POLYIUUS; A.D. 1416. [Brit. 'Ius., Add. 
IS. 11728]. . 
79. THE PROPHETS; A.D. 1437. [Brit. 
Ius.. AlM. 
IS. 21259] 
80. MEXAEm[; A. D. 1460. [Brit. 
Ius.. Add. 'IS. 16398] 
81. HmIF.R. Odyssey; A. D. 1-179. [Brit. Mus.. Harley :U
. 5658] . 


(Latin Capitals) 
82. YIRGIL; 4th OJ' 5th cent. [St. linIl, COl1. 1394] 
83. Pm;)I os THE BATTLE OF ACTIu)[: before A. D. 79. [Xaples, 
Iuseo 
X azionale ] . . . . . . . . . 
84. YIRGIL; 5th ct'nt.1 [nome, Yatican Library, Cod. Palat. 1631] 
85. YIRGIL; 4th cent. 1 [Rome, Yatican Librar,\', Cod. Vat. 3225] 
86. YIRGIL; hefore A. D. 4fJ4. [Florence, Laurentian Library, Plut. 
xnix.1] 


(Latin rncials) 
4th cent. [llome. Vatican Library, Cod. Yat. 


87. CICERO, De Republica; 
3757] 
g8. GOSPELS; 4th cent. [Y ercelli, Chapter Library] 
89. LIYY; 5th cent. [Yienna, Imperial LilJ1"aIY, Cod. Lat. 15J 
90. GOf'PELS: 5th or 6th cent. [St. Gall, Cod. 1394] . 
91. XEW TESTA'IEXT; about A. D. .Hß. (Fulda LihraQ'] . 
92. ST. AL"GUSTISE: A. D. 669. rLibrary of 'h'. J. Pierpont 
Iurgan] 
93. EIBLE (Code;,. Amiatinlls): about A. D. 700. [Florence, Laurentian 
Libmry, Cod. Amiat. 11. . 
94. GOSPELS: A. D. 739-60. [Brit. 
Ius., Add. )1S. 5463J 


(Latin 
lIi;,yd r,lCÙlls and ..l/i,mð'Cltles, alll ]Jalj-uucials) 
%. EPITOME OF Ln'y: 3rd cent. lDrit. 
Iu
., Pal" 1.332]. . . 300 
!l6. CHROSOLOlilCAL 1\OTES; 6th cent. [Bodleian Lihrary, 
1!':. Anct. T. 
2. 26J 302 
97. PAYDECTS; 6th or 7th cent. I Florence, Laurentian Lihrary] 303 
98. ST. HILARY; before A. D. J09-10. [l:ome, Archives of St. rder's]. 306 
99. ST. AGGP-TIXE; 6th cent. [Paris, Bihl. .Nat., W;. lat. 13367] . 307 
100. BIBLICAL ('o
DIESTARY; heIorf' A. u. .369. [-'Ionte Ca
sino, Cod. 150J 308 


(HO'man CUTI>'1"'ce) 
101. FOR)I:> OF LETTER:-<; hefore A. n. 79. 
102. PO)ll'EIAS 'YAXED TABLET; A. u. ;jfl, [Xaples, )[useu Xazionale, 
no. cxliiiJ . 
103. DACIAS 'CUED TABLET; A. II. 1 G7. J_ Bmlapt'st )luseu)))] . 
104, 105. FOR:lH, OF LE ITERS; 2m1 cent. 
106. SPEECHES; A. D. 41-54. [Berlin -'luseuIlls, Pap. 8.307J 
107. !':ALE UF A SLAYE; A. D. 166. [Erit. )lu8., Pap. 229J 
10
. LETTER: A. D. 167. l Brit. 
Ins., Pap. 730J . . 
109. PETITIO
; A.D. 247. [Bodleian LiLrary, Lat. cIa
s. D. 12 (P)J 
110. LETTER; 4th cent. [!':trassburg, Pap.lat. Argent. i] 
111. hlPERHL HE,..CRIPT: 5th cent. rLeyden -'lusE'umJ. 
112. r:AYE
XA DELI) OF SALl-;: A. D. .'572. [Brit. -'Iu
., Add. -'IS. .3-1l2J . 
113. FomlR OF LETTERR: A. D. 572 . 
114. ST. 
L""xDn:-s; 7th cent, [-'Iilan, Amhrosian Lihrary, C. 98, P. inf.]. 


PAGE 
262 
263 
264 
266 
267 
268 


275 


276 
278 
280 


282 


286 
287 
290 
292 
293 
294 


295 
296 


312 


314 
316 
317,318 
321 
322 
323 
325 
326 
328 
329 
330 
338 



LI:-;T OF L\CSDIILES 


(Lati'l J/itwsclIles: X atÙ11/al Book-f,wuls) 



O. 
115. :-iT. ArGL::-TIXE: 8t.h cent.. [The E8curial, J[
. It ii. 181. . 
116. ORATIOXALE GOTHIl\:"M; 9th cel.t. [BIit. )[m.. Add. )1:-:. 30852] 
11;. )[ARTYROLOGY; A. D. 91f1. [Brit. J[m.. Add. "'11:--. 2.)600J 
U8. BEATO; A. D. 1109. [I;rit. )Ius., Add. )18. llü9.3] . 
119. SACRA:\IEXTARIUilI: ahout A. D. 800. [8t. GaU, Cod. 348] 
120. ALCTI:Y: A. D. 812. L )[lInt.e C!1!<sino, Cod. iiil. . . 
121. STATn.s; end of lOth cent. [Etun Col1t'ge, 11[:-.. B1. 6. 5]. 
122. LECTIOKARY; A.D. 1058-87. [)[unte l'as8ino, Cod. J\.cixl . 
123. COMillEXTARY ox )[O:S-ASTIC l
\:"LJ::s: A. D. 1264-82. ()Iollte Cas8ino, 
Cod. HO-.39 J . 
124. LECTIOXARY: late ;th cent. [Pnri8. Bib1. Xat., fonds lat. 9427] 
125. f:T. GREGORY: 8th cent. [Brit. )[m., Add. "'IlK 31031J . . 
126. HO:\IILIEf.; ';th or 8th cent. [Brit.)1 118., Hadey )1:'. .30B J 
12;. Ln, SALlCA: A.D. ;9-1. [St. GaU, Cod. ;31J. . . 
128. HmuLIEs; 8th cent. [Bru
8els, Ho,Yal Lihrar
., )I
. 98.30-2J . 
129. ST. CYPRIAK; 8th cellt. [J[anchester. John H
-lamls Liblary, MR 
Lat. 15J.. . .' . 
130. ErGYPPIUS: eady 8th cent., [Libnu:r of )[UIlS. J ules Demo
'ers] 
131. ST. JERü:\IE; A.D. ;H. [Epinal. )1::;. 68J . . 
132, 133. Sl-LPICICS SEYERrS; 9th cent. [Quedlinhurg] 


xiii 


P A{;}; 
3-13 
344 
34.3 
34í 
34f1 
3.31 
352 
333 


354 
3.3() 
33í 
359 
360 
361 


3ü4 
3ü5 
36G 
368, 369 


(Lafi'l J/a
f-/I "cials a1/l1 JIiIl1',
cll1et': Th" / rish Book-hand) 
134. QOSPI::L:>; Intt' ;th cent.. [Dublin, Trinit
 CoUege, )[:-;. A. 4.131 . 373 
133. GOSPELS (Book of ii-eUs); end of ;th cent. l DU]Jlin, Trinity Col1ege] 375 
136. GO:'PELS OF )IACREGOL: alJout A. D. 800. [Bodleian Lilmuy, Auct. 
D 2. 19J . . 37í 
13;. XEW TE::;1A1IEXT (Book of Anuoylt); A.D. 80;. [Dublin, Trinity College] 378 
138. PRI
CIAX; A. D. B38. [Le
.den, Cniver8ity Library. Cod. Lat. 67] . 381 
139. GOSPELS 0:1' )L-ELBRIGTE: A. D. 1138. [BIit. 3[1Is.. Hatley )1:-:. 1802J 382 



Latill lllllflll1cillls and Jlilwscl,fes: l'lte Eorl!1 En!llislt Book-hand) 
140. LIXDI
F-\RXE GO>-PEL& (Durham Book): about A. D. ;00. [Brit. }[u
., 
Cottun )IS., Ser.J D. i\"J. . . . . . . . 387 
141. CAXTERBrRY GOSPELS; late 8th cent. [Brit. J[u:-., Royal 318. 1 E. vi] 388 
142. }
FDA: 8th cent. [CL\mhridge, Llliyersity LihraQ-, 
IS. Kk. v. 16J. 389 
H3. BEDA: A.D. 811-14. [R.-it. )11Is., Cotton 
I:-;.. Ye
pa8. B. "\iJ. . 39() 
144. PASCHAL CO:\IPrTATIOXS; !)th cent. [Bodleian Library, Digby )18. 63J 391 
145. AXGLO-SAXox CHRO
ICLE: about A.D. 891. [Cambridge, COI')IUS 
Christi Col1ege, 3[
. 1 í3] . 392 
146. AXGLO-SAxox PODIS (E.refer Book); ubout A. D. 930. [Exeter, 
Chapter LibIary, 11:-). 3.301] . . . . . . . 395 
14;. P:<ALTER: ahout A. D. 969. [Salisbury, Chapter Librm'
., )[8. 150]. 396 
148. SBERBORXE l'O
'IIFll"AL: about A. D. 9
12-5. [Paris. Bib1. Sat., }[S. 
Iat. 943] . 39; 
149. AXGLo-SA'-ox CHRoxIn.E: about A. D. 1001. [Cambridge, Corpus 
Christi CoHege, )18. 173J . 399 
150. .ÆLFRIC: early lIth cent. [Cambtidge, Cni,-ersity Lilmu
., 1[:;. 
Hh.1. 10] . . 400 
151. AXGLO-!':AJ\.O:Y CHROXICLE: about A.D. 1043. LBrit. lIm,., Cotton 
318., Til)erius B. i] 401 



XIV 


LI
T 0 F FACSDIILES 


No. 
152. ST. Ål:"GGSTIXE; before A. D. 814. [Lyons, Cathedral LibraQ'. :llR 
610'. . . 405 
153. PASCHASIC'S: A.D. 819. [Ermsels, Hoyal Lihrary, 
IS. 821ü-18J . 407 
154. 'fHI:oLOmC!\L TRACTS: A. D. 8
1. [
lulJich, no
'al Library, 
IS. Lat. 
1H68J. . . . . . . . . . . 
1.35. ST. _lUGC'STlXE; A. D. 823. [}'llmich, Royal Libl'fir
', \IS. Lat. 14437] 
136. COXSTITUTIOXS OF CHARLE:\IAGXE; A. JI. 825. [St. Gall, Cod. 7331 . 
157, 138. GOSPELS OF XEYERS: ahuut A. D. 840. [Brit. 1lus., Harley M:-:. 
2n10] 412, 413 
159. GO-.PELS OF LOTHAIR; about A, D. 850. [Paris, Eibl. Nat., 
I:-;. lat. 
26ül. . . . . . . . _ . . 
160. IJEDA: before A. D. 848. [B,'it. 
Ius, Cotton )IS., VespaE'. B. viJ . 
161. CANOXS; about A. D. 888. [St. Gall, Cod. 672] . . . 
Ifj:!. ALcnx: early lOth cent. [Brit. 
Ius., Royal MS. 8 E. xv]. . 
163. GO';PELS OF I\:1XG ÆTHELSTAN: early 10th cent. [Erit. 
Ius.. Roya] 
-'I
. 1 Â. xviii] 
IG4, 1ü5. I
ABAXUS 
lAuRL"S; after A. D, 
)48. LBrit. -'Ius., Add. 
IS. 
22820] 421, 422 
166. _bU.LARlUS: A.D. 952. ICambridge,CorpusChristiCollege, }'1!':.192] 423 
Uì7. 
hLO; A. D. 1022-41. [Erit. 
Ius., Royal )18. 3 A. xi]. . . 425 
168. 
IARTYROLOGY; A. D. 1040-69. [Avigllon, )[usée Calvet, :US. 98]. 426 
lü9. GmPELS OF THE C01JXTESS GODA: middle of 11th cent. [Brit. 
Ius., 
TIoyal \[S. 1 D. iii]. . . . . . 
170. DWLE; A,D. 1094-7. [Brit. Mu
., Add. M
. 28106] 
In. ALBHELJI; 10th cent. [Lambeth Library, l\lf'. 200] .. 
172. EEXEDIC'fIOXAL OF ST. _ETHELWOLD; A. D. 963-84. [Lihmry of the 
Duke of De,'onshire] . . . 432 
173. GR};(;ORY THE GREAT; early 11th cent. [Bodleian Libmry, Rodl. 
"\Is. 7081 . . . . . . . . . . . 
174. GOSPELS; A.D. 11108-23. [Cambridge, TrinityCoUege, 1IIK.It 10. 4] 
175. EENEDICTIü:\AL; A. D. 1030-40. [Paris, BilJI. Kat., ::\[S. lat. 987] . 
176. LIH OF ST. ArGLSTIXE; A. D. 1100-25. [Rrit. l\lm., Cotton MS., 
Yespas. E. xx] . . . . 438 
177. )[m \CLES 0:1-' ST. EmlL"XD; before A. D. 1135. [Libmry of Sir Geor
e 
HolfordJ. .. ., . 
178. REBA: A.D. 1147-76. [Brit. )Ius., TIoyall\fS. 3 A. xii] . 
179. LJ-:\"ITH'US; A. D. 117ü. [Brit. 
Ius., HarIey :U:-;. 3038 J . 
180. PETRUS LmmARDl:"S; A. D. l1ß6. [Library of 1\[1'. D
'son Perrins] 
181. HmuLIEs; eady 12th eent. [Brit. Mus., Hade
' )1:->. 7183]. . 
18:!. PETRU'; CO
IESTOR; A. D. 1191-2. [Brit. 
[us., r.o
'aI1JR. 7 F. iiil . 
183. PLTRT:
 CmIE"ToR: before A. D. 1215. [Brit. 1Ius., Hoyal l\1:-). 4 D. 
... II] . . . . . 
18t. 
hSSAL: A. D. 1218. [Brit. Mus., Add. :MS. 17742] 
185. PoxnHcAL; avout A. D. 1222. 
)Ietz, 8.11is MS. 23 ) . 
186. BIBLE; A. D. 1 :!25-32. L nl'it. :lius., Buruey 11S. 3 . 
18ï. LECTIO
ARY; A.D. 1269. [Brit. :Mus., Egerton1lS. 23ü91 
188. PETRUS CO'IESTOR; A. D. 1283-1300. [Ikit.1Ius., Uo)'al )IR 3 D. vi] 
189. COROXATIOX OATH; A. D. 1308. [1:31'it. 
[us., Harley 1[f'L 2901 J . 
190. JACOBUS DE YORAGIXE; A. D. 1312. [Brit. :Mus., Add. MS. 11882J . 
191. BRn'IARY; A. D. 1322 -7. [Drit. )lus., Stowe )IR 12] 
1 92. )IA
DEnLLE; A. D. 13ïl. [Paris, TIihl. Kat.. Nouv. acq. fmnç. 
.1.") 15] 


(Latin JHnusCllles: l'lte Bvok-lwud in tlte ..l/iddle Age8) 


PAGE 


408 
409 
410 


414 
415 
416 
419 


420 


427 
428 
431 


433 
-134 
433 


439 
440 
441 
442 
443 
446 


447 
448 
449 
431 
452 
454 
457 
458 
439 


161 



U:-;T OF "L\.CSDIILE-'; xv 



O. PAGE 
193. r'UROSICLE; about A. D. 1388. [Brit. 
Iu
.. Ruley JI
. 3634 J . 462 
194. HORACE: A.D. 1391. LRrit. JIu
., Add. JI:-;. 11%4J. . 463 
1 
13. TITCHFU;LD ABBEY ('OLLFCTIOXS; A. D. 1400-5. [Librlu)' of the 
Duke of "PortlandJ. . 465 
196. RO'lAKCES (Talbot Book); A. D. 1445. [EI'it. JI us.. Royal .\I
. 15 E. vi] 466 
19i. 
hSf;\L; bt'fore A.D. 1H? [Bli
. J[m., AIlUldel 
IS:.
09
 - 468 
198. ST. AUGUSTIXE: A. D. HG3. [Bnt. JIus., Add. J[
. 1._84 
 469 
199. AJUSTOTLE; A. D. 1451. [Lilnary of Jir. Dy
on PeninsJ . 4iO 
200. :-;.\LlXST: A. D. 146G. [Brit. .\[us., Add. M:-;. 16422] 4il 


(Latin J[inuscllles: Tlte Englislt J"erilaclITar Rook.ltand in tlte JI Ùldle .-1!Jes) 
201. EXGLI
H LAW
 (Tn:tlls Rc1fensis); befOIc A.D. 1125. LRochester, 
Chapter Library] 4 i3 
202. THE OR'IULL"M; early 13th cent. [Bodleian Lihrar
', Junius JI
. 1 J. 474 
203. HG:\IILlEs: early 13th cent. [RIit. JIus., :-)towe '[
. 240] . . 477 
204. THE ..hCR1::x l:nYLE; early 13th cent. [Brit. JI u
., Cotton J1
., 
Titus D. xviiiJ . . 4 i8 
205. TUE .\.YEXlJITE OF INWYT: A. D. 1310. [Brit. J[us., .\runùel JI:-). 5i] 479 
206. WYCLlFFlTE BIBLE: late 14th cent. [BIit. )[us., Add. J[S. 15580]. 480 
207. PIERS PLOW
['\X; about A. D. 1380. [Brit. l1us., Cottun '18., Yespas. 
E. x\'iJ 481 
208. WYCLlFFlU BIBLE; about A. D. 1382. [Bodleian Lihrar
', BodI. J[8. 
939J. 483 
209. \YYCLIFFITE BIBLE; before A. D. 1397. [Erit. )Jus., Egerton )[
. 
617,618]. .. 484 
210. CHAL"CFR: about A. D. 1400. [Brit. JIus., Harley J1S. i334] . 486 
211. TRE\I
A; beginning of 15th cent. [Brit. )Ju
., Add. 
IS. 24194] 487 

12. OCCLEYE; early 15th cent. [Brit. )Ius., Harley :1IIS. 4866]. 488 
213. O
BERX BOKEXHAM; A. D. 1117. [Drit. JIus., Arundel JI8. 327J 489 


(Latin J/illuscules: Offiáal and Legal ('I'l"sÙ'e Scnj ts) 
214. I-h;XEDlCTIO ('EREI; ith cent. [The E"curial, Cam. de la
 rtliquias J 
215. Ðl:ED OF BExEvENTO; A. D. 810. [Monte Cassino, x),.xivJ . . 
216. RULL OF JOHN "III; A. D. giG. [Pal'is, Eihl. Kat.]. . 
217. B["LL OF PASCHAL II; A.D. 1102. [IIIilnn, State Archives] . . 
218. J["DGE:\IEXT OF THIERRY III; A. D. 679-80. [Hu'is, Archives Xation- 
ales,K. 2, 1l0. 13] . . . .. ., 
219. ÐIPLmIA OF ('H\.HLEM.\GXE; A.D. i97. [Pari
, Archives Xationales, 
K. 7, no. 15] . 
220. DIPLO
IA OF LOUIS THE GER'IAX; A. D. 85ß. eSt. Gall. Chapter 
.\.rchi\"es, F. F. i. H. 106] . . . 
221. J!ERCIAX CHARTER; A.D. 
12. [Canterbury, Chapter Archives, C.1] 
222. CHARTER OF ETHELBERHT OF lÜ;XT; A. D. 858. [Brit. )rm
., Cotton 
J[
., Aug. ii. 66J . . . . ., .- 
223. GRAK'r BY WERFRITH, BISHOP OF WORCE
TER; A. D. 90-1. [Bnt. 
JIus., Add. Ch. 19i91J . . . . . . . . 
224. GRANT BY \\'ILLIA1[ II; A. D. 1087 (1). l Brit. 31th, Cotton JIS., Aug. 
ii. 53 J . . . . . . . . . . . 
225. GRANT BY HEXRY I; A. D. 1120-30. [Brit. )Jl1
., Add. Ch. 33629J . 
22G. GRAXT BY STEPHEX; A. D. 1139. [Brit. JIm.. Cotton \[:0-;., S ero ('. 
oo. 17 <> 1 
Ill. _ . 


493 
494 
493 
49G 


499 


500 


502 
506 


308 


310 


313 
314 


313 



XVI 


LIST OF F ACSDIlLES 


Ko. 
22 ï. GRANT BY HE
RY II; A. D. 1136. [WestmiDster, Chapter ArchiveE, 
xlivJ . . . . 
228. GRANT BY RICHAUD I; A. D. 1189. [Brit. 1Ins., Egerton Ch. 372] . 
229. CHARTER O}' THE HOSPITALLERS; A. D. 1205. [BI'it. :Mus., Harley 
Ch. 44 E. 21 J. . . -' ..' 
230. CHARTER OF JOHN; A. D. 120-1. l Wilton, Corporation Hecol'ds] 
231. GRAST BY RESRY III: A. D. 122ï. [EtOIl College] . . . 
232. NOTIFICATION OF HENRY Ill; A.D. 1234. [Brit. }Im., Add. Cll. 
28402] . . 
233. LETTERS PATENT OF RE
RY III; A. D. 1270. [Brit. l\Ius.. Add. ell. 
19828] .... .. . 
234. LICEXCE BY ED\\" ARD I; A. D. 1303. [Brit. Mus., Harley Ch. 43 D. 9] 
233. DEED OF JOH
 DE 
T. JOHN; A. D. 1306. [Brit. }lus., Add. Ch. 23834] 
236. INSPEXDICS OF EDWARD III: A. D. 1331. [Brit. 
lus." Harle
' ('h. 
83 C. 13] . .. ....... 
237. LETTERS OF THE BLACK PRINCE; A. D. 1360. [Brit. lIIus., Add. ClI. 
11308] . . 
238. DEED OF SElIIPIUNGHA:ll PRIORY; A. D. 1379. [BI'it. Mu!'., Add. ClI. 
20620] . 
239. GRANT BY RICHARD II; A. D. 1395. [Brit.}l UE., Htlrley Ch. 43 E. 33] 
240. PLEDGE Q}" PLATE; A.D. 1415. [Erit. }Iu
., Harley Ch. 43 1. 25] . 
241. P ARDOX BY HESRY Y1: A. D. 1446. [Brit. Mus., AtM. Cll. 22610] 
212. LEASE; A. D. 1457. [Brit. 1Ius., Harley Ch. H B. 47] . 
213. TRL-\TY :BOND; A. D. 1496. [Brit. }Im,., Add. Ch. 989] . 
244. CONVEYANCE; A. D. 1594. [Brit. }IUE., Add. Ch. 21798] 
245. COXYEB.NCE: A. D. 1612. TBIit. 111m., Add. Ch.24000] 
246. EJ>.E:llPLlFICATIOX; A. D. 1339. [EI'it. )Im., Add. Ch. 21HJ69] . 
247. GRANT OF WARD:;HIP; A.D. lßIK [Brit. )Ius., Add. ('h. 28271] 
248. FINAL CONCORD; A.D. 1530. [Brit. }lus., Add. Cll. 2363 9 1 . 
249. E"\.E:llPLlFICATIOX; A. D. 1378. [HI'it. )lm., Add. Ch. 23968J . 
230. .FIXAL COXCORD; A. D. 16/3. [Brit. }Ius., Add. Cb. 238ï1J . 


PAGE 


516 
518 


523 
524 
526 


528 


330 
534 
536 


338 


540 


342 
314 
346 
348 
530 
352 
356 
358 
560 
562 
363 
,j61; 
368 




\N IXTROnU( 'TlcJS TO 


G REEI( ...\
D LA TIS P ALAEOf
 H
-\PIIl 


CHAPTER I 


THE GHEEK AXD LATI
 ALPHABET=-' 


ALTHorGH the ta-;k "hich lies before us of investigating the growth 
and changes of Greek and Latin palaeography does not require us to deal 
with any form of writing till lon,g after the alpha l ,ets of Greece and Rome 
had assumed their final 
hapes, yet a brief sketch of the denlopement of 
those alphabets, as far as it is known, forms a natural introduction to the 
sul.ject. 
The alphabet whic!l we Ube at the present daJ" is directly derind 
from the Roman alphabet; the Roman, from a local form of the Greek; 
the Greek, from the Phoenician. ""hence the Phoenician alphabet was 
derived we are not even J"et in a position to declare. The ingenious 
theory set forth. in 18j!), l'J" the French EgJ"ptologist de Roug
 of its 
descent from the ancient cursive form of Egyptian hieratic writing, 
which had much to recommend it, and which for a time receind 
acceptance. must now be put a<;i(le, in accordance with recent re
earch. 
Until the alphabl;Jtic sJ'stellls of Crete and CJ'prus and other quarters 
of the :\Iediterranean shall han been soh-eù, we must be content to 
remain in ignorance of the actual materials out of which the Phoenicians 
constructed their letters. 
To trace the connexion of the Greek alphal.et with the Phoenician, 
or, as it may be more properly styled, the Semitic, alphabet is not difficult. 
A comparison of the carly forms of the letters sufficiently demon
tratcs 
their common origin; and. still further, the names of the letters and their 
order in the two alphabets are the same. The names of the Semitic 
letters are Semitic words. each descrilJing the letter from its resemblance 
to some particular object, as alel,1t an ox, befit a house, antI so on. \Yhen 
the Greeks took over the Semitic letters, they albo took o,-er their 
Semitic names. 
This Semitic alphabet appears to have lJeen employed in the cities 
anel colonies of the Phoenicians and among the Jews and 
loabites and 
1\14 n 



:2 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


other neighlJOuring tribes: anll its most ancient form as known to us is 
presi:ned in a series of inscriptions which date hack to the tenth cen- 
tury B.C. The most important of them is that engrave(l upon the slab 
known as the Muabite stone, which records the wars of :\lesha. king of 
Moah, about 890 B. c., against Israel and Eflom, and which was discovered 
in 1868 near the site of Dibon, the ancient capital of Moab. From these 
inscriptions of the oldest type we can construct the primitive Phoenician 
alphabet of twenty-two letters, in a form, however, which must have 
passed through many stages of modification. 


The Greek Alphabet 
The Greeks learned the art of writing from the Phoenicians at least 
as early as the ninth centm'J' B.C.; and it is not improhable that they 
had aCfluirell it even one or two centuries earlier. Tratling stations and 
colonies of the Phoenicians, pressed at home by the advancing cOlHlueHts 
of the Hebrews, were established in remote times in the islalllis amI 
mainlands of Greece and Asia Minor; an.l their alphahet of two-amI- 
twenty letters was adopted by the Greeks among whom they settled or 
with whom they had commercial dealings. It is not, however, to he 
supposed that the Greeks receivelI the alphabet from the Phoenicians at 
one single place from whence it was passed on thl.oughout HeUas; but 
rather at several points of contact from whence it was 10caUJT diffused 
among neighbouring cities üllli their colonies. Hence we arc prppared 
to find that, while the Greek alphabet is essentially one and the same in 
all parts of HeUas, as springing from one stock, it exhibits certain local 
peculiarities, partly no doubt inherent from its very first adoption at 
different centres, partlJ' del'ived from local influences or from linguistic 
or other cauo.;es. 'Vhile, then, the primitive alphahet of Hpllas has 
been described by the general title of Cadmean, it must not he assumed 
that that title applies to an alphabet of one uniform pattern for aU 
Greece. 
Among the two-and-twenty signs adopted from the Phoenician. four, 
viz. aleph, he, yod, and ayin (
, =\,,,.,0), were made to rppresent the yowel- 
soumIs a,e, i,o. both long and short. the f>igns for e aUlI 0 heing also employetl 
for the diphthongs ei and II'll,. The la.<;t sound cuntinue.l to l J e expressell 
by the mnikmn alone to a comparatively late periotl in the history of 
the alphabet. The fifth vowel-sound 'It was provided for by a new letter, 
l/;p
ilon, which lllay have been a modification or 'differentiation' of the 
Phoenician'lca'll' (Y). This new letter must ha,'e bepn added almost inJJue- 
diately after the introduction of the Semitic signs, for there is no local 
Greek alphahet which is without it. 
ext was felt the necessity for 
distinguishing long and short e, and in lonia, the aspirate grallually falling 
into disuse, the sign H, eta, was adopted to represent long e, probably 



THE UREEK AXD LATlX ALPHABETS 


3 


before the end of the se\"enth century RC. Ahout the same time the 
long 0 hq!an to be distingui!--hed hy nu"ious signs, that used by the 
lonian
, the OHH'!Je[, n, being perhaps a differentiation of the IllÌìÏkron. 
The age of the tlouble letters 4>, X. and 1'. as they nppear in the Ionian 
nlphabet. must, as is pvident from their po"ition, he older thnn or at least 
conevnl with omcya. 
With regal'll to the sibilants. their history is invol\'ell in ol'scurity. 
The original Semitic names appear to ha\'e llecome confusell in the course 
of transmission to the Greeks awl to have been applied l.y them to wrong 
!--igllS. The name :.:etct seems to correspond to the name t
((de, but the 
]etterappears to bf' taken from the letter :o!Jin (I). Xi, which seems to 
l,e the same word as ::<hi II, represents the letter I:'<tyrwkh ($). S(I/
, which is 
prohai.ly derind from z{lyin, represents t
!lde (b-). Si!JIIW, which may 
hp i.J,.lltified with ....tlllleT.:/" represents I:'Tti/
 (W). But all these sibilants 
were not used simultaneously for anyone Ilialect or locality. In the 
well-known passage of Heru,lotus (i. 139), where he is speaking of 
the terminatiOlls of Persian names, we are told that they 'all end in 
the same letter, which the Dorians call 1:'1/ n anel the Ionians si[Jlml'. 
There mn be little lloubt that the Dorian Nl n was originally the 
M-shapl'd sihilant which is found in the older Dorian inscriptions, as 
in Thera, 1\le]os, Crt'te. Corinth. ami Argos. 1 This sibilant is now known 
to ha\'e been Ileri\Ted from the Phoenician letter tl:5ade. In a (;reek 
nbecedarium scmtched upon a small vase discovered at For mello, 
near 'T eii, this letter is seen to occupy the eighteenth place, corre- 
spoIllling to the position of t
(l(le in the Phoenician a]phahet. In 
the damaged Greek nlphabet similarly scraw]èd on the Ga]assi vase, 
\\ hich was found nt Cf'rYetri in 1836. it is formed more closely on the 
pattern of the Phoenician letter. In the primiti\Oe <ireek alphahet, 
therefore, I'llll existell (representing t>3!1de) as well as l'i[JIlHl (representing 
I'TI id). but as hoth appear to ha\oe had nenrlJ" the same sibilant SOUlHI, the 
one or the other l)ecame superfluous. In the Ionian alphabet t-i!J11"Ml was 
preferred. 
But the disuse of the Jetter sa II must date f:Ir hack, for its loss affected 
the numerical value of the Greek letters. ,rhen this value was l.eing 
tb..ed the exclusion of san Wa'i overlooked, and the numbers were calcu- 
]ated as though that letter had not exi!>te(l. The precedin
 letter pi 
stands for SO: the kOfl1J1J
 for ÐO, the numericltl value of the Phoenician 
tswle awl properly nlso that of s" ll. At a later period the obsolete letter 
was readopted as the numerical Sib'll for 900, nnd '-'ecame tbe modeln 
t-ll/IljJÍ (i. e. sa n + pi), so calletl from its partial resemblance, in its late 
form, to the letter pi. 


1 It has aho be..n iùentified wilh a T-shaped sign "hieh \nl
 u
..d for a special sounù 
Oil coin.. of )lc>emhria, and at Halicarnassu, in the tifth ceutur) B.C. 
H 2 



4 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHA\'. 


.With regard to the local alphabets of Greece, different states and 
òitferent islands either adopterl or deyeloped distinctive signs. Certain 
letters underwent gradual changes, as eta from closed 8 to open H, and 
tltet(t from the crossed @ to the dotted circle 0. which forms were common 
to all the varieties of the alphabet, The most ancient forms of the 
alphahet are founll in :\Ielos, Thera, and Crete, which moreover did not 
admit the douhle letters. \fhile some states retained the digliTfimtl or 
the lWjlpa, others lost them: while Rome developed particular differentia- 
tions to express certain sounds, others were content to express two souwls 
by one letter. The forms Lf for bfÜt and B for ept;iloll arc peculiar to 
Corinth and her colonics; the Argiye alphabet is distinguished hy its 
rectangular l(tnibtla 
; and that letter appears in the Boeotian, Chalci- 
diall, and A thenian alphabets in a primitive form \.-..1 
But while there are these local ditferences among the various alphabets 
of ancient Greece, a broad division has beelliaill òown by Kirchhoff: 2 who 
arranges them in two groups, the eastern and the western. The eastern 
group embraces the alphabet which haR already been referred to as the 
Ionian, common to the cities on the western coast of Asia Minor and the 
neighùouring islawls, and the alphabets of :\Iegara, Argos, and Corinth 
and her colonies; and, in a lHoòified Llegree, those of Attica, Kaxos, Thasos, 
and some other islands. The western group inclmles the alphabets of 
Thessaly, Euhoea, Phocis, Locri:,;, amI Boeotia, and of all the Peloponl1ese 
(excepting the states specified under the other grou,p), amI also those of 
the Achaean and Chalcidian colonies of Italy awl Sicily. 
In the eastem group the letter:=' has the sound of ,f'; and the letters 
X, l' the sounds of kh lind jl.
. (In Attica, Xaxos. etc., the letterR :=. and 
l' were wanting, and the soumis x and p.
 were expresRed hy X
, <Þ
.) 
In the western group the letter:=' is wanting, and X, l' have the values 
of x and kit; while the sounrl jJð was expressed by n 
 or <Þ
, or rarely 
llY a Rpecial sign *. In It wore I. the special tpst-Ietters are:- 
Eastern: X = kit. l' = JI:<. 
'" estern: X = .f'. l' = kit. 
How this distinction came about is not known, although seycral explana- 
tions have hcen hazarded. It is unnecessary in thi:,; place to do mor
 
than state the fact. 
As the Semitic languages were written from right to left, so in th
 
earliest Greck inscriptions we find the same onler followed. N ext came 
the method of writing called l)(Ylldrojlltedoll, in whieh the written lincs 
run alternately from right to lcft and from left to right, or vice versa, 


I 0 as a form uf plti is fuund on coins of Phocis of GOu B. C. ; and a slight modification 
of the Corinthian beta was used in the coinage of B)Zantium, 3;>0 E.c.-13rit. Mils. Cat. oJ 
GJ"pek Coins; Phocis, 14-19 ; 'l'hmce, etc., 93-4. 
2 Studien =llr Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets, 4th ed" 1887. 



I 


THE (:REEK _-\XI> L.\TIX ALPH.\BETS 


J 


as the plough forms the furrows. Lastly, writing from left to right 
became universal. In the m08t ancient tomh-inscriptions of 
Ielos amI 
Thera we have the earliest form of writing. B01.üd1'oplled ll n was 
commonly used in the sixth century B. C. However, the famous Greek 
insc)'iption at ALu Simbel- the earliest to which a ,late can IJe gh"en- 
cut on one of the legs of the colossal st.Ltl1l:'S which guanl the entrance 
of the great temple, awl recording the exploration of the 
 ile up to the 
secowl cataract by certain Oreek. Ionian, and Carian mercenaries in the 
sen"ice of PSfllmnetichus, runs from left to right. The king here 
mentioned may l'e the first (fi3-l-617 B.C.) or, more probably. the second 
(3!H -58!) B.c.) of that namc. The aate of the writing may therefore be 
roughly placed ahout GOO B.C. The fact that, llesides this inscription, the 
work of twu of the soldiers. the names of several of their comrades are 
al,>o cut on the rock, prons how well estahlishcd was the art of writing 
among the Greeks e,'en at that early period. 


The Latin Alphabet 
Like the local alphallets of Ureece, the Italic alphabets yariccl from 
one another l.y the IHloption or rejection of different signs, accoraing 
to the re1luirements of language. Thus the Latin and Faliscan, the 
Etruscan, the rmbrian, awl the OSCIUl alphal.ets are sufficiently dis- 
tinguished in this way; but at the same time the common origin of all 
can l,e traced to a primitive OF so-called Pelasgian alphabet of the 
Chalcidian type. The pcriod of the introduction of writing into Italy 
from the great trading and colonizing city of Clmlcis must be carricd 
back to the time \\ hen the (:reeks wrote from right to left. Two 
Latin inscriptions 1 lmve l,een fou1\Il thus written: and in the other Italic 
scripts this ancient system was also followed. The inscription on the 
rectangular pillar found in IH!J!) near the Forum, of a date not later than 
the fifth century B. c.. is arranged lJ/Ju
trlllI1Ied(JIL2 \Ye may assume, then, 
that the Greek alphabet was malIc known to the native tribes of Italy 
as early as the eighth or ninth century B.C., ana not improhably through 
the ancient Chalcidian colony uf Cumae, which trallition named as the 
earliest Greek settlement in the Jaml. The eventual prevalence of the 
Latin alphahet naturally followell the political supremacy of Rome, 
The L'ltin alphalwt pos:-esses twenty of the letters of the Greek 
western alphabet, amI, in addition, three adopte,l signs. Taking the 
Formello and Galassi alJecellaria 3 as representing the primitive alphal.et 


I The earliest, on a libula fmm Praeneste a.signed to the Rixth century B. C. (C. I. L. 
XI'. 4123); the othl.'l'. till' Dllenos inscription on a 'a
.. of the fourth centur
 B. c. fount! 
near the Quirinal in l R SO r. T. T. i. 3ï1). Both are given in Sandy", Compa... Lat. S(,',/o"(S, 
731, 733. 
2 S:mdys, op. cit. ï32. 3 See E. S. Rllherts, I;k. Epiyml'''Y, i. lï. 



6 


GREEK 
\SD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


l'H.\P, 


of Italy, it wil! 1Je seen thitt the Latins rejected the letter 8un and the 
double letters theta, phi. amI chi (1'), and disregarded the earlier sign 
for ,'?:Í. In Quintili::m's time letter X was the . ultima nostrarUln ' and 
cloHed the alphahet. The letter zetu representing the soft s sound wa
 
so used at first 1)y the Latins; hut, this >iound in course of time changing 
to an r sound, the letter::; ceased to 1Je used. But at a later period it 
waH resturell to thc alphabet for the purpose of transliteration of Greek 
words. As howe\'er its original place had IJeen meanwhile filled 1JY the 
new letter G, it was sent down to the end of the alphahct. "'ith regard 
to the creation of G, till the middle of tlH
 third century D.C. its want 
was not felt, as C was elliployell to represent hoth the hard c anll 
[] sounds,I a survival of this use being seen in the ahhreviations 
l '. and Cn. for Gaius amI Gnaeus; Imt gradually the new letter was 
developell from C aIlfl waH placed in the alphabet in the position 
vacated IIY :::eta. The diyam1JHt had hecome the Latin F, and the 
1ljl8iluf/' had heen transliterated as the Latin V; but in the time of 
Cicero 'l.lp
ilon, as a foreign letter, was required for literary purposes, 
and thus became again incorporated in the Latin alphabet-this time 
without change of form, Y. Its position shows that it was admitted 
before Z. 


1 The "uund reprt'sented by C in L:ltin n,) doubt also gradnally, but :It a very carly 
pcriod, became indi..tinguishable frol11 that reprt'sented by K. Hence the letter K fell 
into general disuse in writing, ane] only sun'i\'ed as an archaic form in ('ertain words. 
such as kalemlae. 



I 


Cadmean. 
_ H ' -H 


alpha " A A 

 I Ð 
,.",...1 
 
 


beta 


delta . . D.. D.. 
epsilon.. 
 I k 
digamma =t F 
zeta .:X: X 


eta. . 


theta 


iot:1 


mu 


phi.. .. 
chi.. .. 


psi.. .. 


omega. . 


.. 


THE CREEK .\-XV L.\TI
 ALI'H.\BETS 


GREEK. 


Local forms. 


Eastern. I Western, Local Corms. 


" }.telos. eteo 
( Paras. Siphnos. 
Thasos. Cleo 
'1. Corinth. 
( C Corinth, 
Mc&ua" etc. 


B CorintÞ. etc. 


AA 
BB 


I'r^ 
D..D 
kE 
[
] 
X 


AA 
t;B 


Ch.31ci5. 
.... r ( ( PhOC", 
I Arcadia" EIis, 
D.. [> D Locns, etc. 

 E 

F 
:x: 


EJH(h,ë) 8H(h) 
00 @O 
, , 
k I< 
t ^ t ^ 
tv'M I tv' M 
f'I I'! f'J N 
:E (See bolo".) 


H1 Latcr Ari:OS- 
[ '". Attic... r-; axos. 
Slvhno:), Tha:>>os, etc ] 
n Paros. Siphnos, etc 
o ( Melos. 


f1n 


[9] 
P R R 

 S 
T 
VY 


[See ilbove ] 


o 


<D9 
[4>O',Attica, '\:a,os. 
 
 I 
SiphnoS. Th
s. etc. ] 'If T 
o Melos. r3roS. n 
Siphnos. etc - I 
[0 us.ed i:cnerally f
r 



:;.
 t' ezcept In I 


\... C,,>k:1s. Boeol,a, 
de. 


o 


fin 


o 
. 
P R R 

 S 
T 
VY 
x+ 
<Dc? 
-l-'t' 


N\ Phocis. etc. 


BIB 

 I 
 
 S 
;:I':
.

:'h.etc. 
kappa.. >I k 
lambda '\ I"" \... Attka, I- ^'i:oo. 
. "'1 /"'" 
nu.. .. \\ t-.t 
xi ., .. EE EE 
omikron 0 I 0 
pi -. .. ì I ( 
I san (S5) M M T Halicamassu'õ. . 
I Teo:>>. Mescllibna. 
i :::pa :: 
 I 
 I 
I s:gma .. 
 
 M Crete. Ther
. Melos. 
I Argos. Connth. CIC. 
tau .. .. T I T 
upsilon. . 
xi._ .. 


"*' Ozo1. Locrts. 
"T'" Al'cadta 


LATIN. 
rew'l . I 

an. 
_ 
A IAAA a 
B B Bib 
( ( ( ( c 
D.. [> D D d 
k [ II e 
f: F II f 
[ anew 
X Clencl' g 
(Ol'med 
Crom L] 
G H h 
@ 
S, , 1 
I< k k 
\... \...L 1 
IoN M m 
f'J N n 
@ 


o 0 
r f1 P 
M 
9 Q 
PR RR 
I 
 S $ S 
T T 
V V 
X X 
<D 
-1- 


o 


p 


q 
r 
I 
 I 
uv 
X 


...
oPted } Y 
..t a late.. 
fo

as Z 
letters. 


;\ 



CHAPTER II 


::\IATERIALS rSED TO REC'EI\'E WRITIXG 


OF the various materials which have been used within the memory of 
man to receive writing, there are three, viz. papyrus, vellum, and paper, 
which, from their greater abundance anll convenience, ha\Te, each one in 
its turn, displaceò all others. But of the other materials several, 
including some which at first sight seem of a most unpromising character, 
have been hu'gely usel!. For such a purpose as writing, men naturally 
make use of the material which can be most readily procm'ell, anò is, at 
the same time, the most suitalile. If the ordinary material fail, they 
must extemporize a substitut.e. If something more llurable is wanteò, 
metal or stone may take the place of vpllum or paper. But with 
in:,;criptions on these harder materials we have, in the present work, Imt 
little to do. Such inscriptions generally fall under the head of epigraphy. 
Here we have chiefly to consider the softer materials on which hand- 
writing, as distinguished from monumental engra\,ing, has been wont to 
be inscribed. Still, as will be seen in what follows, there are certain 
exceptions; and to some extent we "hall have to inquire into the 
employment of metals, cla
y, potsherds, and wood, as well as of leaves, 
hark, ]inen, wax, papyrus, vellum, and paper, as materials for writing.1 
\\Te will first dispose of those sulJstances which were of more limited use. 


Leaves 


It is natural to suppose that, in a primitive state of society, le
wes of 
plants and trees, strong enough for the purpose, would be adopted as 
a ready-made material provided bJr nature for such an operation as 
writing. In various parts of India amI the East the leaves of pahn- 
trees have been in use for centuries and continue to he employed for this 
purpose; and theJ' form an excellent and enduring substance. )lanu- 
scripts written on palm-leaves have been found in 
epal which date Lack 
many hundreds of years. In Europe leaves of plants are not generally 
of the tough character of those which grow in the tropics; Lut it is not 
impossible that they were used in ancient Greece and Italy, and that the 


1 Ulpian, Digest. xx>.ii. 52, de Legat. 3, thus classifies hooks: 'Lihrorum appellatione 
continentur omnia volumina, sive in charta, sive in memhmna sint, sive in quavis alia 
materia j sed et si in philrra aut in tilia, ut nonnulli eonficiunt, aui in quo alio eOI'io, 
idem erit dicendum. Quod si in codicilms sint memhrancis vd chartaceis, vel etiam 
cboreis, vel aIteriu< matcriae, vel in eel'ati
 codicillis, an dehe:lI1tur videamus.' 



)IATERIALS D..;ED T() HECEIYE WRITIXG 


u 


references by clas
ical writers to their employment are not merely 
fanciful. There is e\'idence of the custom of r.aaÀtU{.lÓf, or yoting for 
ostracism with oliYe-Ieayes. at Syracuse, allli of the similar practice at 
Athens under the name of iKcþVÀÀocþopia. I Pliny, Xllt. lli
i. xiii. 11, 
writes: 'Antea non fuisse charta rum u
um: in pallllanlln foliis primo 
scriptitatulll, deinde quarunrlam arllorum libris.' 


Bark 
Better a.lapted for writing purposes than leaves was the llark of 
trees, I ilia, which we haye just seen name.l hy rlin
', awl the general 
use of which cause,l its name to be attache.l to the llook (i.e. the roll) 
which was made from it. The inner bark of the lime-tree, cþtÀvpa, til i'l, 
\\Wi chosen as most suital,le. Pliny, Xat. Hist. xyi. 11, tlescrihing this 
tree, says: · Inter corticem et lignum tenues tunicae sunt multiplici 
membrana. e '1uihus yincula tiIiae vocantur tenuissimae earum philyrae.' 
It was thcse tlelicate shretls,phil!Jmc, of this inner skin or hark which 
formed the writing material. In the enumeration of ditterent kiwIs of 
hooks hy )Iartianu<; Capella, ii. 136. those consisting of lime-l,ark are 

Iuoted. though as rare: · Rari \"ero in philyrae cortice sul>uotati.' 
elpian also, Divest. xxxii. 3:!, mentions' vuhllllina . . . in philyra aut in 
tilia.' Rut not only was the bark of the lime-tree used, loUt talllets also 
.appear to have been matle from its wood-the 'tili.te pugillares' of 
SynmJachus, iv. 3-l: also referre.l to hy Dio Cassius, lxxii. 8. in the 
passage: òwò
Ka ypa{.l{.laní:a, oM yt" iK cþtÀvpaf r.OtÚTat. It seems that 
rolls matle from lime-Ilark were co-existent at Rome with those made 
from papyrus, after the introduction of the latter material; but the 
home-made hark must soon have .lisappearecl llefure the impurtell 
Egyptian papyrus, which had so many advantages both in quantity and 

Iuality to recommellll it. It has rather been the fashion with some 
writers to deride the tradition of the employment of bark as a writing 
matcrial in Europe. They suggest that it has arisen from papyrus 
being ignorantly mistaken for I ,ark. An occasional mistake of the kind 
may well have happened. But the references of early writers to the 

mplo
Tment of l,ark is not to I,l' lightly disreganlp,1. 2 


I TJJe olive-leaf, used in thb ceremOJJY. is also mention(,d, '1,,;1\1\011 f}..aíM, as HIe material 
()Il which to inscribe a charm.-Cat. Gk. Papyri in Brit. JIllS, i. Pap, cxxi. 213; and n 
bay-leaf is enjoined for the same pU1'po
e in Pap) rus 2:?Oï ill the BibIiothf-f{ue JS'ationa]e. 
· See a reference to a copy uf Aralus 011 malva-bark. quoted from Isidore, O,'ig. ,-i. 12, ]JY 
Ellis, Com",. on Catr,zll<s, 2nd ed., 18S9, p. Iix. The employment of birch-bark as " writing 
material in India is, of cour
e, well known. It dates hack to II very early time, specimens 
()f the fuurth century being extant. III Ka
hmir it was laq;e]y u,ed duwn to the time of 
Akbar's conque
t in the 8eventeenth centIIl)", and there are "till a considerable number 
{)f 1IISS. of the material in that COUlltl'Y, S",eral are in Ihe Brjlj,h :lIUSl'IlIll, one of tJIem 
being of the year 1268. 



10 


GREEK ASD LATIS PALAE()(;RAPHY 


l'1 L\.l'. 


Linen 


Linen cloth, which is found in use among the ancient Egyptians to 
receivc writing, appears also as the material for certain rituals in Roman 
historr. Livy, 'ì:. 38, reft'rs to a book of this character, 'libel' vetus 
linteus,' among the Sanlllites; and again, iv. 7, he mentions the' lintei 
libri' in the temple of the goddess l\Ioneta; and Flavius V opiscus in his 
Life of the Emperor Aurelian refers to 'libri lintei' in the Plpian Library 
in Rome. I Pliny, ...Yat. lIi
L xiii. 11, names' volumina lintea' as in use 
at an early period for private documents, public acts being recorded 011 
lead. lIIartianus Capella, iii. 136, also refers to 'carbasina volumina': 
and in the Codex 1'1Ieodo><. vi. 27. 1, 'mappae linteae' occur. The largest 
extant example of Etruscan writing, now prescrved in the :Museum at 
Agram, is inscrihetl on linen. 2 


Cla.y and Pottery 
ClaJ' was a most common writing material among the BaLJ'lonians 
and Assyrians. The excavations made of late J'cars on the ancient sites 
of their great cities have brought to light a whole literature impressefl 
on sun-dried or fire-hm'nt bricks awl tahlets. Clay tablets have al!o,o 
I.een found in the excavations at Knossos in Crete, ascribed to the 
period ahout 1300 B. c. Potsherds came ready to the hand in Egypt. 
where earthenware vessels were the most COll11lIOn kind of householfl 
utensils. They have been foullli in large numhers, mlUlY inscribed in 
Greek with such ephemeral documents as tax and pay receipts. generally 
of the period of the Roman occupation. 3 To such inscribed potsherds 
has been givcn the title of ol:!trlll,;a, a term which will recall the practice 
of Athenian ostracism in which the votes were recorded on such frag- 
llwnts. 4 That such material was used in Greece only on such passing 
occasions or from necessity is illustrated by the passage in Diogencs 
Laertius, ,'ii. 174, which narrates that the Stoic Cleanthes was forced II,} 
povcrty to write on potsherds and the shoulder-blades of oxen. Tile
 
also, UPOll which alphabets or verses were scratchecl with the stilus 


1 The Ulpian Library was the Public Record Office of Rome.-J. 'V. Clark, Tlie Care 'if 
Bùoks, l!JOl. p. 20. 
" It was found cut into strips and used for binding an Egyptian mummy.-Ed. Krall. 
ill the Denkschrijten of the Vienna Academy, vol. xli 
lS!J2). 
3 See autotypes of somo specimens in Pal. Soc. ii. 1, 2. 
· Votes for o"tl'llcism at Athens were probably recorded 011 fmgmenb of broken vas"" 
which had been useel in religious services, and which were given out speciaIly for the 
occasion. Three such voting ostraka are known: one is dl.seribed by Benndorf, Gried.. und 
sicilische Vasenhilder, tab. xxix. 10; another, fo,' the ostmcism of Xanthippos, the fatl,er of 
Pericles (see Aristotle, COliS'. Athens, 61), is noticed by StudnÎC7k", Anlenor tmd arc1lliische 
Malerei in Jahrbuch des hais. delllsc/wl arch. IlIslituls, ii ,18ði', WI. Sl'" also the Brit. "f",. 
Guide t,. Greek "/ld Romall Lifi', 7. 



II 


)IATERL\L
 r
ED TO HECEl\TE WRITIXG 


11 


llcfore l,aking. scned occasionally among hoth Greeks and Romans for 
cducational purposcs. l 


Wall-spaces 
It is perhaps straining a term to include the walls of huildings under 
the heatl of writing materials; IJut the !}/"(lffiti or wall-scrihhlillg
. 
discowrctl in 
uch large numhers at Pompeii. 2 hold so important a 
placc in the history of early Ltltin palaeography, that it must not J It:' 
forgotten that in ancient times, as now. a vacant wall was held to bl' 
a verJ' conwnicnt place to present pul,lic notices and appeals or to scrihble 
idle words. 


Precious Metals 
The precious metals were naturally llut !-.clflom usetl as writing 
materials. For 
uch a purpose, howe,'er, as working a charm, an 
occasion when the person spccially intcrested might lIe supposed not to 
lIe too niggard in his outlay in onler to attain his emls, we find thin 
plates or leans of goltl or sih'er rccommended,3 a practice which is 
paralleled hy the crossing of the palm of the hand with a gold or sih'er 
coin as enjoined hJT thc gipsy fortUlw-teller. 


Lead 
Lead was used at an ancient date. Pliny, Xllt. lli::;t. }.,.iii. 11. refer
 
to' plumhea ,'olumina' as early writing material. Pausanias, ix. 31, 4. 
states that at Helicon he saw a lea.lcll plate (fLÓÀt/
ôoç) on which the 
"E,JYa of Hesiotl were inscribed. At DuJona tablets of lead lut\'e been 
disconred which contain Iluestions put to the oracle. and in some 
instances thc answers. 4 An instance of the employment of lead in 
corrcspondence occurs in Parthenius, Emtica, cap. g; the story being 
that, when the island of Naxos was invatled by the )Iilesians in ;)01 B.C., 
the priestess Polycrite, l,eing in a temple outside the capital city, sent 
word to her llrothers, by means of a letter written upon lead and 
concealed in a loaf, how they lIlight make a night attack. Lenurmant. 
Rlteill. Jfu I'e Ltm, xxii. 276, has described the numerous small leaden 
pieces on which are written names of persons, JJeing apparently sol'te", 
iwlÙ'Ù,Tiue, or lots for selection of judges, of ancient date. Dinw, or 
solemn dedications of offending persons to the infernal deities by, or 011 
behalf of, those whom they had injured or ofltmded, were inscrilled 


1 F.\csimiles in C. 1. L. iii. U62. The o
tr"kon no. ISï] 1 ill the British Museum i
 
inscribed with 11. 107-18,128-39 of the Plwenissae of Em'ipitles : see Classical Review, x\ iii.:::!. 
TIIA Berlin ostrnkon 4ï5S contains 11. 616-2-1 of till' Hippolytus of Euripitle
. 
2 C.1. L. h'. 
S Cat. G/... Papyri in Brit. Mus. i. 102. I:::!:!; abo par:yri in till' Bibl. Kationale. :::!:jb. 
270;). 
228. 
, C..rapanL
, Dod'me et se;; Elf;"'" ,H!';S , p. 6
. pI. xxxi, -xl; (.1. L. i. 8]8. 8]
. 



12 


<mEEK AXD L\.TIX P
-\.LAEOU1L-\.PHY 


CH.\P. 


on this metal. These maledictory inscriptions, called also deji.J.:iones or 
KUTáòftTJJ.Ot anù KUTUÒftTH'i', appear to ha,'e been extensively employed. 
An instance is reconleù l,y Tacitus, Annal. ii. 69, in his account of the 
last illness and death of Germanicus, in whose house were found, hidden 
in the floor and walls, remains ûf human lJOdies and 'carmina et 
de"otiones et nomen Germanici plum],eis talmlis insculptum'. l\lany 
have heen found at Athens and other places in Greece amI Asia )linor, 
and some in Italy; others again in a burial-ground near Roman Carthage. l 
Sc,'eral were discoverell at Cnidus which have been assigned to the period 
between the thirll amI first centuries B.C.; 2 and recently a collection 
was found near Paphos in Cyprus, huried in what appears to ha,'e lleen 
a malefactors' COUlmon grave. 3 These Cni,liall and Cyprian examples 
are now in the British l\luseum. Charms and incantations were also 
inscribel I on thinlea,'es of leafJ.4 )[ ontfaucon, PUllleO!]1'. Gì'{/('ca, 16, 181, 
mentions awl gi,'es an engra,'ing of a leatlen Look, apparently connected 
with magic. A leaden roll has heen found in Rhodes, inscribed with the 
greater part of Psalm lxxx in Greek, of the third or fourth century; which 
may have l)een used as a charm;> There are two inscribe(lleaden tablets 
found at Bath; the one containing a eurse in Latin on some person who hml 
carried off a girl named Yilllia. written in reversed characters: the other 
being a Latin letter of the fourth century.6 Of later date is a tablet found 
in a grave in Dalmatia, containing a charm against evil spirits, in Latin, 
inscribed in cursive letters of the sixth century.î Several specimens 
which have been reco"ered from mediae,'al gra,'es prove that the 
custom of burying leaden inscrilled plates with the (lead was not 
uncomlllon in the mi,hlle ages. s The employment of this metal for such 
purposes may have Leen recommended by its supposed durability. But 
lead is in fact highly sellsiti n
 to chemical action, anI I is lial!le to rapid 
disintegration under certain conditions. For the ancient dil'ue it was 
proLaUy used because it was common and cheap. 


Bronze 
Bronze was use,l I10th hy Ureeks and Romans as a material on whieh 
to engra,-e votive inscriptions, laws, treaties, and other I<olemn docu- 


I Bulletin de Conn]'. Hellenique, 1t>ss, }" 2U4. 
2 Newton, Discov. at HaliCllrnass't
 (1863\ ii. 71U--15; and Collitz and Bechtel, Grieclt. 
Dialeht-Inscltriftcn, iii. 238. 
3 Soc. BiUical Arc1l<1coiogy. Proceedings. xiii (18:11). pt. h'. 
4 Leemans, PaPYI'i Graeei ][oIS. Lugdltll.1885; "'essely, Griech. Zaub.r Pap!!ri, 1888; Cat. Gk. 
Paryri in Brit. ]1[118. i. ,-t, etc. Tin plates Werf' also u,..d, Cat. Gk. Pap. i. !n, etc. 
· SitzungslJerichte of the Roy. Pnu,sian Academy, 1898, p. [)S=:!. 
6 Hermes, xv; Joltrn. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlii. 410; E. 'Yo B. Nicholson, Yillisius to 
Sigm, 190-1. For further notices of inscriptions ÜIl lead see Gal'dthausen, Gliech. Pal. 211<1 
ed., 1m]. pr. 26-8. 
7 C. 1. L. iii. 961. · 'Yattenhach, Schriftw. 48-51. 



11 


)L\TERL\LS esE)) TO RECEIYE WlUTIXG 


13 


ments. These, howe\-er, do not come under present consideration, heing 
btrictly epigraphical monumelIts. The only class which we need notice 
is that of the Roman militar.r diplomas, those porta1.le ("/'ulue llone.-tac 
mil:'l'ionil:', as the.r ha\-e ùeen calle.l, which were given to veteran soldiers 
and conferred upon them rights of citizenship and marriage. rpwan1s 
of one hnndre.l such document
, or portions of them, i
sued umler the 
emperors, ha\-e heen reco\'eret!.l They are intere
ting both palaeo- 
graphically, as giving a series of speeinIl'nb of the Roman rustic capital 
letters,\! and also for the form which they took, exactly following that 
01,serwd in the legal documents preserved in waxed tablets (see 1.elow). 
They were, in fact, cod Ù'es in metal. The diploma consisted of two 
Stluared plates of the metal, hinged with rings. The authentic deed was 
engraHd on the inner side of the two plates, and wa,; repeatell on the 
outside of the fir!>t plate. Through two holes a threefoltl wire was passel I 
aUtI bound rounel the plates, being sealed on the outsille of the second 
plate with the seals of the seven witnesses, whose naines were also 
engraveù thereon. The seals were pl"Otected by a strip of metal, attached, 
which was sometimes con\"ex to afford lJetter co\'er. In case of the outer 
copy heing called in question, reference was made to the deed insitle hy 
breaking the seals. without the necessity of going to the official copy kept 
in the temple of Augustus at Rome. 
The repetition of the deed in one aIllI the same elipluma is paralleled 
in some of the AS:;
Tian tahlets, which, after heing inscribed, reeei\'ed an 
outer casing of clay on which the cü\'ereù writing was repeated. 


Wood 


\Y oo<<len tal.lets were used in \'ery remote times. In many cabes they 
were probal,ly coated. if not with wax, with !'.oml' kind of compusition, 
the writing being scratched upon them with a dry point: in some 
instances we know that ink was in'5crihed upon the 1,are wood. The 
ancient Egyptians also used tahlets COHred with a glazed composition 
capable of recei\'ing ink. 3 \Vomlen tahlets inscribed with the IHunes of 
the dead are found with mummies. They Were also used for memoranda 
and accounts. and in the Egyptian schools: specimens of tablets inscribed 
with receipts, alphabets, and wrses ha\'ing survi\'etl to the present day:" 
One of the earliest specimens of Creek writing is a document inscribetl 


, C. I. L. iii. 8-13 
qq. publi,hes fifty,eÏ!:ht of them. For facsimilt:s st:c, e. g., J. Arneth, 
Zu:uljrõmische Milit<ir-IJiplome, Vienna. IS-13; X 1'- Pal. 6 c. 131. 

 See facsimile specimens of the characters employed in the diploma
 in lliiLnt:r, 
Exempla Script. Epigr. 2:;5-3ùO. 
" 'Yilkinson, .AIIC. Egypt, ii. 1
3. 
. Reu\"ens, Letlres, iii. 111 ; Trallsac. Roy. Soc. Lit.. 2nd 
['rie". x, pt. 1; Leemans, Mon. 
i:gypt. ii, tab. 236; Rltein. .'[useum, Xy ,lS(jO
, 1;)7. :-'e\"t:ral 
pecilUcns of Egyptian iu"eriLed 
tahlcb are in the Brit:sh Museum. 



14 


GREEK AXD LATI
 PALAEOGRAPHY 


CII \P. 


in ink on a small wooden tal,let now in the Hriti
h l\luseum (5R-t9, C.); 
it refers to a money transaction of the thirty-first year of Ptolemy Philn- 
delphus (254- or 253 TI. C.).I In the Briti
h 
lusf'um there is al
o a small 
wooden hoard (Add. ::\rs. 33293), painted white amI inscribed in ink with 
thirteen lines from the Ilirld (iii. 273-83), the words l'eing marked off 
and the sy1lables indicateel I,y accents, no doubt for teaching young 
Greek scholars. It was fOUIlII in Egypt, awl is prohably of the third 
century. Of the same period are a board (Add. MS. 37516) and a hook 
of eight woollen le
wes (AIle!. )18. 37533), inscribed with school I'xercises 
in Greek. 2 At Yienna is a board with lines from the IJeJ.:ale of Calli- 
machus anù the Pltoelli,'sae of Euripide
, of the fourth century.3 There is 
also a misce11aneous set of broken talllets (Add. )[S. 333ö!)) inscrihed on 
a ground of drab paint, with records relating to the reco,'ery of ùel,ts, etc., 
at Panopolis, the mOlleI'll Ekhmim. in the Thel,aid; probahly of the 
!o.evf'nth century. In early nreek history it is state(l that the laws of 
Solon '\"pre written on re,'olving wooden tablets, ÜÇOVH and KVpßf:Ui; an(l 
there is an actual record of the employment of wooden Loanls or tahlets 
in the innntory of the expenses of rebuilding" the Erechtheum at Athens. 
407 B. ('. The price of two boards, on which rough accounts were first 
entered, is set down at two drachmas, or a
d. each: fTUl'íÒH lvo 
'i &s 
TÒl' >'óYOI' àl'UypácþoP.f:l.. 4 And again a secowl entry of four hoards at the 
same price occurs. In some of the waxed tablets lately reco,'cred at 
Pompeii the pages which ha"e heen left in the plain wood are inscribell 
in ink.':; \Y ooelen tablets were u
ed in schools during the middle ages. G In 
En!Tland the custom of u!'ing wooden tallies, inscrilJed a
 wel] as notched, 
'" 
in thc public accounts lastell down to a recent date. 


Waxed and other Tablets 
But we may assume that as a general rule tal.Iets were coated with 
wax 7 from thc ,.cry earliest times in Greece and Rome. Such waxf'fl 
tahlet,> were single, doul,le, triple, or of several pieces 01' leans. In 
Greek a tablet was ca11ell 7íívuç. 7íWUKí,>, òÉ^ro,>, Òf:ÀTÍov, Òf:ÀTíòwv, 7íVKTÍOI', 
T.vçíov, 7ívçíòwv, ypupp.urfÎoI'R; in Latin, Cei\l, to!J'Idu, ta1Je[la. The woollen 


1 See Reme li:YW>'owy;r{llC, ii, App,.nd., 51 ; 1'01. Soc. ii. H
. 
, De-crihed by Kenyon in JOllrn. Rellmic Sludies, xxix (HI()9 , 
S, 
, Pap. Er::lt. Rcdner, vi :lS!), ; 'Yattenhach, Sclt,-ij{.e.91. 
· Hangabe, Antiq. Rel/in. 56; Er:ger, Note sllr le prix de popier, etc., in M';m. d'][;81. 
Ancien" 110>63. 
" Poll. Soc. i. 139. 6 'Yattenb,1Ch, Scltrirtrv. 93 sqq. 
7 K"'lPÚ<, cera, 0" "álltJT}, "áMJa. Po:Iux, Onomast. x. 37. in his chapter 7TEp
 ß'ßlI;,w nmncs 
the composition u 15. 'I'WI' T
 7T" aI<Í1i, KT}pÚ<. 
 "áMJT}. IJ "7.lIfJa. 'Hpú1ioTo< "'1' 'Yàp KT}pÙI' .iPT}K', 
KpaT;I'O< 15È fl' TV nUT;I'!7 wíMJ'll' ;<þT}. !l<láMJa IIppears to h'l\"e heen wax mixcd with tllr. Cf. 
A.'istoph. Fmgm. 206 T1;I' ,,"-Mal' fK Tâw 'Ypa""an;,w ;]ulhOJ'. 
8 Sce Pollux, Onomasticon, x. 37. 



II 


WAXED T \.BL1
TS 


n 



;urface was sunk to a, sli
ht depth. le:tving a raised frame at the 
eclges, after the fashion of a chilcrs school-slate of the present day, 
mlll a thin coating of wax. usually black, was laid myel' it. Tahlets 
were used for literary composition, I school exercises, accounts, or rough 
memoranùa. Tlwy were sometimes fittetl with slings for suspension.:! 
Two or more put together, amI held togdher l'J rings or thongs acting 
as hinges, formetl a {'u'luln; or code.t. Thus Seneca. ] Ie BJ"'I". lït. 13 
'Plurium talmlarUlll conte'i:tus cawlex Ilpml antitluos ,'ocal J atur: uwle 
l)Uhlicae tabulae cOlliccs diCUlltur '. 
When the cmlex consistetl of two lea,'cs it was caJleù õí.8vpot, õí.T.TvX a , 
<lipt!/clla, d'llJlIÎt'e.
; of three, TpL1õTvxa, tJ'iptycltCt, tJ'iplices; amI of Ulorc, 
1TfVTár. Tv X a , pentltlltycltU, qltlllql!ijllic(!8 or q'l.tinc'lt]Jlice
, T.oÀv;;TvX a , pul!J- 
ttf!Jcllll, mllltiplices. 3 In Homer we ha,-e an instance of the use of a tal J let 
in the tleath-message of King Proetus, , gra,'ing in a folded tal,let Ulany 
deadly things.' 4 Allfl Herodotus tells us (,-ii. :l3U) how Demaratus 
conveyed to the laceJaemonians secret intelligence of Xerxes' intended 
in,'asion of Greece, l,y means of a message written on thc wooden surface 
of a tablet (ÕfÀTí.OV U1TTVXOl') from which the wax had IJeen previously 
scraped l,ut was afterwartls renewed to co,'er the writing-. On Greek 
ntSeS of the fifth and fourth centuries B. c., tablets, generally triptychs, 
are represented, hoth open in the hands of the goddt;oo" Athena or others, 
and closed and bound round with strings, han
ing froUl the walll,y slings 
or hanlllts. õ 
Tablets in the cOllex form would lIe cmploye r l not only as mere note- 
1 looks, but especially in all cases where the writing was to l,e protecterl from 
injury eithcr for the moment or for a long perioll. Hcnce they were 
used for legal documents, con,'eyances and wills, awl for correspomlence. 
\Yhen used for wills, each page was technically called {'eJ'U, as in Gaius, 
ii. 104 'Haec, ita ut in his tal,ulis cerisllue scripta sunt, ita do lego '.6 
They were closed agaiul',t inspection hya triple thread, ÀLVOl', [ilium, awl 
hy the seals of the" ihlPsscs, as will presently he more fully eXp1aineti. 


I C,Üullus, I. 2 'muItum lu
imns in meis tabelIis'. Qnintilian, Ilisfif. oralor. x. 3. 31, 
I'pcommends the use of wlIxed tablets: 'Scl"Îbi optime ceris, in qui bus fncilIllna e;,t 
l"cltiO.' 
, Hornce, Sat. i. 6. 
 -1 ' Lae,'o ;,uspensi loculos tnbnlamque lacerto '. 
S :Mnrtinl, xiv. 4. 6. 
4 llilld ,i. 169 "/ró",,'" Iv 1T;vaIC' 1TTVICTo/ l!vJ.lo<þliúpa 1To'-'-å. 
. See Gerh.ud. Attserlescne Vascllbilde, iii. 239; i... 2.U, :!I'>ï, 2......., 
;;9. 
9r.; T.n) lies, 
Vases, 3;5. 
· cr. H,,,'ace. Sat. ii. ð. ;jl : 
Qui tl'stamentmll tmdet tibi cnnqne legendum 
Ahnuc,'e et t.\bu1a" Ii te remo,-ere memento; 
Sic tamen, ut limis rapins quid prima sl'cundo 
Cern ,"elit va",". 



16 


GREEK A
J) LA'l'IX P ALAEOGRÁ\.PHY 


CHAP. 


As to corre",pol1llence, small tal,lets, codicil! i lor jI uy ill" re.
2 were employed 
for short letters; longer letters, e/)istolap, were written on papyrus. Thus 
Seneca. Ell. 55. 11, makps the distinction: 'Atleo tecum sum. ut dubitem 
an incipiam non epistulas se,l codicillos tibi scribere.' The tablets were 
sent by me",sengers, tahelhl1'i i, as eXplained hy Festus 3: . TabelIis pro 
chartis uteLantur anti(lui, quibus ultro citro. si,'c pri,'atim si,'e puLl ice 
opus erat. certiores absentes faciebant. Unde adhuc tahellarii dicuntur. 
et tal'ellae mis"ae ab imperatoribu!;.' -1 The answer to the letter might 
he inscribed on the same set of taLlets and returned. Lo,'e-If'tters appear 
to have been sometimes written on ,'ery small tal.lets. 5 :;\lartial. xi,'. 
6. 8, 9, calls such tal,lets ritelliulli. Tal.let", containing letters were 
fastene,l with a thread, which was sealed. 6 The materials for letter- 
writing are enumerated in the passage of Plautus. Bw'cltide.
, iv. 714 
'Ecfer cito . . . stilum, ceram et tabellas, linum'; aUlI the process of 
sealing in line 748: 'cedo tu ('cram ac linum actutum. age oLliga. opsigna 
cita.' In Cicero, Cedil. iii. 5. we have the opening of a letter: 'TahelIas 
proferri iussimus. . . . Primo ostendimus Cethego signum; cogno,'it; 
nos linum incidimus: legimus. .. Introductus est Statilius; cognovit 
et signum et manum suam.' 
The custom of writing letters on tablet", sun'i\"CII for some centuries 
after classical times. In the fifth century St. Augustine in his epistle to 
Romanianus (l\ligne. Pab'ulvg. hut. xxxiii. 80) makes reference to his 
tablets in these words: . Non haec epistola sic inopiam chartae indicat, 
ut membranas ",aItem abundare te",tetur. 'l'abelIas eburneas quas habeo 
avunculo tno cum litteris misi. Tu enim huic pellicnlae facilius ignu
ces, 
quia difierri non potuit quod ei scripsi. et tihi non scril)ere etiam ineptis- 
sinHun exi
tinHt,'i. Serl taltellas, si quae ibi nostrae sunt. propter huius- 
lI10di necpssitates mittas peto.' St. Hilary of ArIes likewise has the 
following passage in his Lifc of Honoratus (Migne , hd,'ul. Lilt. I. 1:!61) : 
'Beahm Eucherius cum alt eremo in taLulis, ut assolet, cera iIIitis, in 
proxima ab ipso deg.ens insula, litteras eius suscepisset: .. .;\lel," inquit, 
,. suum ceris retldidisti.'" Both these passages prove that the custom 
was general at the period. E,'cn as late as the year 11-18 a letter' in 
tahella' was written "y a monk of Fulda. 7 


1 Cicero, Epp. Q. F. ii. 11. 1; Fm/!. iv. U. 2, and vi. 18. 1. See also Catullus, xlii. 11. 
2 CatlllIus uses the word pugillaria, xlii. 5. 
3 De Vcrborum Signif., ed. r.lüller, p. 359. 
· Compare St. Jerome, Ep. \iii 'Nam et rudes illi Italiae homines, ante chartae ef 
membrallarllm usum, aut in dl.dolatis 0 ligno codicillis aut in cortÎcilms arborum mutuo 
epistolanuu alloquia mÜ,
itab'lIlt. Unde ot portitoro
 eorUlll tabellarios et scriptores a 
libris arl.or11m librarios voc:l\"cre '. 
5 See the drawing in MuseD Borbonico, i. 2. 
6 Clay, cretula, was ori
inally U
l.tl: '}'7} (ITlf'uvrpí., Herod. ii. 3:; ; PÚ7TO', Aristoph. Lysis. 
1200. Pollux, Onolnllst. x. {ít;. 
7 "'altenbach, Schrif/w. ;;3. 



II 


WAXED TABLETS 


17 


It will he noticed that St. Augustine refers to his tablets as heing of 
ivory. The ancient tablets were ordinarily of common wooù, such as 
beech. or fir, or hox, the 'nllgaris buxus' of Propertius (iii. 23); but 
they were also made of more expensive material. Two of Martial's 
{1]Jopltoreta are 'pugillares citrei' and' pugillares eborei'. Propertius 
(l. r.) refers to golden fittings: ':Son ilIas fixum cams effecerat aurum.' 
The large consular diptychs. as we know from existing specimens. were 
of ivory. often elaborately caITed. 
The employment of waxed talllets laste!l for certain purposes through 
the midtlle ages in countries of \Vestern Europe. Specimens inscribed 
with money accounts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries have 

urvived to the present day in France; 1 awl municipal accounts on 
tablets of the fourteenth and fifteenth ccnturies are still presprved in 
some of the (ierman towns. They algo exist in Italy,2 dating from the 
thirteenth or fourteenth century. They were used in England and also 
in Ireland. 3 It is said that quite recently sale,> in the fish-market of 
Rouen were noted on waxed tablets. f 


Greek Waxed Tablets 


Ancient Greek waxed tablets have survived III not many instances. 
In the British ::\Iuseum are some which have been founù in Egypt. TI1P 
most perfect is a hook (Add. 
IS. 33:!iO). perhaps of the third century, 
measuring nearly 9 by 7 inches, which consists of seven leaves coateù 
on hoth sides with hlack wax and two covers waxed on the inner 
side, inscrihed with documents in shorthand, presumably in Greek, and 
with shorthand signs wI.itten repeate(I1y, as if for practice, and with 
notes in Greek; in one of the covers a groO\-e is hollowed for the 
reception of the writing implements. Another smalJer book, of about 
7 by 4 inches, formcd of six lea\"es (Add. :liS. 33368), is inscrihpd, 
probably hy some schoolboy of the third century, with grammatical 
exercises and other notes in Greek, and also with a rough drawing, 
perhaps meant for a caricature of the schoolmaster. There are also two 
tablets inscribed with verses in Greek uncial writing, possibly some 


1 See Recueil des lIzstonens des Gaules, xxi (IS=>=>'., 28!. xxii ,185:>\ 480 ; Mém. de l'Acad. 
xviii (2nd series), 536; Bibl. Éco
 des Charles, xi. 393. A' IIlémoire tOllchant "usage d.écrire 
sur des tablettes de cire', by the Abbé Lebeuf, is printed in Mém. de l'Acad. xx (1753), 267. 
A tablet of accounts, of about the )'ear 1300, from Cite.lUx Abbey, is in the BI.itish 
Museum, Add. MS. 33215; printed by H.Omont in Bull. SO". Nat. des .Anliq. de Fm7\ce, 
1889, p. 
S3. Four tablets, of the fourteenth century, found at Beauvai.., are in the 
Bibliothèque Nationali!.-.Acad. des Inscriptions, Comptes rendus, 1887, p HI. 
2 See Milani, Sei Tat'olelle cerate, in Puhbl. del R. IstituJo (Ii S'udi Superiori, 1877. 
. A mediaeval waxed tahlet, belonging to the ROJal It-i
h Å' .lllem:r, is exhibited in 
the 
.ltional Museum, Dublin. 
· 'Vattenbach, Sch'"iftw. !o9. 


l1B4 


C 



18 


GREEK A
D LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


literm-y sketch or a schou] exercise. 1 Two others of a similar nature have 
been more recently acquired, the one containing a writing exercise, the 
other a multiplication table. The Bodleian Library has also purchased 
a waxed tahlet (Gr. Inscr. 4) on which is a writing exercise. OtherR are 
at Paris; some containing scribLled alphabets and a contractor's accounts, 
which were found at l\lemphis. 2 Seven tablets of the third century. 
inscribe(l with fallles of Bahrius (a school exercise), are at Leyden. 3 In 
Kew York is a set of five tahlets, on which are verses, in the style of 
Menamler, set as a copy by a writing-master and copied l,y a pupil.'" 
Other Rpecimens of a similar character are at Marseilles, the date of 
which can be fh:ed at the end of the third or beginning of the fourth 
century; Ó and the last leaf of a document founù at Yerespatak is at 
Karlsburg. G At Gene'"a there is a tahlet of the sixth century containing 
accounts, and ,.erses of Psalm xci, prohahly a charm.' 


Latin Waxed Tablets 


Extant Latin tablets are more numerous, but ha,.e only been found in 
comparatively recent years. s Twenty-five, containing deeds ranging in 
date from A.D. 131 to 167, were recovered, hetween the years 1786 and 
1853, from the ancient mining works in the neighhourhood of Alburnu& 
)Iajor, the modern Verespatak. in Dacia. In 1840 _!\Iassmann published 
the few whieh had at that time been rliscoveretl, in his Libellw5 A'lt
'(tTi11.", 
hut the a(lmission into his book of two umloubtedly spurious doeumtnts 
cast suspicion on the rest, which were accordingly denounced until the 
fi.nding of other tablets prm"ed their gpnuineness. The whole collection 
is gi,.en in the Cm'lHH5 IntJcl'iptionltm Latin01'lL'1n, yol. iii. 
During the excavations at Pompeii in July, 1875, a box containing 
127 waxed taLlets, of the years A.D. 15, 27,53-62, WaS discovered in the 
house of L. Caeci]ius Jucundus. They proved to be pe1'SCTiptione8 and 
other deeds connected with auctions and tax-receipts.!! 


I See Verhandl. der Philoloyen-T'el'satnml. Zit Jnirzbw'g, 18(j(), p. 239. 
2 Rerue Arclu!ol. viii. 461, 470. S JOllm. Hellen. Studies, xiii (]893ì, 293. 
. Proceedings of the American Acad. of Arts and Sciences, iii. 371. 
. AnnuaÜ-e de la Soc. Franç. de lÚ(lnis?>l. et (l'Archéol. iii.lxxi-lxx\"ii. 6 C. 1. L. iii. 933. 
7 J. Nicole, Textes yrecs inédits de Geni:re, 1909. 
8 In addition to the two collections descrihed in the text, a waxed diptych, recording 
thl' m:mumission of a feml11e slave, A.D, 221, which was found in Egypt and was recently 
in possession of the late Lord Amher"t of Hackney, l\l1s been described by S. de Ricci in 
Proceedings Soc. Bibl, Archaeology, xxvi (1904); and a leaf of a diptych, containing a veteran's 
discharge, A.D. 94, also from Egypt, is noticed in The Year's Work in Classical Studies (Classicnl 
Association), 1911, p. 91. 
9 Afti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, s;>r. ii, vol. iii, pt. 3 1875 6 . PI'. 150-230; Hermes. 
xii (]877), 88-]41; and Overbeck, Pompeii, 4th ed. by Mau (1884), 489 sqq. The whole 
collection has been edited by Zangemeister in the C. I. L. iv, Supplementum (1898). See 
Pal. Soc. i. 159. 



II 


"'AXED L\.BLET:::i 


19 


The recovery of so many !->pecimens of Latin tahlets has atfonle(l 
sufficient means of understanding the mechanical arrangement of such 
documents among the Homans. Like the military tabtdae lwncl'tae 
'lni
siolli8, they contained the deed under seal awl the duplicate copy open 
to inspection. But most of them consi:,;t of three leaves: they are 
triptychs, the third Jeaf being of great sClTice in gi,"ing cover to the 
seals. The Pompei an and Dttcian tablets differ from one another in some 
particuJars; but the general arrangement was as follow:,;. The triptych 
was made from one block of wood, cloven into the three required pieces 
or leaves, which were held together hy strings or wires passing through 
two holes near the edge and sen"ing for hinges. In the Pompeian 
tablets, one side of each leaf (that is. pages :?, 3, and 5) was sunk within 
a frame, the hollowed space heing coated with wax, while the outside of 
the triptych (that is, pages 1 amI 6) was Jt'ft plain. On page 4 a vertical 
groO\oe was cut down the centre to receive the witnesses' seak aIllI the 
surface of the page was generally left plain; but in some instances it 
was waxed on the right, in some on Iloth the right and the left, of the 
groove. On pages 2 and 3 was inscrihed the authentic deed, and the 
first two lea,'es were then hound rounù with a string of three twisted 
threads, which passed along the groove and was held in place by two 
notches cut in the edges of the leaves at top and bottom. The 
witnesses' seals were then sunk in the groove, thus further securing 
the string, and their names were written on the right, either in ink 
or with the stilus. An al,stract or copy of the deed was inscrihed 
on page 5, and was thus left open to inspection. The Dacian 
tablets differed in this respect, that page 4 was also waxed, and that 
the copy of the deed was commenced on that page in the space on 
the left of the groove, the space on the right bping filled, as usual, 
with the witnesses' names. Further, the string was passed, as an 
atlditional security, through two holes, at top and bottom of the 
groO\"e, in accordance with a sellal1.t8 con::>'tdtum of A. D. 61, instead of 
being merely wound round the leaves as in the case of the Pompeian 
tablets. 1 


I The practice of closing the authentic deed and leaving tho copy only open to 
inspection is paralleled by the Babylonian and Assyrian usage of enclosing the tablet 
on which a contract or other deed was inscribed within a casing or shell of clay, on which 
an abstract or copy of the document was also written for public in'pection. A similat. 
usage obtained among the Greeks in Egypt, and by inference, as it may be presumed, in 
Hellas itself. Deeds of the early Ptolemaic period have survived, written on pap)rus in 
duplicate, the upper deed (the original) being rolled up, folded in two, and sealed, the 
lower copy being left open.-O. Rubensohn, Elephantine Papyri (in .A.egypt. U..kundm aus den 
kgl. Musem in Berlin), 1907. In the British lIIuseum papyri Nos. 879,881-8, 1204. 1206-9, 
second and first centuries B.C., the dockets written in the margins have been similarly 
rolled up and sealed. 


c 2 



20 


GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 


The following diagram shows the arrangement of a Dacian triptych: 


1 
Y 
. 
. 
! 
0 b 0 
.3 


Ð e 
.. 
I - + ."" I 
0 


5 


0 0 0 
Copy of dud 
ds 
0 


2 


0 
I "'''' + "9'.' I 
0 0 0 


+ 


o 



 Names 
eop'y of dæd g of "Wìt- 
be91
 '? n
Je.s 


.. .. 
0 
6 
0 ø 
0 


.. 


It will lIe noticed that, although the string which closed the tleed 
{as indicated by dotted lines) passed through the holes of only two of 
the leaves, yet the third leaf (pages;) and 6) is also perforated with 
corresponding holes. Thi
 seems to show that the holes were first 
pierced in the solid block, before it was cloven into thrce, in onler that 
they might afterwards adjust themselves accurately.' In one instance 
the fastening threaùs ancl seals still remain. 2 
In the Pompeian series were found about a dozen diptychs. These 
were waxed only on the inner pages, :! and 3, and no groove was cut for 
the seals, which were thcrefore impresl:5ed ou the flat surface. It is 
interesting to tiud that tablets of this series have dockets ou the edges, 
proving that they were droppctl \'ertically into the l,ox in which they 
were kept. 


I See C. I. L. iii. !J
2. 


2 I1Jid. 938. 



CHAPTER III 


)IATERIALS "l'"SED TO RECEIVE WRITIXG (continued) 


\VE now have to examine the history of the more common writing- 
materials of the ancient world and of the middle a6e.
, viz. papyrus. 
vellum, and paper. 
Papyrus 
The papyrus plant, Cypel'1Ls P(Lpyrus, which supplied the substance 
for the great writing material of the anciE'nt worlll, was wi,lely cu1ti\ ated 
in the Delta of Egypt. From this part of the country it has now 
vanished, but it still grows in X ubia and Abyssinia. ThE'ophrastus, 
Hist. Plallt. iv. 10, states that it also grew in Syria; and Pliny adds 
that it was native to the Kiger and Euphrates. Its Greek name 1Tá1TVPO
, 
whence Latin pa}J!JI'us, was probably deri\"ed from one of its ancient 
Egyptinn names. Herodotus, our most ancient authority for any.letails 
of the purposes for which the plant was employed, always calls it ßVI3Ào'.i 
(also written /3[
Ào
). Theophrastus describes the plant as one which 
grows in the shallows to the height of six feet, with a triangular and 
tapering stem crowne,l with a tufted head: the root striking out at right 
angles to the stem and being of the thickness of a man's wrist. The 
tufted heads were used for gal'lands in the temples of the gods; of the 
wood of the root were made \"arious utensils; and of the stem, the pith 
of which was also used as food, a variety of articles, including writing 
material, were manufactured: caulking yarn, ship",' rigging, light skiff." 
shoes, etc. The cable with which rlJ"sses bound the doors of the hall 
when he slew the suitors was Ó1TÀOV ßVßÀU'Ol' (OdYSli. xxi. 390). 
As a writing material papyrus was employed in Egypt from the 
earliest times. l>apyrus rolls are represented on the sculptured walls of 
Egyptian temples; and roBs themselves exist of immense antiquity. 
A papJTus containing accounts of King Assa, about 3500 B.C., is extant; 1 
another famous roB is the Papyrus Prisse, at Paris, which contains the 
copy of a work composed in the reign of a king of the fifth dynasty and 
is itself of about the year :!500 B.C. or earlier. The dry atmosphere of 
Egypt has been specially fa\"ourable to the preservation of these fragile 
documents. Buried with the dead, they have lain in the tombs or 
swathed in the folds of the lllulllmy-cloths for centuries, untouched by 
decay, and in many instances remain as fresh as on the day when they 
were written. 


I Petrie, Hist. Egypt, i. 81. 



2:.! 


GREEK AXD LATI
 PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


Among the Greeks the papyrus material manufactured for writing 
purposes was called XápT1j!; (Latin duo.ta) as well as hy the names of the 
plant itself. Herodotus, v. 58, refers to the early use of papyrus rolls 
among the Ionian Greeks, to which they attached the name of Òtcþelpm, 
'skim;: the writing material to which they hall hcfore heen accustomf'd. 
Their neighbours, the Assyrians, were also acquainted with it. 1 'rhey 
called it 'the reed of ]
gypt'. There is a recorded instance of papyrus 
being sent from Egypt to Phoenicia in the ele\'enth century n.c. l An 
inscription relating to the expenses of the rebuilding of the Erechtheml1 
at Athens in the )'ear 407 B. c. shows that papyrus was used for the fair 
copy of the rough accounts, which were first inscribed on tablets. Two 
rolls, XápTat òVo, cost at the rate of a drachma and two obols each, or 
a little over a shilling of our 111oney.3 There can hardly be a doubt, 
then, that this writing material was also used in Athens for literary 
purpo<;es as early as the fifth century B. c. 
The period of its first importation into Italy i:,; not known. The 
story of its introduction by Ptolemy, at the suggestion of Aristarchus, is 
of suspicious authenticity.4 But there can be little hesitation in assuming 
that it was employed as the vehicle for Latin literature almost from the 
first. \Ve know that papyrus was plentiful in Home under the Empire, 
and that it had at that period become so il1llispensable that a temporary 
failure of the supply in the reign of Tiberius threatened a general 
interruption of the business of daily life. ó Pliny also, ...Yat. Hit!t. xiii. 11, 
refers to its high social value in the words: 'papyri natura dicetur, cum 
chartae usu maxime humanitas vitae con stet, certe memoria,' and again 
he llescribes it as a thing' qua constat immortalitas hominum'. 
It is probable that papyrus was imported into Italy alreally 
manufactured; for it is douhtful whether the plant grew in that 
country. Strabo, indeed, says that it was found in Lake Trasimene 
and other lakes of Etruria; hut the accuracy of this statement has been 
disputed. Still, it is a fact that there was a manufacture of this writing 
material carried on in Rome, the clUlr[(t FannÙtna being an instance; but 
it has heen asserted that this industry was confined to the remaking uf 
imported material. The more brittle condition of the Latin papyri, as 
compared \"lith the Greek papyri, found at Herculaneum, has been 
ascrihed to the IletrilllPutal effect of this remanufacture. 


I In the A"syri:m wall-sculptures in the British Museum there arc two scenes (nos. 3 
and 84) in which two couples of scribes are rep,'esented taking notes. In each case one of 
the scribes is using a folding tablet :the hinges of one being distinctly represcntell), anù 
the othe,' a scroll. The scroll may be eithe,' papyms 01' leathe,'. 
2 Zeitsc1l.jiir <Ïgypt. Sprache, xxxviii '1900), 1. 
S See above, p. 14. · See below, p. 29. 
5 Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiii. 13 'Sterilitatem sentit hoc quoque, factumque iam Tiberio 
I,,'incipe inopia chartae, ut e senatu darenhu' arbitl"Ï dispensam1is; alias in tumultu 
vita emt'. 



III 


I>APYHrS 



3 


At a later period the Sp'ian nlriety of the plant was grown in Sicily, 
where it was probably introducell during the Arab occupation. It was 
seen there hy the Arab tra,'cller, lbn-Haukal, _\.. D. Di:!-3, in the neigh- 
hourhood of Palermo, where it throve in great luxuriance in the shallows 
of the Papireto, a stream to which it gave its name. Paper was made 
from this source for the use of the Emir; hut in the thirteenth century 
the plant began to fail, and it was finally extinguished by the Ilraining 
of the stream in 15tH. It is :-.till, howe,"er, to be seen growing in the 
neighbourhood of Syracuse, ùut was proùably tnmsplanted thither at 
a later timê, for no mention of it in that place occurs earlier than 16í-!. 
:O;ome attempts ht\\"e been made in recent years to manufacture a writing 
material on the pattern ot.the ancient clwda from this Sicilian plant. 1 
The manufacture of the writing material, as practised in Eg;ypt, is 
described ùy Pliny, X/It. H i.
t. xiii. 1:2. His description applies specially 
to the system of his own day; ùut no douùt it was essentially the same 
as had been followed for centuries. His text is far from clear, amI 
there are consequently many divergences of opinion on diftèrent points. 
The stem of the plant, after removal of the rind, was cut longitudinally 
into thin strips (phil?Ji'ae, 
ci8
1t1'((e) with a sharp cutting instrument 
described as a needle (acuB). The old idea that the strips were peeled oft' 
the inner core of the stem is now abandoned, as it has been shown that 
the plant, like other reeds, contains a cellular pith within the rind, which 
was all used in the manufacture. The central strips were naturally the best, 
being the hroadest. The strips thus cut were laid vertically upon a board, 
side hy side, to the requirell width, thus forming a layer, se/wla, across 
which another layer of shorter strips was laid at right angles.:.! The upper 
surface thus formed became the recto, the under surface the ve1'
O, of the 
finished sheet; and the 1'CCtO received a polish. Pliny applies to the process 
the phraseology of net or basket making. The two layers formell a' net', 
plagula, or ' wicker', ("j'ates, which was thus' woven ',te..âtU1'. In this 
process 
lle water was used for moistening the whole. The special men- 
tion of this particular water has caused some to believe that there Were 
adhesive properties in it which acted as a paste or glue on the material; 
others, more reasonably, have thought that water, whether from the 
:Nile or any other source, solved the glutinous matter in the strips and 
thus caused them to adhere. It seems, however, mon.
 proùable that paste 


I See G. Cosentino, La Carla di Papiro, in Arcltit:io Storico SicIliano, :X. S. 
iv. 134-64. 

 Birt, Antikes Buchlcesen, 229 }ollowed by Tl"aube and others), applies the word scÌlella 
or seida to a strip. But Pliny distinctly uses the word pltilyrae for the strips, although he 
elsewhere describes the inner bark of the lime tree by this Dame; nnù scheda fOl' a layer, 
i.e. a .,heet of strips. .Änothe,' Dame fo,' the strips was inae. Bi,.t with others) aho 
<lescribes the plagllla 01' 
heet ùf pnpynls by the Greek word itEMs, which, however, is 
rather a pnge 0" column of writing. In his more rece,'t work, Die Blll'lt/vll, in tier XU/1St 
(190. , he suggeshjissuTlIP as an /c>lIIelidation of philyru.. 



24 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


was actuallJ- useeJ.1 The sheets were finally hammered and dried in the 
sun. 2 Rough or uneven places were ruhhed down with ivory or a smooth 
shell. 3 
loisture lurking between the layers was to be detected by stroke
 
of the mallet. Spots, stains, and spongy strips (taeniae). in which the ink 
would run, were defects which also had to he encounterel1.4 
The sheets were connected together with paste to form a roll, amI in 
this process recei,'ed the name of KOÀ.À.1íJJ.um; but not more than twenty 
was the prescribed number. There are, however, rolls of more than 
twenty sheets, so that, if Pliny's reading vicinae is correct, the number 
was not constant in all times. 1\1oreover, an author need not be limited 
in the length of his 1 look, and could increase the roll by adding more 
. sheets; but, of course, he would avoid making. it inconveniently bulky. 
A length of papyrus, however, as solll by the stationers, called a ficapu><, 
consisted apparently of twenty KOÀ.À.1íJJ.um, p[({YIIZIfC or t;;C!wlacf' The 
workman who fastened the sheets together was the KOÀ.À.1]ní
 or gZutinatu/'. 
The outside of the roll was naturallJ' that part which was more exposed 
to risk of damage and to general wear and tear. The best sheets were 
therefore reserved for this position, those which lay nearer the centre 
or end of the rolled-up roll not being necessarily so good. Besides, the 
ewl of a roll was not wanted in case of a short text, and might be cut 
away. A protecting strip of papyrus was often pasted along the margin 
at the beginning or end of a roll, in order to give additional strength 
to the material and prevent it tearing." 
The first sheet of a papyrus roll was called the 7rpWTÚKOÀ.À.O
', a term 
which still survi,'es in diplomacy; the last sheet was called the faxuTo- 
KÓÀÀ.WV. Among the Romans the protocol-sheet was inscribed with the 
name of the Comes largitionum, who bad the control of the manufacture, 
and with the date and name of the place where it ,vas made. Such 
certificates, styled 'protocols', were in vogue both in the Roman 
amI Byzantine periods in Egypt. They were in ordinary practice cut 
away; but this curtailment was forbidden in legal documents by the 


I Birt, 231, points out, in regard to PlinJ's wo,'ds, 'tm'Lidus liquOl' ,im glutinis 
praebet,' that' glutinis' is not a genithe but a dative, Pliny ne'er using the word 
, g] uten ., but' glutinuln .. 
2 It appea,'s that afte,' bcing in'cl"ihcd the papY"us ,'cceivcd a second hamme,'ing, if a 
passage in Ulpian, 'liLri perscripti, nondum malleati' (Dig. xxxii. 52. 1) , m"y bear that 
meaning.-Birt, Buchrolle. But this practice would apply only to ,'olls intended for the 
market, which would need a finbhing touch. 
3 lIlartial, xi\. 209 : 
Levis ab aequOl'ca cortex Mareotica concha 
Fiat; inotfen
a currit harundo via. 
· Pliny, Episl. viii. 15 'quae (chartae) si scahmc bilmlaeve 
int', &c. 
5 'VattenIJach, Bucltw. 99; Kenyon, Palaeogr. of Gk. Papyri, 18. 
G "Tilcken, in lIennes, xxiii. 466. See the Ha....is Home,', Bl"It. Mus. p'IPY"us cvii. A 
Ch'cck documcnt of A. D. 209 is similal"ly protected with a st.'ip of vellum.-Royal Pm"si.tU 
Academy, Sitz1tllgsber. 1!J10, p. ílO. 



III 


P APYRn..; 


25 


laws of Justinian.! After their conquest of Egypt in the seventh 
century, the Arahs continued the manufacture of papyrus amI also 
affixed protocols to their rolls. X 0 Roman protocol has hitherto 
come to light. The few extant specimens of the Byzantine period are 
written in a curious, apparently imitative, script formed of rows of 
close-set perpendicular strokes. This script may possibly be an attempt 
of scribeH to copy older, Roman, protocols, the meaning of which had 
been forgotten. The normal protocol of the Arab lwriod consists of 
bilingual inscription,., in Greek and Arabic, accompaniell with sections 
or blocks 01 the above-mentioned imitati'-e script ranged to right and 
left, as if ornaments to fill spaces in the lines. 2 
With regard to the height of papyrus rolls, those which .late from 
the earliest period of Egyptian history are short, of about 6 inches; 
later they increase to 9, 11, and even ahove 15 inches. The height of 
the early Greek pap'p'i of Homer and Hyperitles in the British )luseulll 
runs generally from 
) to l:.! incheH; the papyrus of Bacchylides 
measures under 10 inches. 
From Pliny we learn that there were various qualities of writing 
material made from papyrus and that they ditfered from one another in 
size. It has however Leen found that extant specimens do not tally 
with the figures that he gives; but an ingenious explanation has heen 
proposed,3 that he refers to the breallth not to the height of the in- 
dividual sheets, KOÀ.À.líp.am, which make up the roll. The best kitH1. 
formed from the broadest strips of the plant, wa') originally the clw1'la 
/I iemti.ca, a name which was afterwanls altered to ALI!Justlt out of 
flattery to the Emperor Augustus. The clwrtlt Liâu, or second qualit
., 
was named after his wife. The ltiei'atica thus descended to the third 
rank. The .A'll!Ju
t(t and Liria were 13 digits, or about 9! incheH, wide; 
the ltieratÙa 11 digits or H inches. The cl/w.ta am/J1Útltcatrica, of 
9 digits or 6! inches, took its title from the principal place of its 
manufacture, the amphitheatre of Alexandria. The clao.tt( RtlmiwLa 
was apparently a variety which was remade at Rome, in the workshops 
of a certain F.mnius, from the (l)/llJltitlLCldrlw, the wiLlth heing increased 
by about an inch through pressure. The Baltica was a common variety, 
nalIIed after the city of Sais, being of about 8 digits or 5;} inches. 


1 'Tab"Iliones non "c,'ibant instrumenta in aliis cha,.tis quam in his quae protocolla 
habent, ut tarnen p,"Otûcollum tale sit, quod habeat nomen gloriosis"imi comitis largitionum 
et tempus quo charta facta est.'-Kot"ell. xliv. 2. 
2 Pl"Ofessor von Ka.-abacek has attempted to pro\e that the enigmatic writing contains 
traces of Latin: Sitzungsbericltte of the Vienna Academy, 1908. His vie"", are disputed by 
C. H. Becke,', Zeitsch. fii,' Assyriologie, xx. 97, xxii. 1G6; and by H. I. Bell, ArchiÐ für 
Papyrusforschung, v. 143. Se\eral specimens of Byz.mtine and Al"ab protocol" aI'e in tho 
Britibh Museum. S.e Cat. Gk. Pap. in Brif. Mus. iv; New Pal. Soc. 17.. 
3 Birt, Ant. Bltcllw. 25] sqq. 



26 


GREEK AX]) L-\.TIX PAL-\.EOGRAPHY 


('HAP. 


l"inally, there were the Tac,âotica-which was said to luwe taken its 
name from the place where it was made, a tongue of land (TULl'íu) near 
Alexandria-and the common packing-paper, eltaJta empol'etica, neither 
of which was more than 5 inches wide. :\Iention is made hy Isidore, 
E(/I//IOI. vi. 10, of a quality of papyrus called CO/'/leliana, which was 
first made under C. Cornelius Gallus when prefect of Egypt. But the 
name may have tlisappeared from the vocabulary when Gallus fell into 
llisgrace. l Another kind was manufactured in the rei/:,'11 of Claudius, 
and on that account was named Claudia. It was a made-up material, 
combining the Auyu
tlt and Liâa, to provide a stout substance. Finally, 
therc was a large-sized quality, of a cubit or nearly 18 inches in willth, 
called '1l1acrocolloll. Cicero made use of it (En). od ...-1ttic. xiii. 25: 
xvi. 3). An examination of existing specimens seems to show that the 
KOÀÀ.
fJ.UTa range chiefly he tween Rand 12 inches in willth, the larger 
number being of 10 inches. Of smaller sizes, a certain proportion are 
between 5 and 6 inches. 2 
Yarro, repeated hy Pliny, xiii. 11, makes the extraonlinary statement 
that papyrm; writing material was first made in Alexander's time. He 
may have been misled from having found no reference to its use in 
pre-Alcxandrine authors; or he may have meant to say that its first 
free manufacture was only of that date, as it was previously a govern- 
mcnt monopoly. 
Papyrus continued to be the ordinary writing material in Egypt to 
a comparatively late periOll; 3 it was eventually superseded by the 
excellent paper of the Arabs. In Latin literature it was gradually 
displaced in the early centuries of our era by the growing employment 
of velhun, which, hy the fourtÌl century had practically superseded it. 
]jut it still lingered in Europe under various conditions. Long after 
vellum had become the principal writing material, especially for literary 
purpuses, papyrus continued in use, particularly for ordinary documents, 
such as letters. St. Jerome, Ep. vii, mentions vellum as a material for 
letters, . if papyrus fails'; and St. Augustine, Ep. xv, apologizes for 
usiug vellum instead of papyrus. A fragmentary epistle in Greek, 
sent apparently hy the Emperor, l\lichael II or Theophilus, to Louis Ie 
Débonnaire between 8t4 and 839, is presen-ell at Paris. 4 A few 
fragments of Greek literary papyri written in Europe in the early 
middle ages, containing BiJ,lical matter and portions of Graeco-Latin 
glussaries, ha ,-e also sun-i verI. 


I Bi,.t, Ant. Blleilic. 250. 
2 \'". Schub:lrt, Das Buc" bei den G,.ieclten IlIld Rümel?l. 
" The middle of the tenth centm'y is the period when it ]I:\S heen c:llculated the manu- 
f:lctlll'e of p:lPP'us in Egypt ceased.-Kamb:lcek, Das ambisclt
 Papie,., in Jlit'lteilllllgul (lUS 
de,' Snmmlllllg de. Papynu E,.zherzog Raille.', ii-iii It'8;, 98. 
· H. Omont ill ReI'. .trcltiolvgiqlle, xix (1892', 31'1. 



111 



KISS 


27 


For purely Latin literature papyrus was also occasionally used in the 
\r est during the middle ages. Examples, mmle up in codex fOrIH. some- 
times with a few vellum leaves incorporated to give staLility, are found 
in different libraries of Europe. They are: The Homilies of St. Avitus, 
of the sixth century. at Paris; Sermons ami Epistles of :::;t. AUf.,'11stine, of 
the sixth or se,-enth century, at Paris amI Gene,'a: works of Hilary, of the 

ixth century, at \ïenna; fragments of the Digests, of the sixth century, 
<1t Pommersfeld; the Antiquities of Josephus, of the se' enth century, at 
3lilan; an Isidore, of the sewnth century, lit st. Gall. At 3Iunich. 
also, is the register of the Church of Rawnna, written on this material 
in the tenth century. lIany papyrus tlocul11ents in Latin, tlating from 
the fifth to the tenth century, ha,'e sunivetl from the archives of 
Ra,-enna; and there are extant fraf,'1nents of two imperial rescripts 
written in Egypt, apparently in the fifth century, in the Roman 
chancery hantl which is otherwise unknown. In the papal chancery, 
following the usage of the imperial court of Byzantium, papyrus appears 
to have been employed down to the mithlIe of the eleventh century. 
Twenty-three papal bulls on this material have surviyetl, ranging from 
A. D. fH9 to 10:.!:!.! In France papyrus was in common use in the sixth 
century.2 rmler the :Meroyingian kings it was used for official docu- 
ments: sewral papyrus deeds of their period, tlated from 6:.!:J to 6ï3, 
IJeing still preser'iCtl in the French archiYes. 


Skins 
The skins of lUlimals are of such a duraLle nature that it is no matter 
for surprise to find that they have IJeen appropriate!l as writing material 
hy the ancient nations of the worlei. They were in use among the 
Egyptians as early as the time of Cheops, in the fourth dynasty, 

loeuments written on skins at that period IJeing referred to or copied in 
papyri of later date. 3 Actual specimens of skin rolls from Egypt still 

xist which date back to some 1500 years B. c. But the country which 
not only manufactured but also exported in abundance the writing 
material made from the papyrus plant hardly needed to make use of 
other material. and skin-rolls writtefl in Egypt must, at all times, 
have heen rare. In \r e!'tern Asia the practice of writing on skins was 
douhtless hoth ancient anti widespread. The Jews made use of them 
for their sacretl books, amI, proLaLly also for their other literature; to 
the present day they employ them for their synagogue-rolls. It may be 
presumetl that their neighhours the Phoenicians also availed themselves 
of the same kind of writing material. The Persians inscribetl their 


1 H. Omûnt, Bul/es POlltif. sllr p(ll'ynls, in l;'ibl. École <lES Clwrt(s, Ixv 19(\4" 5';5. 
2 GregOl'Y of Tours, Hist. Franc. v. 5. 
S 'Yilhinson, AILe. Egypt., ed. Birch, ii. 182. 




8 


GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


hi
tory upon skins. I 'Ye can hardly doubt that such material must abo 
have been employed both in Greece and in Rome in ancient time
, before 
the introduction of papyrus; we learn, at all events, that the Ionian 
Greeks wrote on skins, òLCþ8fpat, from the words of HerOtlotus, v. 5
, 
who adds that in his day many foreign nations al
o made use of them. 
The method of preparing skins to setTe as writing material in those 
distant ages is unknown to us, hut, judging from early Hebrew rolls, it 
prohably extended only to a general system of tanning amI a more 
careful treatment of the surface which was to receive the writing. It 
was probably at no time the custom to write on the back as well as on 
the face of a roll. 


Parchment and Vellum 
The introduction of parchment, or vellum as it is now more generally 
termed, that is to say, skins prepared in such a way that they coulll be 
written upon on both side
, caIlnot properly be called an iIlvcntion; it 
wa
 rather an extension of, or improvenlCnt upon, the old practice. 
The common story, as tolll hy Pliny, .Nat. Hist. xiii. 11, on the authority 
of "arro, runs that Eumenes II of Pergamum (197-158 D.C.), wishing to 
extend the library in hi
 capital, was opposed hy the jealousy of the 
Ptolemies, who forbade the export of papyrus, hoping thus to check 
the growth of a ri\-allibrary. The Pergamene king, thus thwarted, was 
forced to fall back again upon skins; amI thus came about the manu- 
facture of vellum: '
lox aemulationc circa LiLliothecas regum Ptolemaei 
et Eumeni
, supprimente chartas Ptolemaeo, idem Yarro membranas. 
Pergami tradit repertas.' 2 Whate\Ter ma.y be the historical value of this 
trallition, at least it points to the fact that Pergamum was the chief 
centre of the vellum trade: the centre, we may conclude, of the reviva
 
of an old trade and improved manufacture. The name òL(þ8ÉpaL, 
membnt1l((e,3 which had been applied to the earlier skins, was extended 
also to the new manufact,urc, which, however, afterwards became known 
as 7fEpyap.1}v
, ChW.tlt Pe1'[}llmena. Thc title Pe1'!Ja'rnenn first occurs in 
the edict of Dioeletian, A. D. 301, de lJ1'ctiis 1"C/'lLllt, vii. 38; next in the 
passage in St. Jerome's epistle, quoted in the footnote. The word 
CTwp.ánov, which afterwards designated a vellum 
I8. as opposed to 


1 Diodurus, Ïi. 33 ÈK TWV ßa(nÀI.K
JV lJuþ8ÉpCJ.JII, Èv atS' 01 nÉpl1at Tà5' 1Ta^atà5' rrpá{EI.'l fix vv 
l1VIITf: Ta 'YpÉvaS'. 
2 St. Jerome, Ep. vii, also refers to the place of its o,'igin: 'Ch:lI-tam defuisse non 
puto, Aeg:ypto minish'ante comme,'cia. Et si alicuLi Ptolemneus maria clausisset, tnmen 
rex Attalus memhl"an3S a Pergamo mise,'at, ut penlll'ia chadae pellibus pensa,'etur. 
Dude et Pcrgamena,'um nomen ad hunc usquo diem, tradente sibi invicem posteritate, 
sorvatum est.' 
3 The Latin membranae was also Graeciæd as J.'fp.ßpállm. being so used in 2 Tim. iv. 13 
P.ál\'OTa Tà
 J.'fJ.'ßpállm, but whether the Apostle refelTl'd to vellum MSS., 01' possibly to 
Heb,'ew texts written on skins prep:lred in the old way, we cannot say. 



HI 


PARCH)[EXl' _\
D YELLU.:\1 


:m 


a papyrus roll, had reference originally to the contents, such a )1::,. 
being capahle of containing an entire work or corpus. l 
The animals whose skins were found appropriate for the new 
manufacture were generally sheep, goats, and cah'es. . Others, such as 
swine and asses. provided material for particular purpuses; and ewn 
rarer creatures, such as antelopes, are said to have been selected for 
more delicate amI costly volumes. It is only rea.'>onable to a<:sume 
that an
- skin of suitable (luality would be brought under manufacture. 
But. in the course of time, a distinction arose between the COJ.rser and 
finer qualities of prepared skins; and, while parchment made from 
ordinary skins of sheep and goats continued to bear the name, the finer 
material produced from the calf or kit!, or even from the newly-born or 
still-born calf or lamb, came to be generally known as vellum. The 
material of the skin manuscripts of the middle ages heing generally of 
the finer kiml, it has come to he the practice to describe them as of 
vellum, although in some instance3 they ma
. be really composed 
of parchment. The modern process of manufacture, washing, liming, 
scraping, stretching, rubbing with chalk and pumice, probahly differs 
but little in principle from the ancient system. 
As to the early use of vellum I1.mong the Greeks and Romans, little 
evidence is to be obtained from the results of excavations. No specimens 
have been recovered at Herculaneum or Pompeii, and very few of early 
.late in Egypt. There can, however, be little doubt that it was imported 
into Rome umler the Republic. The general account of it,> introduction 
thither-c\'idently suggested by Yarro's earlier story of the first use of 
it-is that Ptolemy, at the suggestion of Aristarchus the grammarian, 
h..'tving sent papyrus to Rome, Crates the grammarian, out of rivalr.r, 
induced Attalus of Pergamum to sew I yellum. 2 References to the page8 
of certain municipal deeds seem to imply that the latter werè inscribed 
iu books, that is. in vellum )I
S., not on papp'us rolls. s When Cicero, 
Epp. ad Attic. xiii. 24, uses the word òLcþ8ÉpUL, he also seems to refer to 
vellum. The a(h'antages of the vellum book over the papyrus roll are 
obvious: it was in the more convenient form of the code.r: it could be 
rewritten; and the leaves coultl receive writing on both sides. .:\Iartial 
enumerates, among his Apopllu1'eta, vellum )188. of Homer (xiv. 184), 
Yirgil (186), Cicero (188), Livy (190), and Ovill (192).-1 Yellum tablets 
began to take the place of the tabulae ceratae, as appears in Martial, 
xiv. 7 . Esse puta ceras, licet haec membrana vocetur: Dðlebis, quotiens 


I Bi,.t, Ant. Buehw. 41. 
2 Boissonade, Aneeå. i. 420. 
S Mommsen, Inser. Neapol. 6828; Annali de:Z' Inst. )858', xxx. 19:!; M.uqua,'dt, Prirat- 
leben <ler Rõm..., 796. 
4 Pliny. Xat. Hist. vii. 21, mentions a cul"iosity: 'In nuce inclu,am Iliadem Homeri 
carmen in memb,'ana scriptum tradit Cice,'o.' 



30 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


scripta nO\'are ,'o]es.' The same writer also recommeJ1lls tho convenience 
of vellum to the traveller who desires to carry with him the poet's works 
in a compact form. 1 Quintilian. x. 3. 31, recommends the use of vellum 
for drafts of their compositions by persons of weak sight: the ink on 
vellum was more easily real] than the scratches of the stilus on wax. 2 
Horace refers to it in Sat. ii. 3 'Sic raro scribis ut toto non quater 
anno 1\lembranam pascas'; and in other places. 
From the dearth of classical specimens and from the scanty number 
of early mediae,'al MSS. of secular authors which have come down to us, 
it seems that vellum was not a common writing material under the first 
Roman emperors. There are no records to show its relative value in 
comparison with papyrus: but there may be some reason for the view 
that ,'ellum was in :\1artial's time of comparatively little worth, and was 
chiefly used as a poor material for rough drafts and common work. 3 
Perhaps, too, imperfection of manufacture may have retarded its more 
general introduction. _\. few stray lean's of vellum codices of the first 
centuries of our era have been found in Egypt. A leaf of a :\IS. of 
Demosthenes, Dc f((l
(t leYlltiolle, written in a rough hand of the secollli 
century, is in the British )luseum, Add. l\IS. 3-1473 (XP11J Pal. Soc. 2).4 
On the other hand a leaf from a ::\1S. of Euripilles' ('j'cÜl1u<, now in 
Berlin,5 is written on thin veIìum in a very neat delicate script, and was 
assigned to the first century; but on further consideration it bas now been 
placed in the second century. Other fragments are of the thir,] century. 
Papyrus had been so long the recognized materia] for literary use that 
the slow progress of vellum as its rintl may be partly ascribed to 
natural conservatism and the jealousy of the book trade. It was par- 
ticularly the intluence of the Christian Church that eventually carried 
vellum into the front rank of writing materials anll in the end displaced 
papyrus. 'As papyrus had been the principal material for receiving the 
thoughts of the pagan world, vellum was to be the great medium for 
conveying to mankind the literature of the new religion. 
Independently of the adoption of vellum as a literary vehicle, which 
will be considered when we have to describe the change in the form of 
the ancient book from the roll to the codex, its mere durability recom- 
mended it to an extent that fragile papyrus could in no way pretend 


Qui tecum cupis esse meos ubicumque libellos 
Et comites longae quaeris habere viae, 
Hos eme quos artat brevibus membrana tabellis: 
Sc,'inia cia magni", me manus una capit.-Epigr. i. 3. 
2 So also Martial, xiv. 5 'Languida ne tl"istes obscm'ent lumina cerne, Nigra tibi 
niwum litte.-a pingat ebm". 
S See Birt, Ant. Burlncesen. He has rathe,' overstated his case; and his views have 
not passed without challengp. 
· KenJ on, palaeogr. of Gk. Papyri, 113. 
S Berliner Klassikertexte, v. 2. p. 'i3, Tuf. iv; ScllUba,'t, Papyri Graerae Blrolinenses (1911 ),3001. 



III 


PARCH)IEXT AXD YELLr3[ 


31 


to. \Yhell Constantine required copies of the Rcriptures for his new 
churches, he ordered fifty )I
S, on vellum, ToH'níKovra ITwllánu tV òtcþ6lpm't, 
to be prepared. I And St. Jerome, Ep. cxli, refers to the replacement of 
damaged volumes in the library of Pamphilus at Caesarea by )15S. on 
vellum: 'Quam [bihliothecam] ex parte corruptam Acacius dehinc et 
Euzoius. eiusdem ecclesiae sacerdotes. in membranis instaurare conati sunt.' 
The large number of mediaeval I\I

. that have I'een transmitted 
enahles us to form some opinion on the character and appearance of 
wllum at different periods and in different countries. It may I,l' state,l 
generally that in the most ancient MS:-;. a thin. delicate material may 
usually be looke<<l for. firm and crisp. with a smooth aIlll glossy surface. 
This is generally the character at least of the vellum of the fifth and 
sixth centuries. Later than this period. a,> a rule, it docs not appear to 
ha,'e been so carefully prepared: probably, as the demand increasc,!. 
a greater amount of inferior material came into the market. 2 But the 
manufacture would naturally vary in diffcrent countries. In Irelan<<. 
and England the early 
ISS. are generally on stouter yellum than their 
contemporaries ahroad. In Italy a highly polished surface seems at most 
periods to have been in favour: hence in the )[Ç;S. of that country aIlll 
neighhouring districts, as the South of France. and again in Greece, the 
hard material resisted absorption. and it is often found that hoth ink an,l 
paint have flaked off. In contrast to this are the in!>tances of soft vellum. 
used in England and France and in 
 orthern Europe generally, from 
the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, for MRS. of the better class. 
rterine wllum. taken from the unborn young. or the skins of new-hom 
animals were used for special purposes. A good example of this very 
delicate material is found in .Add. )1S. 2393:J in the British )1useum. 
a volume of no abnormal bulk, but containing in as many as 579 leaws 
a corpus of church senice I.ooks, written in France in the thirteenth aIHI 
fourteenth centuries. In the fifteenth century the Italian vellum of tJle 
Renaissance is often of extreme whiteness and purity. 
YeHum was also of great service in the ornamentation of books. Its 
smooth surfaces showed off colours in all their hrilliancy. 31artial's 
wllulll )1S. of Virgil (xiv. 186) is adorned with the portrait of the author: 
. I psius voltus prima talJella gerit.' Isidore, 0 j'íg. vi. 11. 4, describing 
this material. u
es the words: · Membrana autem aut candida aut lutea 
aut purpurea sunt. Candida naturaliter existunt. Luteum membranum 
IJicolor est, quod a confectore una tingitur parte, id est, crocatur. De 
quo Persius (iii. 10), .. lam liber et positis bicolor membrana capillis".' 


, Eusebius, Jït. Constant. iv. 36. 
2 Instances, in :MSS. uf the seventh and tenth centuries, of wlIum "hich was too thin 
or badl
 prepared, and therefore left blank by the scribes, are noticed in Cat. of Anc. MSS. 
in tile Brit. Museum, pt. ii. 51 ; and in Delisle, Melanges, 101. 



32 


GREEK AND LATIN P ALAEOURAPHY 


CHAP. 


This quotation from Persius refers to the vellum wrapper which the 
Romans were in the habit of attaching to the papyrus roll: tlw cþatvóÀT}'>, 
paen11Za, literally a travelling cloak. A vellum wrapper was more 
suitable than one of papyrus to resist constant handling. It was coloured 
of some brilliant hue, generally scarlet or purple, as in Lucian I : ûopcþl'på 
Ot' lKTOUßf'V 1í Otcþßfpa. Ovid finds a bright colour unsuited to his melan- 
choly book, TITit-:f. i.I. 5 'Nec te purpureo velent vaccinia fuco'. Martial's 
lil)e'Zll
 (viii. 72) is . nomlum murice cultus'; and again he has' the pas- 
sages, iii. 2 'et te purpura delicata velet': and x. 93 'carmina. purpurea 
ged modo culta toga " the tug(/, being another expression for the wrapper. 
In Tilmllus iii. 1. 9, the colour is orange: 'Lutea sed niveum involvat 
meml,rana libellum.' The strip of vellum, fTlÀÀvi
o,> (or fTlrrvß"'>), titulus, 
inde.r:, which was attached to the papyrus roll and was inscribed with 
the title of the work therein contained, was also coloured, as appears 
from the passages in l\Iartial, iii. 2 'Et cocco rubeat superbus index', 
and in Oviù, T1'i
t. i. 1. 7 'nee titulus minio nec cellro charta notetur '. 
'We do not know how soon was introduced the extravagant practice 
of producing sumptuous volumes written in gold or silver upon purple- 
stained vellum. It was a MS. of this description which Julius Capito- 
linus, early in the fourth century, puts into the possession of the 
younger Maximin: 'Cum grammatico daretur, lluaedam parens sua 
libros Homericos onll1es purpureos defIit. aun-is litteris scriptos.' Against 
luxury of this nature St. Jerome ùirected the oftell-Cluotcll words in his 
preface to the Book of Job: . Habeant qui volunt veteres libros vel in 
membranis purpureis auro argentoque descriptos vel uncialibus. ut vulgo 
aiunt, litteris, onera magis exarata quam codices': and again in his Ep. 
xviii, to Eustochium: 'lnficiuntur membranae colore purpureo, aurum 
liquescit in litteras. gemmis codices vestiuntur. et nudus ante fores earum 
[i. e. wealthy ladies] Christus emoritur.' 
The art of staining or dyeing vellum with purple or similar colour 
was practised chiefly in Constantinople, and also in Rome; but .:\ISS. of 
this material, either entirely or in part, see.m to have been produced in 
most of the civilized countries of Europe at least from the sixth century, 
if we may judge from surviving examples which, though not numerous, 
still exist in fair numbers. Of these the best known are: Portion of the 
Book of Genesis, in Greek, in the Imperial Library at Yienna, written in 
silver letters and illustrated with a series of coloured drawings of the 
greatest interest for the history of the art of the period; of the sixth 
century.2 A MS. of the Gospels, in Greek, in sihTer, the bulk of which 
was found, in 1896, at Sarumsahly in Cappaùocia and is now in 
1 nfp
 TWV È1Tt pU18éjJ O'VVÓVTCIJJI, 4.1. 
2 See a facsimile of one of the pages in Pal. Soc. i. 178; and of one of the paintings in 
J,abarte, Hist. des arts inclltstr. clllloIoyen Age (186-1), album ii, pI. 77. Ed. by ,"on Hartel and 
Wickhoff, 189;;. 



III 


PARCH:
IE
T A
D YELLC!! 


33 


:-;t. Petersburg (CoIL S), ana leaves of which have been long preserved 
in the British 
1useUlIl. at Vienna, Rome, and in large numbers at Patmos: 
also of the sixth centurj,.l The Codex Rm;sanensis, discovered at Rossano 
in South Italy, which contains the Gospels in Greek, of the sixth century, 

tlso written in silver amI having a series of drawings illustrative of the 
Life of Christ.:! A portion of the Gospels in Greek, from Sinope, in gohl, 
with drawings, of the sixth or seventh century, now in P,-tris. 3 The Gospels 
of Berat in Albania, containing St. )Iatthew amI St. )Iark, written in 
silver in the sixth century." The Greek Psalter of Zürich, of the seventh 
century, in sih'er letters. J 'rhe famous Codex Argenteus of rpsala, 
containing the Gothic Gospels of rlfilas' translation, of the sixth century.'J , 
The Codex Yeronensis of the ole I Latin nospels (b), wri tten in silver uncials, 
of the fourth or fifth century.' The Latin E,'angeliarium of Vienna, 
originally from Xaples, of the sixth century, in silver letters; a single 
leaf of the MS. heing in Trinity College, Dublin. s The Latin l)salter of 
st. Germain (who died A. D. 576) at Paris, also in silver letters.!! 'fhe 
)[etz E,'angeliarium at Paris J of the same style and period. The Latin 
Gospels of the Hamilton collection, now in the lil'rary of 
lr. .J. Pierpont 
)lorgan. which has lleen assigned to the eighth century.1I) Of later date 
are the .MSS. which were produced in the Carolingian period, when a fresh 
impetus was given to this kiml of ornamental lu'(ury. Such are: The 
Latin Gospels at Paris, said to have he en written for C'harlemllgne by 
Godescalc, in letters of goMY A similar :MS. at Yienna. 12 And lastly 
maj' be mentioned the Latin Psalter in the Douce collection in the Bodleian 
Library, written in golùen Carolingian minuscules and ornamented with 
miniatures. 13 Othpr specimens of purple :MSS. are cited in different 
palaeographical works and catalogues. 14 In imitation of the practice of 
the emperors of the Eastern Empire, imperial and other important 
charters of Germany and Italy were occasionally issued, as duplicates, 
in gold writing on purple ,'ellum. in the tenth to twelfth centuriesY; 


I Ed. H. S, Cronin, 1599. 
2 Edited, with outline tl"Rcings of the drawings, IJY yon Gebhardt and Harnack, 
ErangeliJrum Cod x Graecus pu"]mreus Rossa1le1lsis, 1850; anù in photographic facsimile l.y 
A. Hnseloff, 18!!8; also in colours by A. Munoz, 1907. 
3 Ed. H. Omont, 1901. 4 Ea. Batiffol, 188ß. 
5 Ed. Ti
chendorf, Mon. Sacr. [ned. .Yom Coil. iv. G See Pal. Soc. i. 118. 
7 See the Turin M6nltmental'alatog,aphiC<t sac,,,, pI. ii. 
· Ed. 'fischendorf, 18-!7. A facsimile of the DulJlin leaf is in Par Palimpsest. Dublin. cd. 
.\hbott. 1880. 
" Sih'estn>, Unit). P"laeogr. (English ed. , pI. 110. 
10 Ed. H. C. Boskier, 1910. 
II 'Vestwood, Pal. Sacr. Picl., 'E,'angelistarium of Charlemagne.' 
12 Denkschriften der kais. Akall. der Wis,çel!sch. xiii. 8'>. IS Douce MS. 59. 
14 :-;ee references in 'Vattcnbach. SchriftlO. 13:!; and in Gardthausen, Griech. Pal. i. 10
, 
15 lb. 137. The Egerton Chal.tcr 6:!O, in the British Museum, being a gI'ant from 
1184 D 



34 


GREEK AKD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


The practice of inserting single leaves of purple-stained vellum for the 
ornamentation of 1\188. was not uncommon in the eighth and ninth cen- 
turies. A beautiful example i8 seen in the fragmentary Latin Gospels 
frOlll Canterbury (Brit. l\Ius., Royal 1\18. 1. E. vi), a large folio volume, 
in .which there still remain some leaves dye(l of a rich deep rose colour 
and decorated with ornamental initials and paintings, the remnant of 
a larger numher; of the latter part of the eighth century.I But more 
generally, for such partial decoration, the surface of the vellum was 
coloured, sometimes on only one side of the leaf, or even on only a part 
of it, particularly in 1\188. of French or German origin of the tenth and 
eleventh centuries.
 At the period of the Renaissance there was some 
attempt at reviving this style of 1100k ornamentation, and single leaves 
of stained vellum are occasionally found in .MS8. of the fifteenth century. 
Other colours, besides purple, were also employed; and instances occur 
in M8
. of this late time of leaves painted black to receive gold or 
Hilver writing. Such examples are, however, to be considered merely 
as curiosities. 
A still more sumptuous mode of decoration than even that hy purple- 
staining seems to have been occasionally followed. This consisted in 
gilding the entire surface of the ,-ellum. But the expense must have 
been too great to allow of more than very few leaves being so treated in 
any 1\18., however important. Fragments of two leaves thus gilt, and 
adorned with painted llesigns, are preserved in the British :\1useum, AlIlI. 
1\18.5111. They originally formt'll part of tables of the Euscbian Canons 
and preliminary matter for a copy of the Greek Gospels, of the sixth 
centul-y.3 


Paper 
Paper, manufactured from fibrous substances, appears to ha,'e heen 
known to the Chinese at a most remote period. 4 Its introduction into 
Europe is due to the agency of the Arahs, who are said to have first 
learnt its use at 8amarkand in the middle of the eighth century. Its 
manufacture spread through their empire; amI it received one of it.s 
melIiaeval titles, cltarln DLt111llI5C('/Ia, from the fact of Damascus being' 
one of the centres of paper commerce. A comparatively large numher 


Com'a.l III, King of the Romans, to the ablJeyof Cm'bey in 'V('stphalia, A.D. 1147, is an 
example. 
1 Cat. of Ancient NSS. in the Brit. Nus., pt. ii )884 , 20; 'V('stwootl, Pal. SaCT. Piet., and 
Faes. ofNiniatures and Ornaments of A.-Saxon ancllrislt loISS., pI!. 14, 1ã. 
2 An insbmce of this superficial colouriug occurs in a pnge of the Cotton MS. Vesp. A. 
viii, the foundation charter of Newminster, "ïnchester, A. D. 
GG. The Harley MS. 28:?1, 
written in Germauy in the eleventh centur
', contains many !('a\'es of this kind. 
SCat. Ane. MSS., pt. i (1
81), 21. 
4 Specimens of Chinese palwr found in the ruined citie
 of Eastern Turke!otan date 
IJ,wk to the fourth century. 



III 


PAPER 


3;') 


of early Arahic )IS8. on paper still exist. dating frotH the ninth century; 
the eRrlieRt iR of the year 86ô. 1 
This oriental paper. introduced into the "West at a time when papyrus 
was not yet forgotten, received the same names, clw det and jl((j,yr'ils. It 
waR also known in the middle ages as c/tada úom"ycina, []tJ.

ypina, cttl- 
ittJl(a, DCl11WS{ c nu, and ,/'yli na, aIltI in Greek as (vÌ\oxåpnov or (vÌ\ónvKTol" 
In recent times it has also 1.een generally styled cotton-paper, that is, 
paper made from the wool of the cotton plant. It is usually stout, of 
a yellowish tinge, and with a glosRY surface. This last quality seems to 
ha\ e gained for it one of its titles, (/{ada 
el'i('(J. Imported through 
Greece into Eurupe, it is referred to hy TheophiluR, a writer of the 
twelfth century (Sclwluln dit'eJ'HO'll1n ai'tÏlt/J
 2) as Greek parchment, 
pel'[jetmeua Gmeca; and he adds, 'quae fit ex lana ligni.' But it does 
not appear to IUL\'e Leen used to an
' great extent even in Greece before 
the middle of the thirteenth century, if one may juùge from the Rurvi\'al 
of so few early Greek l\1SS. on that materiaJ.3 
Paper-making in Europe was first established by the :Moors in Spain 
and hy the AralJs in Sicily; and their paper was at first still the Rame 
oriental paper ahove descriùed. In Spain it was called pe'ì'[jaJltcno ele 
jX('ìH!O, cloth parchment, a title which distinguished it from the pC1'U(t- 
menD de Cllel'O, or \-ellum; and it is so described in the laws of Alphonso, 
of 1263. On the expulsion of the 
lOOI'S, an inferior quality was produced 
hy the less skilled ChriRtians. From Sicily the manufacture paRsed over 
into Italy. 
Here we must pause a moment to revert to the llue:-.tion of the 
luaterial of which oriental paper was made. As already stated, its early 
European nallIes point to the general idea that it was made of cotton. 
But recent im"estigations have thrown ùoubts on the accuracy of this 
view; and a careful analysis of many early samples has pro\"ed that, 
although cotton was occasionally used, no paper that has been examined 
is entirely made of that suLstance, in most instances hemp or flax being 
substantially the material." It seems that in the new manufacture the 
Arabs and skilled Persian workmen whom they employed at once 
resorted to flax, which grows abundantly in Khorassan, afterwards also 
making use of rags supplemented, as the trade grew, with allY appro- 
I Sloe facsimiles of seyeral in the Oriental Series of the Palaeographical Soci"ty. 
2 Ed. R. Hendrie, 1817. p. 
8. 
3 The Greek Vatican MS. 
:WO, on orient<\l paper, is of the eighth century :see below, 
Fac
. 52). The earliest 1IISS. of the kind at Mount Sinai <late back to the tenth cen. 
tury; the ohle"t dated MS. in the British l\Iuseum is of A.D. 125:! (see below, Facs. 71); 
that at Paris, of A. D. 1255; and that at :r.lilan, of A. D. 1:?5!J.-Gardthausen, Griech. Pal. i. 11 7. 
. C. 111. Briquet, Recherches sur les Premiers Papiel's du Xð au XIV. Sïcle, in the Mémoires 
de la Soc. Kat. des Anti'luaiH!S de France, tome xh i ; Ilnd a review of the same by C. Paoli, 
Carta di Cotone e Carta cli Lino, in the A.chirio Stùrico Italiano, 18S5, p. 230. Karahacek. Das 
ara
isclte Papier, in ]Iitfheilunyen aus der Sammlun del' Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer, ii-iii. 87. 
D2 



36 


GREEK A
D LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


priate vegetable fibre; and that cotton, if used at all, was used very 
sparingly. An ingenious solution of the question has been recently 
offered, that the term XápT1j
 ßOP.ßVKU'O
, charta úomúy('ina, is nothing 
more than an erroneous reading of XápT1j
 ßap.ßvKlVo
, charta liconliycína, 
that is, paper made in the Syrian town of Baml'yce, Bap.þvK1j, the Arab 

lambidsch.l The question of material is not, however, of any particular 
importance for our present purpose; and it is only the di
tinction which 
has been made between oriental paper and European paper, as being the 
one of cotton and the other of linen rat:" that re1luires it to be noticed. 
A more satisfactory means of distinguishing the two kinds of paper is 
afforded llY the employment of water-marks in European paper, a practice 
which was unknown to the oriental manufacturer. 
Several examples survive of the use of oriental paper, or paper made 
in the oriental fashion, for "Western-European documents and 1\18S. The 
()ldest recorded document was a deed of Count Roger of Sicily of the year 
1102; the most ancient extant ùocument is an order of the Countess 
Adelaide, widow of Roger and regent for her son Roger II, in Greek and 
Arabic, A.D. 1109, now at Palermo.1! At Genoa there are extant letters of 
Greek emperors, of 1188-1202. The oldest known imperial deed on paper 
is a charter of Frederic II to the nuns of Goess, in Styria, of 1228. 3 The 
same emperor, however, forbade, in 1231, the use of paper for public deeds; 
but there are transcripts of imperial acts on paper, of about A.D. 1241, at 

aples. A Visigothic paper MS. of the twelfth century, from Silos, near 
Burgos, is now in the Bihliothèque Kationale of Paris lKouv. Acq. Lat. 
1296) ; 4 a paper notarial register at Genoa dates from 1154; in the British 
l\!useum there is a paper :ì\IS. (Arundel 268), written in ItalJ', of the first 
half of the thirteenth century; awl at l\!unich the autograph )[S. of 
Albert de Beham, 1238-55, is also on the same kind of paper. In se,-eral 
cities and towns of Italy there exist registers on paper dating back to 
the thirteenth century.5 In the Public Record Office there is a letter 
()n paper from Raymond, son of Raymond, Duke of Narbonne and Count 
()f Toulouse, to Henry III of England, 1216-22; and letters addressed 
from Castile to Edward I of England, in 1279 and following years, are 
()n the same material. A register of the hustings court of Lyme Regis, 
now in the British )Iuseul11, which begins with entries of the year 1309, 
is on paper which was probably imported from Spain or Pordeaux, such 
as that employed for the Bordeaux customs register of the beginning of 
the reign of Edwarù II now in the Record Office. 6 


1 Karahacek, Keue Quellen zlIr Papie,.geschichte in )IiltMiltmQen, iv. 117. 
2 G. La l\I'lOtia, 11 primo documenio in carta, 1908; Bibl. Ec. des Gllm les )910), 23R. 
S J. G. Schwandner, Chwta Linea, 1788. 4 Dolisle, Milar/ges, 109. 
5 Cited by Professor P.wli, La Sco,.ia deUa Carta secondo gli ?lI'imi studi, in Kuova Anlologia, 
x.-iii )888),297. 

 See also Rogers, lUst. Agricllli. amI Prices, i. 6H. 



III 


P.APEH 


37 


The earliest reference to the material of paper maùe in Europe appears 
to be that in the tract of Peter, Abbot of Cluny (A.D. 1122-50), .AdL'er.
'us 
I'U(7(/e(/
, cap. 5, in which among the various kinds of books he mentions 
those maùe ex ra8u/'is reter/on j}(lnIW1"n1ìl. I There appears certainly 
to ha'-e been an extensive manufacture in Italy in the first half of the 
thirteenth century. There is evidence of a paper trade at Genoa as early 
as 1235. 2 At Fabriano, in the l1larquisate of .Ancona, the industry was 
established before the year 1276, and probably much earlier. The 
jurist Bartolo, in his treatise De illsi[Jniis et w'lnis, mentions the excel- 
lent paper made there in the fourteenth century. Other centres of early 
manufacture were Colle, Florence, Bologna, Parma, )Iilan, Padua, Tre,'i
o, 
Yen ice, Pignerol, and Casella in Piedmont, and other places. From the 
northern towns of Italy a trade was carried on with Germany, where 
also factories were rapilUy foul1l1ed in the fourteenth century. France 
borrowed the art of paper-making from Spain. whence it was introduced. 
it i:-. sail1, as early as l1S9, into the Úistrict of Hérault. The North of 
Europe, at first supplied from the South. gradually took up the manu- 
facture. England drew her supplies. no doubt, at first from such tracling 
ports as Bordeaux and Genoa: hut e\'en in the fourteenth century it is 
not improbable that she had a rough home-manufacture of her own. 
although it appears that the fÍl'st Engli
h mill was set up in Hertford by 
John Tate not earlier than the second half of the fifteenth century.3 
Paper was in fairly general u
e throughout Europe in the second 
half of the fourteenth century; at that time it began to rival vellum as 
a material for books; in the course of the fifteenth century it gradually 
supersf'ded it. :m.;s. of this later period are sometimes composed of Loth 
vellum and p<tper, a sheet of ,'ellum forming the outer, or outer anù 
inmost, leayt
s of a quire, the rest being of paper: a revival of the old 
practice observed in certain papyrus 1,00ks in which vellum lea\'es 
protected and gave support to the lea,'es of pa.pyrus. 
A knowledge of the appearance of paper amI of water-marks of 
different periods is of great as
istance in assigning dates to undated 
paper MSS. In the fourteenth century European paper is usually 
stout, and was made in frames composed of thick wires which ha\'e left 


1 'Quales quotidie in usu legendi habemus, utique ex pellura arietum, hircorum, ,el 
,itulorull1, s:ye ex IJiblis yel iuncis oriel1taliull1 pnludum, aut ex rasuris yeteruUl pan- 
norum, seu ex qualibet alia forte viliore materia compact.os.' 
2 Briquet, Papie.s et Filigralles des Anliires de Genes, 1888, p. 3G. 
· In Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI, IV. yii, Jllck eade charges Lord Say with the crime of 
building a paper-mill. Blotting-paper was in use in England in the fifteenth century; it is 
mentioned by 'ViIliam Horman, in his Vulgaria, 1519, p. 80 b, as sen-ing 'to dr) e weete 
wr)t.tynge '. It is remarkable how persistent has been the use of sand as an ink absorbent, 
e\"en down to the present day in foreign countries. In England, too, in spite of the more 
convenient blotting-pape,', it prevailed within present memory. A
 late as the) ear 1838 
sand was used to dry writing in the Reading-rooll1 of the British :r.IuseullI. 



38 


GREEK AND LATIX PAL_-\EOGRAI'HY 


strongly defined impressions. In the next century the texture hecomes 
finer. The earliest known water-mark, the age of which can he approxi- 
mately fixed, is one on a paper of Bologna, used in the year 1285; awl 
there are many others, from that and other Italian towns, which fall 
within the thirteenth century.] At first the marks are simple, and heing 
impressed from thick wires are well defined. In process of time they 
become finer and more elaborate, and, particularly in Italian paper, they 
are enclosed within circles. Their variety is almost endless: animals, 
heads, hirth, fishes, tlowers, fruits, domestic and warlike implements, 
letters, armorial bearings, and other devices are used; some heing peculiar 
to a country or district, others apparently becoming favourites and lasting 
for comparatively long perio(ls, but constantly changing in details. For 
example, the glove, a common mark of the sixteenth century developes 
a number of small modifications in its progress; and of the pot or 
tankard, which runs through the latter part of the sixteenth century 
and the early part of the seventeenth century, there is an extraonlinary 
number of different varieties. The names of makers were inserted as 
water-marks quite at the beginning of the fourteenth century; but this 
practice was very soon abandoned, and was not revived until the sixteenth 
century. The insertion of the name of place of manufacture and of the 
date of manufacture is a modern usage. 


1 Spe C. 
1. Briquet, Les Filigrane
 : Diction/wire llistorique des marques du Papier, If/Oj: 
.1 most exhaustive amI valnalJle work on the subject. 



CHAPTER IY 


WRITIXG D1PLE)IEXTS, ETC. 


The Stilus, Pen, etc. 
OF writing implements the ITTvAo!ì, ypacþe'iOl', ypacþís, ypacþ{òLOv, 
tilus, 
[I,'{/plli'lol1, made of iron, bronze, or other metal, iyory, or bone, was 
alhlpted for writing on waxed tablets, the letters heing scratched with 
the sharp point. The butt-end was fashioned into a knoù or fiat head, 
wherewith the writing could be obliterated by smoothing the wax, for 
correction or erasure: hence the phrm,e 'l'edae 
ti[1lm,l · to correct.' 
.Among the Roman antilluities founù in Britain, now deposited in the 
British )1useum, there are seyeral specimens of the Rtilus. in i\'ory, 
lJronze, etc. 2 :Many of them are furnished with a sharp projection, at 
right angles to the shaft, near the head, for the purpose of ruling lines 
on the wax. The passage in Ovid, Jlelam. ix. 521, thus describes the 
action of the writer:- 
Dextra tenet ferrum, vacuam tenet altera ceram. 
Incipit, et duLitat, scribit damnatque talJellas, 
Et notat et delet, mutat, culpahlue probatque. 
Here the stilus is simply fUl'Iun. In another place, Antu/'. i. n. 23, 
U\-id gives it,> title of [J/'apltimn: 'f2uid digitos opus est graphio lassare 
tenendo 1 ' 
This riddle on the stilus also occurs:- 
De summo planus, sed non ego planus in imo. 
Yersor utrimque manu; diyersa et munera fungor: 
Altera pars revocat tlui(hlUid pars altera fecit. 3 
The case in which such implements were kept was the ypacþL061íK11, 
!JIYlpldarium; as in :\1artial, xi\'. 21 'annata suo graphiaria ferro '. 
For writing on papyrus the reed, KáAaIlO!ì, Oóvaç, ypacþf1) 0;, ITxo'iVO!ì, 
((([amus, canal/. was in use. 4 The Egyptians employed the reed, frayecl 
at the end in fashion of a paint-brush; and the Greeks in Egypt no 
douùt imitate.] that method in the earliest times, adopting the pen-shaped 
reed perhaps in the third century H.C. s Suitable reeds came chiefly from 


1 Horace, Sat. i. 10. ,2 'Saepe stilum vertas'; Vulgate, 4 Reg. xxii. 13 'Et delebo 
Itc"rusalem sicut deled solent tabul..e; et deleno; vertam et dncam crebrins stilum super 
faciem eins'. 
2 See British Museum Guide to G"eek and Roman Life, 185, 186. 
S Riese, Anthol. Lat. i, no. 286. 
· Plin), Kat. Hist. x\ i. 86 'Charti:squ" :seniunt calami '. 
a See Schubart., Das Bueh bei den GriecMn und Rümern. Some !>pecimen!> of ancient reeds 
cut like a pen ,Ausonius, 'fissipes calamu
" are in the British :Museum. 



40 


GREEK AXD LATIX P ALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


Egypt, as referred to by Martial, xi,'. 3R 'Dat chartis habiles calamos 
Memphitica tellus': or from Cnidus, as in Ausonius, Ep. ,.ii 'Nec iam 
fissipedis per calami vias Grassetur Cnidiae sulcus arUllllinis '. The case 
in which reeds were kept was the KUÀup.OOlíK11, KaÀap.í
, C(ll(OjWì'Í'l
m, tlteca 
('ulam{(1'ia; as in :\[artial, xiv. 19 '
ortitu
 thecam, calamis tu"mare 
memento '. In Dioc1etiaIÚ eùict, De JH'etiit; /'e1'um 'I.'eJ/(di'lWi, the reed- 
case appears as made of leather. 
Reeds seem to have continued in use to some extent through the 
middle ages. In Italy they appear to ha,'e survived into the fifteenth 
century.1 
A score of Roman bronze pens, shaped like our ordinary quill-pens, 
are in existence in various museums of Europe or in private hand!-.. 
Three are in the British Museum: one, found in the Tiber, has not a slit 
in the nib as most specimens ha,-e, lmt a groove; the second is of a very 
unusual form, having a rather short tube or barrel with a slit nib at 
each end (another example of the same type is at _\.osta in Italy); the 
third, which was found in Lomlon, has a stumpy slit nib. Two broken 
specimens, which have lost their nibs. are also in the British )1useum. 
A bone pen, shaped in the same manner, is figured in the Bulletin de 
COJ'l'espondance HelltFlI.iq'llC (of the French 
chool at Athens), xii. 60. 
The KovõíÀLOV, penic'ld'lls, penicilllls, was the hrush with which writing" 
in gold was applie(l.2 
The quill-pen, pennet, is first mentioned by an anonymous historian 
who tells us that, in order to enable the unlettered O
trogoth Theodoric 
to write, he was provided with a stencil plate, through which he drew 
with a pen the strokes forming the four letters of the subscription Leyi: 
, ut, posita lamina super chartam, per eam penna duceret et subscriptio 
eius tantum videretur.' 3 Isidore, Ol'i!!. ,-i. 13, describes the pen thus: 
, Instrumenta sunt scribendi calamus et penna. Ex his enim verba paginis 
infiguntur; sed calamus arboris est, penna avis, cuius acumen dividitur 
in duo, in toto corpore unitate sen-ata.' But, although no earlier mention 
of the quill-pen than these has IJeen found, it can scarcely IJe supposed 
that, as soon as vellum came into general use, so obviously convenient 
an implement, always ready to hand, could have been long overlooked, 
particularly in places where reeds of a kind suitable for writing could not 
l,e had:' The hard surface of the new material could bear the fiexibll' 


I For detailed information see 'Vattenbaeh, Scll1"ijlw. ISG. 
1 Theophilus, De dirersis artibus, iii. fiG, mentions the ret'd for this l)l\rpose: 'Atqlle 
rogo pariter, ealamo cum eeperit aurum, Ilium conuno\"eat, pulchre si scribere quaerit.' 
S In the Exce1pta printed at the end of (;rono\ ius's edition of Anunianus !>Iareellinus, 
1(;93. )'. 512. 
· Rich, Diet. Antiq., 
. v. ' Penna " reprt'sents Victury, Loth in Trajan's colulUIl and in 
the column of !>Iarcus Aurelius. liS inscribing the emperors' suecesßes on a shield with 
:1 pen. But in Loth instances the)mr.lement appears to IJe a s'ilt,s and not a quill-pen. 



IY 


\yRITIXG DIPLE)IEXTS, ETC. 


41 


pressure of the pen which in heavy strokes might have prm"ed too much 
for the more fragile papyrus. 


Inks, etc. 
Black ink, the ordinary writing fluid of centuries, p.tÀa
', or more 
exactly ypacþLKòv p.iÀm', p.EÀáI'WV, atm mentum, or atrament'l.WL l ibrw'ium 
to distinguish it from 1,lackiug used for other purposes, later ;YKav(J"To
', 
f'lic!/'lU:<tum, iilcaut:tu,lII, differs in tint at \-arious periods and in different 
countries. In Greek papyri of the earlier periods it is of good quality 
and often of a strong black; in the B
'zantine period it deteriorates. In 
early codices it is either pure black or slightly 1,rown; in the middle 
ages it varies a good deal according to age and localit
". In Italy and 

outhern Europe it is generally l.lacker than in the Xorth, in France 
and :Flanders it is generally darker than in England; a Spanish )18. of 
the fourteenth or fifteenth century may usually be recognized by the 
peculiar blackness of the ink. Deterioration is ol.servable in the coursc 
of time. The ink of the fifteenth century particularly is often of 
a faderl, grey colour. 
The ancients used the li(lUid of the cuttle-fbh, as in the lines of 
Persius, iii. 12:- 
Tunc llueritur crassus calamo quod pendeat humor, 
Xigra quod infusa vanescat sepia lympha, 
Dilutas queritur geminet quod fistula guttas. 


Pliny, Xat. lIi
t. XJ,.X\". 6, mentions soot and gum as the ingredients of 
writing ink. Other later authors alld gall-apples. l )IetaIIic infusions 
seem also to ha\'c heen used at an early period. In the mi(1Il1e ages 
vitriol was an ordinary ingredient. Theophilus, De diæ1'
i8 artib' l 8, gi\"es 
a recipe (i. 40) for the manufacture of ink from thorn wood boiled down 
and mingled with wine amI vitriul. 
Red, either in the form of a pigment 01' fluid ink, i
 of "'ery ancient 
and common use. It is seen in the early Egyptian papyri; and it 
appears in the earliest extant \"cllum )1:-;:-;., either in titles or the 
first lines of columns or chapters. The Greek term was p.EÀávwv KÓK- 
KU'OV; Latin 'minium, rubriC((. A volume written entirely in red ink, 
of the ninth or tenth century, is in the British )luseum. Harley )lS. 
2793; and red ink is not infrequentlJ" u!:.ed for sections of the texts of 
mediae\"a! volumes. The purple ink, KLl-'vápapL
, WC1'U1n illcaHt:tll1". 
reserved at Byzantium for the exclusive use of the emperors, seems to 
have been originally of a distinct kind. Later the same term, KLV
.áßapL
, 
appears as a s
'nonymous term with Illinium. Inks of other colours are 


1 
Inrti:mu,., Capella, iii. 22:). 



42 


CREEK A
D L\.TI
 PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


also found in )1::-.8. of the middle ages: green, yellow, and others, 
hut generally only for ornamental purposes. although volumes written 
entirely in such coloured inks are still extant. 
The ink-pot, /-lfÀal'ÒÓXov, /-lfÀavòóX1J, /-lfÀa
'òoXEÎOl', at'ì'Ctmentm'Í1on, used 
hy the ancients, was generally, as appears from sunoiving examples. 
a small cylindrical jar or metal box. the cover often pierced with a hole 
to admit the insertion of the reed. l In paintings on the walls of Pompeii 
(louble ink-pots. with hinge(l covers. are depicted. the two receptacles 
being" probably for l)lack and red ink. 2 Throughout the middle agps the 
ink-horn was in common use. 
Gold wa" used as a writing tluid at a very early period. In a papyrus 
at Leyden, of the third or fourth century, there is a recipe for its manu- 
facture. 3 Something has already been said on its use in conncxion with 
purple-stained ,'ellulll. Ordinary white vellum )18:-;. were also written 
in gold. particularly in the ninth and tenth centuries. in the reigns of the 
Carolingi.Ul monarchs. In most of the large national libraries examples 
are to be foullll.4 The practice' passed from the Continent to England, 
and was followed to some consideral,le extent in this country. not only 
for partial decoration, but also for entire texts. A 
l
. was written ill 
gold, on purple vellum. by ol'ller of Wilfrid of York, late in the se,'enth 
century, for the monastery of Ripon; but the way in which this ,'olume 
is referred to, 'Inauditum ante seculis nosb'is (lUoddmll miraculum,' 
proves that such sumptuous )IS
o were not known in England before 
that time. St. Boniface, writing in A. D. 735 to Eadburg. Al.be,,:; of 
:-;t. )lildrcll's, Thanet, asks her to get transcril'ed for him in gold the 
Epistles of t;t. Peter. 5 But the existing English examples are of later 
.late. G Gold writing as a practice died out in the thirteenth century. 
although a few isolated instances of later date are found. 
Writing in silver appears to have ceased contemporaneously with the 
disuse of stained vellum. This metal woul.1 not show to advantage on 
a white ground. 


t B.-it. Mus. Guide Gk. (lml ROil!. Life, fig. H)(j. 
e .11 lIseO BOI'bonico, i, 1'1. I
. 
:; Leemans, Papyri Gmeci Mils. Lugc/. Bat.. ii (lSS;)" :?18. 
· Such 11188. in ti,e British IIlu
eum lire H.trl. :lIS. :?7SS, the' Co,lex Am'eus', a copy 
of the GospeI
. in uncialletter,-;, of the ninth century; Harl. IllS. 
ï!Jï, also a copy of the 
Go
pel" in minuscule wliting, late in the ninth century, from the monastery of St. Gene- 
,"iève, Paris. The Cottoni:m IllS., 'l"iberius A. ii, which was sent as a present to King 
.'Ethelstan by the Emperor Otho, also contains some leaves written in gold. 
" . Sic et adhuc deprecor . . . ut mihi cum auro conscril.as epistolas domini mei 
8ancti Petri apostoli, ad honorem et reverentiam s:mctarum scripturarum ante oculos 
earnalium in praedicando, et quia dicta eius 'lui me in hoc iter direxit nUL"\:ime semper in 
prae,entia cupmm habere.'-Jaffë, Munmnenta Mogl/ntina, iii. 9
. 
6 The foundation ('harter of Xewminster, 'Vinehester, grautetllJY King Edg..r in 966, 
in rotton. 31S. Ves}). Â. viii, is written in gold. The Benetlidiona} of .Ethe1wohl. Bishop 
of 'Yin('he
ter, A. D. 
1(.:
-84, also f'Ontaills a page in gold. 



IV 


\rRITIXG D[PLE)IEXT::;, ETC. 


43 


Various Implements 
For ruling papP'i, a circular plate of lead, KVKÀOUp

 ,.,.ó^tßo
, yvpò.. 
f/-ó^,,:Jòo.., TpOXÓH" p..óÀ,j3òos, TpoxaÀò.. p..ó^'ßòo
, KVKÀOf.lÓÀtf:JÒO
, was usetl. 
Ink was remo\'ed with the Rponge. Papyrus would scarcely bear 
!'crapin
 with the knife. If the ink was still wet, or lately applied, it!) 
remo\"al wa<; of course casy. ::\Iartial, iv. 10, sends a sponge with his 
newly-written book of poems, which might thus be wiped out at 
a single stroke. I Augustus effaced his half-completed tragedy of Ajax, 
with the remark: . Aiacem suum in spongiam incuhuisse.' 2 With 
\'e11um )I
S. the knife or eraser, ?'W"Ol'Ïlt?n or IWL'ac'ula, came into use. 
While wet the ink could still be sponged away; lJUt when it was hard 
and tlry, and for erasure of single letters amI words without obliterating 
abo the surrounding text, it was scraped oft: 
The penknife wa
 the Uf/-LÀ1}, yÀvcþm'ov, yÀv7Tníp, or yÀVcþL
, scalpl'llm 
I ilml1'i lt1l1, the mediae,'al scalpel/urn, cllltellltl', or ul'lal'lts; the ruler 
was the KUI'Wl', ca,WIt, norma, ?'eg1t!u, lineltl"ium; the pricker, whether 
a compass or other tool, for marking with prick-holes the intenals of 
the ruled lines was òta,:3án).., ci?'cin1tl:', or pUllclo;'ium: the implement 
for ruling the lines was the 7Tapáypacþo
, jJNeductale; and lastly, the 
office of the modern pencil was performed by the pointed piece of lead, 
the plummet, p..ó^t.'põo
, plmnbmn, stib.!1; pltonbe1I 1:', or pl1l1nlJlon 81tb 
(/l't/Illiine fiXUIIl. 3 


Dum no\'us est rasa Ilec adhuc mihi fronte libelIus, 
Pmdna dum tangi non bene sicca timet, 
I. puer. et caro perfer le\'e munus amico, 
t,!ui meruit Ilugas primus habere meRS. 
Cune, sed instructus: comitf>tur PunicR librum 
!o'pongia; muneribus convenit ilia meis. 
:Kon possunt nostros muItae, Faustine, liturae 
Emendare iocos; una litura potf>st. 

 :-.uetonius, Aug. 85. 
S \Yattenbach, SeMiflre. 
32. The various implements are mostly referred to in the 
Anlho'ogia Palatilla; see \Yattenbach, 01'. cit.. 203; R. Ellis, Comm. on Catullus. They are 
frequently depicted in the miniatures of illuminated :l!SS., particularly in tho
e repre- 
"tenting the author or 
l"ribe at work. Beis.el, Vatieallisehe 1úiniaturen I.lS
3), pI. xi, 
taken from a Greel )1:;. of the Gospels, shows one of the Evangelists with his table 
<coverell with all kinds of \uiting implements. In pl. xii of Codex pl/rptlr. Rossanensis (sixth 
eenturyì, ed. H.\seloff, 1
9S, an ink-pot and writing reeùs are arrangtell upon the taUe in 
front of Pilate's ju.h:ell1' nt-'-"at. 



CHAPTER V 


FORMS OF BOOKS, ETC. 


The Roll 


THE form of the hook of the ancient Greek and Roman world was 
the roll, composed of one continuous length of material. commonly 
papyrus, amI inscribelÌ only on one side. The roll hacl already had 
a career of thousands of years in Egypt before the dawn of Greek and 
Roman literature. For Greek literature it was probably at once adopted. 
Actual examples of early Greek papyrus rolls are in existence, dating- 
from the fourth century B. c. In letters Home followed the example of 
Greece. and adopted the roll. And in both Greek and Roman literature 
the roll was the constant form of the book down to the opening centuries 
of the Christian era; heing not entirely superseded by the incoming 
codex until the fourth century. 
Among the Ureeks the ordinary terms for a written book (that is, 
a roll) were /3í./3Ào') (another form of ßv{lÀo
', papyrus) amI its diminuti,'e 
ßt/3Aío
..I The correspomling I_atin terms were libel' and its diminutive 
libell1

. The latter, as a literary title, specialJ,y referred to a book of 
poems, a sense in whieh it i:::; con:::;tantly used by the Roman poets. 2 
It came at length to be used as an ec!ui, alent of libu and to express 
a book in general. 
The roll, rolled-up, was a rolmnen. The Greeks do not appear to 
have had any parallel expression at an early date; the word KVÀWOPO') 
being comparatively Jate. Another term was iVfí.À1j(.lU or itfí.À1}(.lU; more 
rare were flÀ1}Tápw
', fÏÀ1}TOV. A mediaeval Latin term is I'OlulliS. 
A roll of un inscribed material was XáPTJ},), dW1'ÜI, a term easily 
transferred to a written book. 3 Agnin, a Greek term was TÓ(.lO,) (origin- 
alJya cutting of papyrus), applicahle to a roll containing a portion or 
diyision of a large work which extended to more than one 1'011. 4 
Neither this term nor /3tßÀí.ov, nor libe1' nor libell1.l
, could be applied in 
the singular number to more than a single roll or \-olume. A work 
consisting of man,y ,'olumes, or several divisions, must be described by 


I ß,ßÀíOll also meant a letter, and is used in tbis Seme ùy Herodotus. Suidas in IIi" 
Lexicon explains ß,ßÀíOll as Èrr,uToÀ-q. A later term fOl' a book wa
 ß,ßÀnpIOII. 
2 . Quoi do no lephlulU novum libelIum.'-C..tullus, i. 1. 
3 'Omne aevum tribus explicare cbartis.'-Catullus, i. G. 
4 The third roll of Aristotle's COllstitutionoj A/hells (Brit. l\Ius. 
 is marked r. TO MOC 



THE ROLL 


4;) 


the plural forms ßtßÀí.u, TÓp.oL, I ilJ1'i, etc. Un the other hand, the se,-eral 
hooks of a work, if written on one roll, counted only for one l
t,:JAí.ol' or 
liber. Thus "Clpian, Digest. xxxii. 52, lays down: . 8i cui centum libri 
sint legati, centum yolumina ei dabimus, non centum (luae quis ingenio 
suo metitus est. . . ut puta, cum haberet Homerum totum in uno 
yolumine, non quaJraginta octo lil,ros computamus, sed unum Homeri 
volumen pro lihro accipiendum est.' To distinguish a work containell 
in the compass of a single roll. there was also the title /LovóßtßAo<; or 
/L ov6 ßtðÀov. 1 
For subdivisions such terms as ÀÓyo<;, CTÚYYPO/L/Lu, CTvvraY/Lu also 
were used. 
The word Tâxo" too, appears to ha,-e mCiUlt a single roll; l.ut it was 
also employed in the sense of a literary work in several ,"olumes. At 
first it seems to ha,-e heen applied to the chest or ,-essel in which the 
se'"eral rolls of such work were kept, and came in course of time to refer 
to the contents. 2 Xenophon, A /lab. ,-ii. 6. 14-, mentions books iI. tI'À[VOL<; 
HVXflTt. In like manner the terms jJlI nrledC8 and bibliotlteca, originally 
referring to a work in 
e'-eral rolls kept together in their chest, were 
afterwards used :-;pecially to mean a 31S. of the entire Bible. 3 RiU iotl/era 
continued to l'ear this meaning down to the close of the fourteenth 
century, if not later. 4 
There can be no doubt that the convenience of subdi,"iding the 
lengthy works of authors into rolls of moderate size must 111\,-e l'een 
appreciated in the earliest period of the publication of Greek literature. 
Of course in writing out the text of a work the scribe might go on 
adding any number of fresh KoAÀlí/LUTU or sheets to the nurmal roll, thus 
extemling it to an indefinite length. But pro,-erbially a great book was 
a great eyil; and the inconvenience of hm'ing to unroll a llUlky ,-olume, 
not only for the purpose of perusing it, but also ewn for verifying 
a reference, wouM have prm"ed too exasperating. At the other extreme, 
a roll might l.e of the most slender proportions, in fact no stouter than 
a rolling-stick. 5 .\lthough the authors themseh-e
 may not originally 
have di,-ided their writings into separate portions to suit the ordinary 
length of a convenientl
--sized roll, yet the practice of the scribe would 
e,-entually react on the author. Thus we find the works of Homer 


1 The first book of Propertius "as known to }Iartial as 'monobiblos Properti'; and 
the title sunives in the :!IIS:S.-ElIis, Comm. on Catullus 118
9 , 4. 
2 Birt, Ant. BuchiO. 89. 
3 B,bliot1u:ca was used in this sense by St. Jerome. Othel's, as C'b-iodol"ll<, 13l,d(', 
.\lcnin, preferred Pamlectes. 
· 
ee examples in 'V.\ttenbach, Schriftw. 152-;. 
5 Martial, ii. 6 :-- 


Qnid pl"Ode<;t mihi tam macer libelIus, 
Nullo crassior ut sit umhilico? 



46 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOUR
\PHY 


CHAP. 


divided into books of a length which could he containefl in an ordinary 
roll; aUll we know that in course of time authors did regularly a(lapt 
the divisions of their works to the customal'
o length of the ßLßÀía an(1 

'ul1.t1ìlill((. From twenty to thirty feet was prollably the normal full 
length of a roll, the higher limit heing rarely. if enr, exceeded. 1 
As only one side, the inner side, of the roll was u1';e(1 to recei,"e the 
text, that surface was the more carefully prepared. It was the 1"PctO 
!òide of the material, in which the fibres of the papyrus lay horizontally, 
and parallel to the length of the roll, so that the pen would run the more 
smoothly; moreonr, the joints of the senral sheets composing the roll 
were carefully flattened, in order that they too might cause no obstruction 
to the writer. 
The text was written in columns, C1Ûl.íõH, jJugi'/Ille, sufficient margins 
being left at head and foot; amI it was a practice to lea '"e blank the 
beginning of the roll, that portion being most liable to wear through 
handling. The term lTfÀí" (originally the gangway between the rowing 
IJenches of a ship) was first applied to the space between two 
columns, and then to the column itself. 2 Other terms were the dimi- 
nuti,"e CTfÀiõwv anù ,wTat:Jaróv. The lines of writing (CTríxoL, ,.enm) ran 
parallel with the length of the roll;:i amI lead, we are told, was used 
for drawing the ruled lines. Such ruling, howenr, was certainly not 
always, and perhaps not generally, employed, for the horizontal fibre of 
the papyrus itself was a sufficient guide for the lines of writing; amI the 
fact that the marginal line of the columns fre(luently trends away cut 
of the perpendicular prons that in such instances there were no ruled 
lines to bound the columns laterally. There was no regulation for the 
breadth of the columns: this was a matter left to the taste of the 
scribe; and consequently it is found to '-ar,r considerably. But they 
were generally narrow in texts written for the market l,y skilled scril.es. 
In literarjO papyri of good quality the columns an' from two to three 
and a half inches in breadth." Those in the papyrus of Hyperides, ill 
P1Úlip,ddWt (Brit. 3Ius., Pap. ] 84.), of the first century B. C., measure 
only an inch and three-lluarters. Occasionally we tinll the letters made 
smaller at the enll of a line in 01"l1er to accollllllodate words to the restricted 
I<pace. An example of writing in broad columns is seen in the papyrus 
of Aristotle on the Constitution of Athens: but thi
 was written fur 
private use and not for sale. And, again, the columns of the earliest 


1 Kenyon, Palaeogl'. of Greek Papyri. 17. 
2 In the Aphrodito papyri (Brit. Mus. Cat. Gk. PaPYI'i, i.", no. U
O, etc.) the word fAIS, 
meaning a page, oecurs. It seems to be a cOlTuption of (1fAís. 
3 Before the time of Julius Cae
ar official dispatches apI''''''" to have been \uitt"n 
. trans\-ersa charta', that is. with the lines parallel with the height of the roll. He wrote 
in the book style. the lines parallel with the Ic.ngth of th" roll. Suetonius, Jul. Caes. 5(;. 
· KenFÆ, Palaeogl". clGk. Pal'Yli, 
:::!. 



'" 


THE ROLL 


47 


Greek literary papyrus in existence, the PeI"l5UC of Timotheus, of the 
fourth century 11.C., are ,-ery hroall; but perhaps at that remote period 
com-entional rules in such details hatlnot l,een e
tal,lished. 
If the title of the work was gi,-en, it was ordinarily entered at the 
end of the text: hut. as this was oh,-iously an inconH'nipnt practice, it 
was sumetimes written at the hew1. It set:'ms also that it was in some 
instances inscrihed on the outside of the roll (f.õÍypapp,a). But nu doul.t 
the realler relied chiefly on the pendent ticket, the aÐI.ÀL't30
 or cr[TTVßO
, 
the titlll1u; or inde.,', descrihed below. for information as to the content!'. 
of a roll. 
The references by classical authors to the style in which their written 
works were presented to the litcrary worIlI imply u good tleal of elaborate 
treatment bJ' scribe antI hinder, if we may so call the wurkman who 
gave the mechanical finish to the roll. But the details so supplied would 
refer more especially to the 1110re expensive productions of the l'ook- 
traile. A large proportion of working copies must ll11\"e heen dealt 
with in a more simple manner. First. the roll was ro]]ed on a stick, 
òJ.l.cþaÀó
 or umbil int.", to which tlw last sheet of the papyrus, fcrxaTo- 
"óÀÀwv, was supposed to be attached. But, as a matter of fact, no ro]]ing- 
sticks ha'-e l'een found with extant papyri; and it has heen therefore 
suggested that they were not attached to the material lmt were rolled in 
loo
", and hence were lialJle to drop out. )[any of the rolls found at 
Hprculaneum had a mere central core of papyrus. A knoh or hutton, 
usually of bone or wood. was affixed to each end of the stick, the name of 
which, òJ.l.cþaÀú
, umbilicus, appears to ha,-e heen also exteIliled to the!'.e 
ornamental a,hlitions. Porphyrion, conllnenting on Horace, Epod. xi,-. H, 
says: 'In fine lihri umbilici ex ligno aut "sse solent poni.' Or, instead of 
the simple knob or 1 lutton, there was a tip, "lpa
. COi'1H/.., of i ,-ory or some 
such ornamental material: an,l either lIlight l,e plain or coloure(J.1 The 
ed
ö, frontf'8. of the 1'0]] were cut down and smoothed with pumice,2 
awl sometimes coloured. The wrapper of an ordinary ro]] might be of 
common papyrus, charta e1J,poretica; in case of a more valnalJle work. 
a ve]]ul1l co, er, òuþ8lpa, toga, which might be stained with coluur, was 
used as a protection-the cþaL
'ó^1J
 or cþa
^ljv1}
, paenula (the trtH-e]]ing 
cloak), as it was commonly calle(l.3 Lucian, .Å(f,'. i IHlûctlOll, t. refers to 


I Tibullug, iii. 1. 13 'At'lUP inter geminas ping:mtur cornua fmntes'; :lIa,.tial, iii. 2. 
!I 'picti umbilici'; y, 6. 1;) 'nigri umhilici'; Statius, Silv. iv. 9. 8 'binis decoratus 
umbilicis'. The explanation given above of the I<ÉpaTß or cornua seem'S to be the mo-t 
obvio\h; but Birt, Bllehrolle, 
3:;, and SchubRl"Ì, D,

 Buch bei den Grierllen fl. R.õmem, 93, off",r 
othlel" intcrpI"etetions, See iIlu"trations in Gardthauslen, Gliee!" Pal. i. 14;;, un. 
2 Ovid, Trist. i. 1". 11 'Kec fragili gLminae poliantur pumiee fl"ontle
'; Catullu-. i. 2 
. Arido modo pumice expolitum'; J<xii. I' . pumice omni.\ aequata '. 
3 'The' cloak' ('1><",;",,<) which St. Paul left at 'l'I"oas 2 Tim. i,'. 13 . and which 
Timoth)' "as to bring together with the books and parchIlll'nts, ma)- ha\ e 1leen in fact 
a bl.ok-co\er. :-'"e Birt, Bud,,,", 65. 



48 


GREEK A
D LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


an ornamental work thus: ó7rórav TÒ J.l.f:V ßLßÀlov fV TV xupì ;X?I
 7råY'mÀ01., 
7õOpIþVpa/, J.l.fV 
XOV T
V òLlþ8fpav, XtJVITOVV Òf: TÒV òJ.l.lþaÀóv; and Martial, i. 66, 
has the lines :- 
f.:e(l pumicata fronte si (Iuis est nundulll 
:Nec umbilicis cultus atque memurana, 
)Im"care; tales halleo. 


As a special protection, a wooden case, 'num1tale, to prevent the 
owner's toga or cloak fraying the edges of the roll, is mentioned hy 
)[artial, xiv. 84:- 
:Np toga harhatos faciat vel paenula lihros, 
Haec ahies chartis tempora longa dabit. 
Thc roll was sometimes In)lllld round with thongs as fastenings: the 
, Jora ru bra. of CatuUus. xxii. 7. 
For prcsí'l"\'ation against moths, etc., cellar oil was ruhlled on the 
papyrus. I A good pocm was worthy of this protection: 'cedro digna 
locutus' (Persius, i. 42): 'cellro nunc licet :nnbules perunctus' plartial, 
iii. 2. 7). But it imparte(l a ,yellow tint: 'quod neque sum cellro Bavus' 
((h'id, 'l'J'ist. iii. 1. 13). 
The chest or hox in which the rolls were kept was the KLßWTÚ
, KLßW- 
nov, 
C1"illittm, Capðtl; KLITTYJ, CÙ.Ül; HVXO
. It might be either slluare or 
circular. The stTini1lm was a larger ca}Jð(l.2 To tie bundles of rolls 
together was a destructive prOCeSS, as the papyrus was injured; so 
Petronius, Satyricon, cii, 'Chartae alligatae mutant figul'1lm '.3 Ex- 
tensi,'e works were arranged in their ca}Js((e in decades, trialh., or other 
sets, as we know from the examples of the works of Liv:y, Dio Cassius, 
\" alTO, and others. 
For convcnience of reference when the roll wal:; placed in a llox or on 
a shelf, a label, usually of vellum, lTíÀÀvßo
 or lTíTr.vßo
,4 7rLTTåKWV, yÀwlTlTa, 
yÀw(T(Tápwv, tit'l.tl'l.u', index, was attached to the edge of the roll amI 
inscribe(l with the title of the work,!; and, for distinction, æight also be 
coloured. Ciccro. writing to Atticus, iv. 4, gives both Greek awl Latin 
names: 'Etiam velim mihi Illittas de tuis lillrariolis Iluos aliquos, quihus 


1 . Ex cedro oleum, quod cedl'ium dicitUl', nascitur, quo reliquae r..s cum sunt unctae, 
uti elimu libri, a tineis et carie non laeduntur.'-Vitruvius, ii. 9. 13. 
2 Horace, Sut. i. 1. 120; Martial, i. 3. 4, etc. 
S And Jet there are fl'equent repmsentation'i in sculptures of rolls tied in bundles 
,md lying 01' standing on the top of the capsa, as if jU8t takell out of it.-Birt, Buc1lJolle. 
4 :Marquardt, Prit.atl. del' Rümer, 7!J.J,. 
5 An engraving, from a sculpture, in BI'ower and Ma'ien, Antiqq. et annal. Trcrirense.9, 
1670, i. 105, in Schwarz, De omamentis librorum (1 ï5G), tab. ii, and in Gardthausen, Gr. Pal. 
i. 14!), represents rolls placed on >;helves, like bottles in a wine-bin, with the titllli depellding 
in front; a capsu, with rolls endosE'd, appears on the title-page of Marini, Papil-i Diplom., 
:ll1d in Musco Borbonico, tav. xii. In Seeck, Notitia Digliilatllm, 1876, are represenhtiuns of 
rulls, dc., in charge of various official>. 



v 


THE ROLL 


49 


Tyrannio utatur g]utinatorihus. all cetera administris, iisquc imperes ut 
sum<1nt lllembranu]am ex qua indices nant, quos yos Graeci. ut opinOI.. 
ULÀÀVt
ov> I appellatis.' Among the papyri from ('xyrhynchm; a few 
til1.di han been found. One of them, of papyrus (Ox. Pal). 301; Brit. 
)Ius., Pap, dccci), measuring j x 1 inches, is inscribed CW4>PO N OC M I MOl 
ry N A I K E I 0 I. 2 
In the perusal of <1 work the realler held the roll upright awl 
unrolle(l it gra(lually with the right hand: with the left hand he rolle(] 
up in the re"erse direction what he had read. 3 To unroll a hook wa!-o 
iÇHÀfÎV, ÙVHÀfÎt', ÙVf:À{UfTf:LV or ÙI'f:À{rHw, ÙVUTVÀ[UfTf:LV or ùt'urvÀ{TTHV, 
el'ol
.ere, 'i'evolrc'i'e. expl iC(('i'e; as to roll it np was f:LÀm' or f:lÀf:Îv, fÀ[UUf:W, 
I'OlVeJ'C,4 plica1"e. The hook read to the ewl was' exp]icitus us(]ue all 
sua cornua' ()Iartial. xi. 107).5 From the term 'exp]icitus' came the 
mediaeval' explicit '. formed. no doubt, as a pcndant to 'incipit '.G 
By the time the real ]pr had read the entire 1'0]1. it had becoHlc 
reversed, the h.-ginning being now in the centre and the en,l being 
outside; therefore. before putting it away. it must be rolled back into 


, Another reading of the word in this pass:lge is lTlTT';ßa<; mHl it has been suggested 
that U'TTvßa may be more correct than UíTTVßO<. 
, Otl...rs nre: O. P. 381 ,B. III., Pap. 810), of papy"'ls, A.D. 76; O. P. 9;')8, of vellum, A. D. 
80; 0, P. 957, of leather, A.D. 122-3; O. P. 987, of ,"eHum, fifth or sixth century. 
It llIay be convenient to quote here the two following pa
sages in full, as referring to so 
many details denIt with in the text :- 
\'.lde, sed incultus, qual em decet exsulis esse; 
Infelix, habitum temporis huius hahe. 
:Kec te purpureo velent vaceini.\ fuco ; 
Non est conveniens luctibus ille color. 
:Kec titulus minio, noc cedro charta nptetur; 
Candida nec nigra cornua fronte gems. 
Felices "rnent Iwoc instrumenta libellos; 
Fortunae ruemor"m te dec..t esse meae. 
Xec fragili geminae poliantur pumice front"", 
Hirsutus pas
is ut "ideare com is. 
Neve litumrum pudeat. Qui vidCl'it ilIa
, 
De lacrimis factas sentiet esse meis.-OvÌ\], Trist. i. 1. 3-H. 
Tíva -yàp ÈAwiða KU: aVTÙç Ê\OJIf È; Tà ßLßAía Ka: åvaTvAíTTfLS' (unroll) àfl, Nal 
ta"oAAq.S' (glue 
together sheets of pap)'rw!), /(01 frfp'/(Ú7TTfI< (trim the edge"" /(01 åÀfícþf.< Tép /(pú/(<f /(a1 TV 
/(íðp<f, /(cù ð.<þ6ipo< (yellum wrappers) frfp<ßåMm, /(01 ilJlcþaÀov< (rolling-sticks) . "Ti6'1<, w< 
ð'l n å7TOÀOVU"", aÌirû", ;-Lucian, Ac/v. illc/oct, 16. 
, See I\n engraving, from a sculptured sarcophagus, in Daremberg and S.lglio's Dic!. 
des Antiquifis, s.,,-.' Bibliotheca', in ,,,hich a mnn is represented I'eading from all "pen roll. 
4 As t"Olrere might mean to turn a thing in either direction, it was nls., lIse<) in the 
sellse of unrolling: . volvendi sunt libri', Cic, Brut. 1:$7.298. 
ð To finish writing a roll was to come down to the umbilicus; HOl"ace, Epod. xiv. 8 :- 
Deus nam me yetat 
Inl'eptos, olim promissum cannen, iambos 
Ad umbilicum adducere ; 


and :Martial, iv. 89 :- 
Ohe, iam sntis est, ohe libelle, 
lam pervenimus usque ad umbilicos. 
6 . Solemus completis opusculis, ad distinctionem rei alterius sequentis, medium illte" 
ponere Explicit aut FeTiciter nut aliud eiusmodi.'-St. Jerome Ad Marctllam. 


1I
" 


E 



30 


GREEK AXD LATIX p
-\.LAEnGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


its proper form, a process which the idle man would shirk and the 
methotlical reafÌer wouid accomplish hy holding the revolving material 
steady uwler his chin while his two hawls 'were emplo
-ed in winding 
up the roll. Hence )[artial, i. 66. refers to 'virgini:3 . . . chartae, quae 
trih\ duro non inholTuit mento'; and again. x. 93, he has: 'Sic nO\'a 
nec mento sorl1ida charta iuvat.' 
The inconvenience of writing on the l,ack of the roll is obvious. and 
this practice was prohahly ne\-er followed in the case of works intende(l 
for sale. I _\uthor
' copies. however, IIPing for their own use, were often 
(JjJÍ-sflto[l1'(lph. as in Junnal. Srlt. i. 4:- 
Illlpune Iliem consmnpserit ingens 
Telephu
. aut sUlllmi plena iam margine lihri 
Script us et in tergo nccdum fÌnitus Orestes? 
The younger Pliuy also. Elli
t. iii. 3. 17, in reference to his uncle's 
numerous works. uses the words: 'Commentarios elx. milu reliquit, 
opisthographos qui(lf'lll et minutissillle scriptos.' 
In the same manner worthle
s seril.l,ling is referred to l,y )fartial, 
\ iii. 6:!. as writtcn on the back of the clan'fa :- 


Scril.it in anrsa Picens epigranunata charta, 
Et dolet anrso 'juod facit ilIa deo. 


Rough draughts or temporary pieces, or children's or scholars' exercises, 
might also l.e so written. ",Iartial, i,-. 86, threatens hisliùell1fs with the 
fate of waste paper to l,e utilized for such purposes, if his verses fail to 
please :- 


Si damnaverit, ad salariorum 
l'urra<; scrinia protinus liceLit, 
lnversa pueris arande charta. 
A most important instance of a sdlOlar's exercise, written on the 
l.ack of a papyrus. is found in the early copy of the El1italihios of 
H
-perides in the British ::\Iuseum; and still lllore noteworthy is 
Aristotle's Colt.
fituti(Jn (!t" .AtlteJt.'
 inscribe(l, for private use, on the 
reverse of rolls containing farm accounts. 
After the establishment of the codex in general use, the roll form 
was almost entirely al,amloned for literary purposes in the middle ages. 
It sUlTived, howe\"Or, for SOllle uf the Greek liturgies,2 for mortuary 
rolls, for poems occasionally, for pCfligrees, for certain brief chronicles in 
which historical genealogies form a principal feature, and in a few other 
instances, as in the 'Exultet' rolls of [taly. in which it was found 
cOll\'ellient. Rut in all these the writing was parallel with the height, 
1 A Greek magical text Pap. cxxi) in the British !lImeum is written on both ?"fe/v and 
verso of the roll; but such a work would not be for the mark(.t. 
o l{ol'Tál<,a, so called from the I<OVToí, or sticks, on which tlH'Y were rolled. 



y 


THE CODEX 


51 


nut with the length, of the roll. For record", ho" eYer, the roH form 
has 1.een continued throug-hout the midrlle ages to our own days, 
particularly in England. where not only public documents relating to 
the Imsiness of the country, hut abo proceedings of pri,-ate manorial 
court<.; amI hailitl's' accounts, luwe 1.el-'n almost innl.riahly entered on 
l'oHs. 


The Codex 


The earlie'it form of the hook, in our mu,lern sense of till-' word, that 
is, as a coHection of leaves uf YeHnrn. paper. or other material, hounll 
together, existell. as we ha'
e seen. in the case of wa"f',l tahlets, when 
two or more were fa'itenell tog-ether and nutlle a ('ando; or cudex. 
Hence ,-eHum hooks, folio" ing the same arrangement, wer(' also caHed 
("I)di,',,
. Similarly. hy uo.;age, the title lilli"', which had 1.een transferred 
fmm the original hark roH to the papyrus mll, was also passed on to the 
,"eHum book. 
o too the Greek terms í:3í,-3ÀO!), /3tPÀ[Ol' awl other woròs, 
which had 1.een empluyed to .lesignate the earlier ruHs, were transferrell 
in the same way. The vellum co,lex came into general use when it was 
found how cOln-eniently it could contain a large work in a, much smaHer 
space than could the papyrus rull. In the worlls of Isidore, O,'i!f[J. 
,i. 13. 1 . COllex multorum librorum est, libel' unius ,'oluminis'. The 
fact, also, that ,-ellum was a tough material capable of being inscribe. I 
on l'oth sirles; that ink, particularly if recently applie.l, could be easily 
remon.l from it, and that the 
urface could he readily made available 
for a second writing, no doubt contribute. I largely to the a,loption of the 
codex. Further. its ad,-antage o,-er the roll for cOIl\'enience of reference 
is olwious. and this must ha'-e recommended it to the jurists and others, 
the dispatch of whose Imsiness depenoled so much on ready methods of 
consulting authorities and precedents. It rlpian, at the beginning of the 
thir,l century. includes the nlhull co,le" a'i claiming a place among 
If'gally recognized liln.i, we may conclude that, by that time. it was 
weH known. and. we may infer, was also employed hy law writers and 
compilers. The title ,,-hich it recei,-erl of lTwJ.Lánov, a C01ïJU8, e
prcssiYe 
of the possihle bulk of the contents of such a hook, is suggesti,'e of large 
eompilations: a11l1 con'-er
cly its original name cudex was a,lopted at 
a later time for the great digests of Theodosius and Justinian. 
As we have already :-.een. nllllln )1:-;:-;. existell in the classical period 
<it Rome. Their rarity may l,e partly accounte,l for, if the view is 
correct that such cOllices were of a cheap Iluality, and that the ,-eHum as 
used in Rome at that periOlI wa'i of inferior manufacture. only adapted 
fur rough and reaoly use, and not a material which would be employed 
in the product:on of fine books. l Perhaps a retar,ling cause of greater 


I "'tee above, p. 30. 
E2 



52 


GREEK AXD LATIX P
\LAEul,RAPHY 


CHAP. 


effect was the fact that the papyrus roll was still the reeogni7.ecl vehicle 
for literature, and that the conscn-ative jealousy of the book-trade, as 
well as the hal,its of writers, would be slow to welcome a ne\v material 
to rival that which had held the fielù for so many generations. However. 
the vellum codex had made its appearance. and it was now to he seen which 
form, the roll or the codex, was e\'entually to prevail. "'e know that in 
the end the codex was victorious, but we also know that the struggle was 
not a short one, and that it was not until the fourth century that the 
vellum code
 became the fully recognized form of the book of the future. 
Some of the contributory causes of this result may he briefly noticed. 
In the first place the supply of papyrus, although still comparati \'ely 
plentiful in Rome, began to he insufficient to meet the e\'er increasing 
demand. '" e haTe already (p. 22) noticed the record of a temporary 
scarcity in the reign of Tiberius, The gro\\'ing impulse given to general 
education and the wider diffusion of literature in the provinces required 
an increa!',e of the material for the multiplication of books; and this 
necessity fa\'oured the employment of vellum, not liO much as a ri\"al 
to papyrus as an auxiliary. In Domitian's time the more popular 
works began to appear in codex form, for school use and for travellers, 
on vellum, as a more e!HIuring material. It has also l,een suggested that 
the (li\-ision of the Empire in A.D. 3Ð5 he tween Arctlllius aIllI Honorius 
may lltwe heen one of the final causes of the decrease of the papyrus 
supply in Rome, as Egypt fell to the Eastern Empire. l And, while the 
older literary material was thus l,eginning to prove inadc<luate to the 
demand, the encouragement conseci\lCntly given to the employment of 
vellum undoubtedly teIllled to imprm-e its manufacture. However rough 
aIllI hadly prepared skins may ha\"e heen in the early flecades of the 
Empire, at least by the time the codex had superseded the roll the velhun 
employed h.ld become of excellent quality. The material of the great 
early Biblical codices of the fourth awl fifth centuries is particularly fine 
and well prepared. It may, therefore, be assumed that the manufacture 
was from the first in a constantly progressi\"e state of improvement as 
the demand for vellum increased, 
:\Ioreover, the Bible, the book \\"hich before all others became the grea.t 
work of reference in the hands of the early Christians. coulll only be con- 
sulted with convenience and dispatch in the new furm. FrOlIl the writings 
of St. Jerome and others it is evident that Bibles ill codex form existed 
at a very carly date. "'hen once this form of multiplying texts was 
adopted by the Church, its rapid diffm;ioll became a matter of certainty 
through the medium of munastic institutions. The form adopted for the 
Bible would naturally become the model for theological books of all 
kinds. Thus the vellum codex. as already oLsen'ed. was destined to Le the 


1 See Bid, BlIchrolle, passim. 



y 


THE CODEX 


53 


recipient of Christian literature. a-; the papyrus roll had been that of the 
pagan world. Recent exca,-ations in Egypt have given confirmation to 
this ,'iew of the early adoption of the code'\: form by the Christians. Among 
the masses of papyrus documents that have heen brought to light. there 
ha,'e heen found certain fragments of both Old and X ew Testaments, 
the earliest tIeing of the third century. which are in the codex form, 
that is, they are lea,-es or portions of leaves from books. not fragments 
of l'Olls. So. too. 'The Sayings of Our Lord' and other I"elics of 
Christian writings. of the same period. prove to be written in the same 
form. On the other hand. the papyri of non-Christian writings are in 
nearly all instances in the roll form. From this it appears that, while 
the roll still maintained its place for general literature, the requirelllPnts 
of the Egyptian Christians caused them to adopt the code'\: as the most 
com-enient shape for their Looks, e'-en though made up of papyrus, the 
traditional material for the roll. It has already heen noticed (p. 29) 
that only a few leaves of ,-ellum codices have hitherto been found in 
Egypt. This is only what might lJe expected. Egypt was the land of 
papyrus; if ,'ellum bad heen more commonly in use there, no doubt 
many of the e)"tant fragments of Christian writinbJ'S would have been 
conlluittpd to that material a<; more Ruited to the codex form. But. in 
default of vellum. the less convenient though more a,-ailahle papyrus had 
to be pressed into the selTice. 
Still, however, for the ohler literature the papyrus roll continued 
generally to hold its ground in Rome. l But it seems that even in this 
department tbe COllex began from the first to make inroads. For. in 
the case at least of the great authors, such as Homer in Greek and Cicero in 
Latin, there is evi(lence that e,'en in the earliest centuries of our era the 
codex form was not unknown. 2 By St. Jerome's days vellum ::\I
S. of 
the cJast.ics appear to have been in ordinary use, for his lil'rary of vellum 
codices included works of profane literature.:! In the end, the codex 
form became so general that e,-en outside Egypt papyrus, when it was 
used for literature, was put together in leaves and quires in the same 
way as vellum. 


Gatherings or Quires 
The earliest extant )JSS. on vellum are usually of the broad quarto 
size, in which the width equah, or nearly equals, the height. The quires 
consist, in most instances, of eight leaves, that is, of four folded sheets, 
TfTpáç or TfTpáõwv. qlwternio (a term which eventually losing its strict 
meaning came to indicate a fJuh'c, without regard to the number of 
leaves composing it). and this numl,er continuhl 10 general favour 


I Birt, BllChw. 109. 


2 ILid. 11
. 


s Ibid. 115. 



54 


GHEEK. AXD LATIX PALAEOUHAPHY 


CH.\P. 


throughout the mi(ldle ages. Quires of three sheets or six leayes, of 
fi\'e sheets or ten leayes. and of six sheets or h\"eh-e lea Yes, are also 
met with. For example, the famous COllex Yaticanus of the Greek Bible 
is malle up of ten-leayed quires: as is also the Bpml,ine Terence. Each 
(l uire was ordinarily munl,cre( I or SlY oed. to use the technical word. either 
at the heginning. in the upper margin. or more generally at the end. in 
the lower inner corner. In the Codex Alexamlrinus the signatures are 
at the heads of the quires. The numbers were frequently, in Latin 
3ISS.. accompanied with the letter Il (for tJlUdpl'lIlU). The practice of 
nUllibering the leans of the quires, e.g. A i. A ii, A iii, etc., dates from 
the fourteenth century. The sen'ral lea\"es of earlJ" )18S. are also 
occasionally numbered. Catch-wonhö, I'CIÙW1IUdu;, to connect the quires, 
first appear, hut rarely, in the ele\"enth century; from the twelfth century 
they become common. 
In putting together the sheets for the (\uire. care was generally taken 
tu lay them in such a way that hair-side faced hair-sille, and flesh- (or 
inner) side faced flesh-side. Thus. when the IJook was opened, the two 
pages IJefore the reader had the StUlll' appearance, either the yellow tinge 
of the hair-side or the whiter surfac<' of the fie<;h-side. In Greek 3IS:-;. 
the arrangenwnt uf the sheets was after\\-anls reduced to a sJ"stem: the 
first or lowest sheet lleing laid with the fieslH;ide Jownwanls. so that 
when the sheets were folded that side always formed the first page of 
the (1uire. In the Codex Alexandrinus. howenr. the first page of a (luire 
is the hair-side of the skin. In Latin 1\[::;:-;. also the hair-8ille appears to 
ha\'e generally IJegun the quire. 2 
To the follled sheet was giyen the title dl1'[01)((( ; a l,arbarous mediaenll 
llame for it was W'C'l,t'. The leaf wa:; xafJTiol'. <f>vl\Aov,fu[iuJII. 


Ruling 


In the earlier centuries of the milldle ages. the ruled lineI- of vellum 
J\ISS. were drawn with a hanl-pointeLI instrument. a IJlunt bodkin or 
stilus. on one side of the le,tf. the lines being Ílllpressell \\ ith sufficient 
furce to cause them to stallll out in relief on the other side. The ruling 


I C. R. Gregol'Y, Les Callitrs des ]0[.";.<'. G,'ecs in the (o?lll'(es Rcndds of the A<:a'l. d.,,,, 
Inscription", 1885. p. 261. 
2 There are interesting in",tancb 01" the di.,tribution of tIll' quire", of a 1\1
. fOl' the 
purpose of being copied. '],he Pari", uncial ],1:->. of Li\'y ,Bih\. Nat. ;;ïjû) "as. between 
A. D. 8u4 and 8:H, given out among "'en'n monks of TOUl." who produced a copy ,110\' 
Vatican :]',1S. Reg. 762 , ea<:h scrihe attaching hi" name to the portion which he w,'ote 
(Rev. de Pltilolo[}ie, xiv. 18
O; Si(zb. der MÜnrllener Akad. iii. 4:!5. In the ",ame way a 1\IS. Hf 
Rabanus 1\laurus, Pemhrok.. College, Camhridge, Xo. 308, A.D. &!:>-S8:!, ha" the scdbe;,' 
names. The Laurentian M
. ï 1. 10 Galen, de., fourteenth century) i
 1111 instance of " 
Greek MS. written hy sixteen scrihes /
ar<1th:IUSl'II, Gr. P.r!. i. 1 ïï . 



y 


THE TEXT 


3:> 


was a1ln08t innu'iahly on the hair- (or outer) si.h' of the 
kin. )Iarginal 
lines were ,lrawn to houwl the text laterally. ThL' distances of th,' 
horizontal lines from one another were markell oif with pricks of the 
ci rei I/!' 
 in \'ertical order down the rag-e. In earlier )1;-:.:-:. these prickings 
are often found near the middle of the leaf. or at least within the spacl' 
occupied by the text. and the lines are drawn right across the sheet awl 
not confined within the \'ertical boundaries. It \n1'> aft.-'rwards the 
custom to prick off the spaces close to the mar
in and to keep the rule.l 
lines within limits: awl e\'entually tho-' pricking!'. often ,lÏ"appeare,1 when 
the edges were shorn hy the bimler. Each sheet should be ruled sepa- 
ratdy: but two or more sheets were not infrelluentIy laid aUfI rule. I 
together. the lines being so deeply drawn on the upper sheet that the 
lower sheets abo received the impressions. In the case of purple-
tained 
)J::--
.. in order to ensure more perfect uniformity in the height of the 
letters. double lines were used; awl also occasionally for uther ordinary 
uncial codices. In rare instances lines are found ruled on l)oth sides uf 
the leaf. as in some parts of the Codex Àlexamlrinus. In this )l
. 
also. amI in some other early c().licl's. ruling was not drawn for e\'el'
r 
line of writing. but was occasionally E-p.1ced so that 
ome lines of the 
text lay in the spaces while others stood on the ruled lines. Ruling with 
the lead point or plummet first appeared in the ele\'enth. and came into 
onlinary use in the twelfth, century. ColourI'd inks were also used for 
ornamental rulinO' in the fifteenth centm"\'. 
"" 
 


Arrangement of the Text 
The text. which in early )I
S. was written continuously without 
separation of worib. lllight l,e written acl"OSS the face of the page; and 
in some caseS. as in poetical \\ orks. no other arrangement could well he 
followed. But, continuing the systeul ohserved in the papyrus rolls. the 
arrangement in columns was u"ual. The superior cOll\-enience of the 
column o\'er the long line is oin-ious, particularly when a 
lllall character 
was the type of writing. The num!)er of columns in a page \\ as 
ordinarily two; lJUt three and even four were al::;o allowed. The Co. lex 

inaiticus of the Greek Bible has four columns in a page, so that the 
open hook presents a series of eight columns to the reader. which. it has 
been oLsen-ed, would forcil.ly recall the long ruw of jJuginllc of the 
papp'us rolJ.l The Codex YatÏcanus has three columns in a page in the 
portion containing the Ola Testament; and other eady )l

. or fragments 
of )IS:::;. exhi!.it the same arrangement. e. g. the Yatican fragment
 of 
Sallust. the Latin Pentateuch of Lyons. and uthers in the libraries 


I The phrase of Eusebiw" nla COliS'. iv. 37. ." 1ro)..VTf)..w
 l)u,,'1"""o<; TEV\.EU, Tptuuà "at 
TETpauuá, probably refers to the numh..\" of eolumu" See 'Y;\ttpnhaeh, Sell,.ifl". 181. 



56 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


of Rome, )lilan, etc. l But the tri-colnmnar sy
tem appears to have been 
generally abandoned after the sixth century. The Utrecht PHaIter, 
written at the l,eginning- of the ninth century. in triple columns. is not 
an instance which counts for later ul'\age, the MS. being only an exact 
copy of an older codex. 2 rsually the later examples are the result of 
necessity, as in the case of P:-.alters in parallel versions or languages. 3 
A late instance, however. of a text arranged in this fashion, without any 
compelling causes, occurs in the version of the Latin BiLle by Theodulf, 
Bishop of Orleans. written in the ninth century, AcId. MS. 2414'1, in the 
British Museum, and in its companion codices at Paris and Puy.4 
The line of writing was uTÍxo<;, U1'SlIS; ypa1J./-al, linca, 1'Îga; the 
individual letters, ypá1J.fJ-uTa, gl'a1It11Hda, clc11/ellla. clw1'aclc1'c::;, figl11'ac. 
The first lines of the main divisions of the text. as for example the 
se,'eral books of the Bible, were often written in red for distinction. 
At first, in uncial Latin )188., there was no enlargement of letteri'> in 
any part of the text to mark the beginnings of sections or chapters; yet, 
in some of the earliest examples, the first letter of the page, without 
reganl to its position in relation to the text, is made htrger than the rest. 
Rubrics and titles and colophons (that is, titles, etc., entered at the 
ends of books) were at first written in the same style as the text; 
afterwards it was found convenient, for distinction, to employ different 
characters. Thus in later uncial Latin :MS
. titles might be in capitals 
or rustic capitals; in minuscule 1\188. they might be written in capitals 
or uncials. The cOll\"enience of having the title at the beginning of 
a }IS., instead of only in colophon-form at the eml, was soon recognized; 
but the use of the colophon still continued. the designation of a wod.: 
being frequently recorded in both title and colophon down to the latest 
period. 
Running titles or head-lines appear in e,-en some of the earliest :\1:::,5., 
in the same characters as the text, Imt of smaller size. 
As already noticed, the text of early )188. was, with rare excep- 
tions, written continuously without separation of the words. 5 In the 
I It may also be noted that the mo"t ancient dated !lIS. in existence, the Syriac MS. of 
A. D. 411, containing the Recognitions of Clement of Rome (Brit. )]U5. Add. !lIS. 12150), is 
written in triple columns. 
2 The later copies of this P
aIte" also maintain the same arrangement. 
3 A P
aIter in four paralle] columns ,the Greek and the three L:ltin versions). 
A. D. ] 105, is in the BiLl. Nationa]e, MS. L
t. 2193. St.e Pal. Soc. i. 15(;. 
4 Kenyon, Facs. Bibl. JfSS. in Brit. .'!Ius., ]'1. xv; De]i,,]e, ùs Bibles de Théo'lulfe, Bib!. 
i:cole cles Charles, xi. The Ro
'a] MS. 1. D. ii in the British !If useum, containing a ])Orti"n 
of the Greek :-;eptuagint, has four of its quires written in triple columns, which it is 
suggested Ill"y haye been copied fl"Om ap uncial archetype thus IIl"1"anged: Facs. Bibl. .'!ISS. 
ill Brit. .'!IllS., pI. "iii. 
ð The asti'onomica] treatise known as the Ev1J';{ov T:ÀJlFJ, of the second century D.C., at 
PI1ris, aud the gr.11lunatica] work bearing the name of Tryphon ,Brit.1IIus., Pap. cxxvi), 
of about 300 D.C., ha"e at least partial 5cparation of words. 



\ 


THE TEXT 


57 


case of documents of ordinary life, written cursin
ly. the distinction of 
words was, from the earliest times, more frequently, though still only 
partially, ol.seITeJ. But in literary works nOlH.;eparation was the l'ule. 
ï et yery occa:-;iunally a dot high in thè linè of "riting or a low-placed 
comma was used as a mark of 
eparatiun where ambiguity might aribe, 
c\-en in the early papyri and )IS8. During the period of the \'ellum 
uncial codices, llown to the sixth century, continuity of text pre\-ailed; 
in the 8e\-enth century there is SOUle temlenC'y to :<eparation, lmt without 
system. In early Latin minuscule )IS
. partial separation was practised 
in an uncertain and hesitating manner down to the time of the Carolin- 
gian reform. In early Irish and Engli
h 3188. separation it: more con- 
sistently followed. In Latin )l

. of the ninth and tenth centuries the 
longer word" tended to 
eparation. But eYen when the scrihes had 
begun to I.reak up their lines into words it still continued to be the 
fashion to attach short wur(ls, e.g. prepositions. to those which imme- 
,liately followed them. It was hardly hefore the ele\'enth centur
T that 
a perfect system of &eparately-written words was established in Latin 
)ISS. In Greek 31SS. it may he 
ai(l that the system was at no time 
perfectly followed, for. e\-en when the words \\'ere distinguished, there 
was al,,-ays a tendency to separate them inaccurately. 
In onler to SI1\'e space. and to get Its much as possible into a line, or 
to a \-oid di\'ision of a wonl, the letters were often written smaller towards 
the end of the line; amI in Latin 3158.. with the same ol
ect, two or 
more letters were linked or COlubined in a monogrnmmatic form. 
"'hen, for want of room, a word had to be di\'ided at the end of 
It line and the terminating portion carried over to the beginning of the 
follO\\ in:; line, such lIi \'isiun was sul
ect to certain rules. In Greek the 
,]iyision was usually made after a vowel, as fTq.J..Oí; e\'en monosyllables 
might be so treated, as vi.... But in wor.-Is containing douhle consonants 
the diyision would follow the first of them, as ypå/.l.. /.I..U; amI when the 
first of two or 1I10re consonants coming together was a liquid or nasal 
the Ji\-ision was made in the same way, as EXOl'!TES", òcþ(JaÀ /.I..Óí. In the 
case of words compounded with a preposition, the di\'ision usually 
fullowecl the preposition, as r.poa;Úr.ov; but not infrequently, e\-en in 
such instances, the normal prnctice of dÍ\'iding after a vowel pre\'ailed, 
as r.po\tTÚr.Ol'. In pap,yri these rules are seldom infringeù.1 
In Latin )I
S., while the obsermnce of the true syllabic division was 
maintained accorcling to ancient usage, and, when two consonants came 
together, they were properly assigned to their several syllables, as 
.dic-tll
, jn'op-ta, pl"Íb-CUH, hos-pes, hos-tit;. yet in some early instances 
the scribes followe(l the Greek 
ystem and di\'ided after a vowel, a
 
<ii-ellls. l!O-s
i.",. etc.: and in some )188. we find the older "t
'le altered 
I Kenyon, Para ..gr. Gk. Papy!i, 31. 



58 


UHEEK AXD L\TIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


to suit the later. us in the Ful.1a )1:-;. of the Gospels. correctefl in the 
sixth century hy \Ïctor of Capua,l and the Harley Gospels of ahout the 
year GOO. 2 
The coupling stroke or hyp}wn. to indicate connexion of the two 
parts of the divided word. appears to ha,-e heen unknown in the early 
centuries. A point performs this duty in early instances. In the ele,-enth 
century the hyphen at the end úf the line shows itself on a few occa:'ìÎons: 
in the twelfth century it become:" more systel\latic, and 1'o0metillll's is 
abo repeated at the beginning ot' the next line. 


Paragraphs 


The incom-enience which we e
perience in re
llling a continuouslJ- 
written text could not ha,-e been so greatly felt by the scholars of the 
old (;reek world; otherwise separation of ,,-onls and a perfect system 
of punctuation would have bcen established long llefore was actually 
the case. ::;till the distinction of paragraphs was found a necessity at 
an ancient period-a natural ::,;ystem uf sulJdividillg the subject-watter 
of a work as an assistance to the reader. Further, these paragraphs 
were separated from one another by the short di,-iding stroke, the 
7rapáypoctJO<;, which was insertecl between them at the beginnings of lin!:'::,; 
IJut, it should be rememLered, the stroke belonged to the concluding" 
paragraph, amI markecl its termination, and did not form an initial sign 
for the new paragmph which followell. The paragraph mark was not, 
howe,'er, uniformly the horizontal stroke; the weclge > (ômÀÎJ), the 
mark which is also often found at the end of a work, 7 (Kopwz:íS'), and 
similar forms were employed. This system of distinguishing paragraphs 
appears in use in the early papyri; and analogously the llividing stroke 
marks otfthe speeches of the different characters in the survi,-ing papyrus 
fragments of the tragedians. as, for example, in the ,-cry ancient remains 
of the A ntioJ}e of Euripides; amI it is used to indicate the end of 
strophe, antistrophe, awl epode in the papyrus uf Bacchylides, of the 
first century B. C., in the British )Iuseum. 
But to write e,-erJ' paragraph distinct Ly itself would have entailed 
a certain loss of space. 3 If the last line were short, there would remain 
a long space after it unoccupied hy writing. In early specimenf> 


I Zangemeister aud \Yattl'nbach, Ex. Coe!e!. Lat.. xxxi,-. See "elow, Facs. 91. 
2 Elit. .\lus. Cat. Anc. .lISS.. pt. ii. U. 
3 It is l"l'mark'lble that in the oldest Greek classical papyrus, the Persae of Timotheu" 
of the fOlll.th century B.C., the text is wl'itten in distinct paragraphs, each commencing 
a new line. This fad, in addition to the employment of broad column" noticed above 
(p. 46', lends support to the suggestion that the con\entional rules which afterwards 
obtained in the 
etting of te"b in l)"pyri had not "e..n definitely ,.,tahlished at the timè 
when the H,-sa" wa
 written. 



, 


THE TEXT 


:>9 


therefore we find thi
 :-pace occupied J.,y the nr!'t words of the next 
paragraph, a slight l'reak being left to mark it:; commencement, thus:- 


ECOME0A OyrAPAH 
nOYOA YMni Að.1 MEN 


The ne
t :4ep was to ,lraw 'mck the first letter of the firfit full 
line of the liew pl1ragraph, awl lel1\-e it sli
htl.r projecting into the 
margin; anfllastly to enlarge it. Tbe letter mafle thus prominent l.eing 
a 
uJÜcient indicatiun of the COllllllt'lICement of the new paragraph, the 
!'-troke or wellge lJetween the lillf's was no lunger nece
sar.r awl ordinarily 
di
appeared. Thus the two lines giyen al'oH' woulfl, in this last f-tage 
of den.lopment, he written thus:- 


ECOME0A OyrAPAH 
IIOYOA YMni Að.1 MEN 


Of cuurse, if the paragraph commenced at the l.eginning of a line, 
the large letter took its natural place as the initial; 1ut. arranged as 
al.O\-e, any letter, e,-en Olie in the mitldle of a word, 1IIight lie enlarged. 
This last s
'stem is founù in action in the Cude" .\lexandrinus, of 
the fifth century, and continued to he lU"actised throughout the middle 
ages. But it should be nute(] that, although rendered unnece
Nll.y J.y 
the introduction of the large initial. the paragraph mark also appear
 in 
thi
 )IS., but generally in anomalous po
itions, particularly, as if an 
initial sign, aboye the first letter of the dittcrent book
-an indication 
that the scri1es of the ùay had already hegun to forget the meaning 
and proper use of the marle 
In Latin literature no such exact system of marking off paragraphs, 
as that just described, was pmcti
ed in the mitltlle ages, nor. as far a
 we 
know, in earlier times. But, as in Greek )l

., 
o in :"u1lle of the more 
ancient Latin )I
:-:., 11 :-hort "pace in the line was left to indicate the 
conclusion of a passage or paragraph, but without the accompan,ying 
di,-iding stroke or the enlarged letter at the beginniug of the nr<;t full 
line. which the Greek scribes employed. Yet, at an earl,y pe.ri0l1, the 
paragraph mark was used to separate paragraphs or di,-isiuns of the te"t 
(aE>, fur example, in the poem on the Battle of Actium) when the new 
paragralJh began a line. Its eventual conversion from a mere sign of 
separation between two paragraphs. or. rather. of the conclusion of the 
precefling paragraph, into a sign distinguishing the heatl of the new 
paragraph was a natural, thuugh incorrect. development. Uur lllodern - 
i
 dircctI,y deri"ed frum the 
imple ancient furm T. 



GO 


<:HEEK AXn L\.TlX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CH.\.P. 


Punctuation.-Greek 
'Ye next haYe to consider punctuation, in the modern sense: that is, llY 
points and other similar signs. Dots or points, single, (loulI1e, ur trehle, 
are f)een in ancient inscriptions, marking oft'the several words; but these 
are marks of separation rather than of punctuation, unless, perhaps, we 
are to except those which happcn to stand at the conclusions of sentences. 
The earliest instance of their employment in a Greek )18. occurs in the 
wry ancient fragment of the fourth century B.c., known as the Artemisia 
papyrus, at Yienna, wherein the double point (:) occasionally closes 
it sentence. Again, in the fragments of the Pltaedo of Plato, found at 
GuroL, the same double point appears as a mark of punctuation, in 
conjunction with the paragraph mark noticed aboye: and, it is to be 
olJserved, in the sallie _\IS. a short stroke or dash in the line of writing 
is frc(luently used where there is a change of speaker. The double 
point also, in addition to the 7rapáypacþo
, occa:o.ionally marks the clohe of 
the paragraphs in the Paris Papp'us 49, a letter of about 160 B.C. But 
such isolated instances merely show that there was a knowledge of the 
value of such marks of punctuation, which, huwe,-cr, in practice were 
not systematically employed. 
A more regular system was de,'eloped in the schools of Alexandria, 
its inyention Leing ascribed to Aristophanes of Byzantiulll (2[;0 B.c.). 
This was the w;e of the full point with certain values in certain positions 
(8Ùru,>): the high point (CTnY!J.
 HÀ.EÍa), equivalent to it full stop; the 
point on the line (ín,oITTLY/-l1í), a shorter pause, equi,'alent to our semicolon; 
and the point in a middle position (CTTLY/-l11 /-liITI))
 an ordinary pause, 
equi,-alent to our comma. But this system does not appear in practice 
in extant papyri. The single point placell high is the more usual 
mark of punctuation. It occnrs almost regularly in the papyrus of 
Bacchylides. In the Codex Alexallllrinus the middle allll high points are 
pretty generally used. But the middle point eventually disappeared; 
awl ahout the ninth century the comma was introduced. It also l'ecame 
a common practice to mark the conclusion of a paragraph or chapter 
with a more emphatic sign, such as two or more dots with or without 
it horizontal dash,: '- ., The mark of interrogation also fir:-;t 
appears alJout the eighth or ninth century. 


Punctuation.-Latin 


The punctuation of Latin )1::;8. followed in some respects the systems 
of the Greeks. From the Latin grammarians we know that they 
adopted the Greek system of punctuation by points (8iITm, positunte), to 
which tlwy ga,'e the titles of 'dii';tillctio finalis', 'subdistinctio', and 



, 


THE TEXT 


61 


'distinctio media'; hut in practice we find that the scrille
 usell thl' 
points without consistently ohserving their values. 1 
The early cOllices appear to have heen originally devoid of punctua- 
tion. In the ancient )[SS. of Yirgil in the ,. atican Lilll'ary points are 
to l,e seen, lmt they are pro1.al.1y llue to a second hand. In uncial )1SS. 
it is not uncommon to find the point, more often in the mi,hlle position, 
use(l as an ordinary stop; and. at the cml of a paragraph OJ' chapter, 
a colon, or colon and llash, or a numher of points, occasionally indicatl' 
a final stop. In the seYenth ccntury the high point is used with the 
force of a comma, the semicolon with its llloflern value, and a point awl 
\"irgule, . 7, or other comllinations of point,.:, as a full 
top. In the 
Carolingian period and the next centuries we have the inverted semi- 
colon, holding a position Letween our COlIlma awl semicolon, amI the 
comma ibelf. 'rhc origin of the inverted semicolon is uncertain. It 
appear!', first with "'ome regularity in )15:-;. of the eighth ccntury: hut 
it i!'. noticeallle that a mark which reselllLle-, it occurs in the Actium 
POPUl, l,cing thcre formed hy the addition of an ohli'lue stroke to an 
ortlinary point. Along with these later signs also appears the mark of 
interrogation in common use. 


Breathings and Accents and other Signs.-Greek 
Hn.athings awl accents, like the Greek system of punctuation hy 
points noticed ahove, are also attrihuted to 
\ristophanes of Byzantium, 
it!'. part of the òiKa 1i'pom/,ò{at, of which he is called the im'entor. 
The rough (t) and the smooth (
) Lreathing,., (1i'rEVIJ.aTa) at first 
represented the left and the right half of the letter H. which itself wa.., 
originally the aspirate. They were soon worn down to Land J, in 
which shapes they are found in early )I
S.: ancleventually these s(luare 
forms l\ecame the rounded < aUfl ., the periocl at which they definitely 
arri,"ed at this last stage lleing the twelfth century. Only occasionally 
arc marks of l'reathing found in the more ancient )[:-55.. awl then it i:" 
generally the rough breathing that is lli-,tinguished. 
The uccents (ní
'ot) are: the grave' (,3apvs), or ordinary tone; the 
acute' (òçvs), marking a rise in the ,"oice: an, I the circumtJ.ex 
 (òçv,:Japvs 
or Tof:pumWILf:z'oS), coml,ining the other two, and illllicating a ri!'.c and fall 
ur slille of the vuicp. 
In the papyrus period. accentuation is not found at all in non- 
literary documents, and in literary works its u!',e is only occa,>ional, 
apparently if it was thought nece:"sary as an aid to rea,ling. TIlE' 
earliest example of a more systematic u"e of accents is in the papyrus of 


1 In the poem on the Battlc of Actiulll, found fit H"rcu):l11eulll. roints ale u" d to 
m
rk off tl}C word
, as in inscl'iptioll". 



62 


GREEK A
D LATI
 PALAEO<:RAPHY 


CHAP. 


Eacchylilles, of the first century B.C.; and theyabo appear with some 
frequency in the Alcman fragment in the Louvre, of al)out the same 
date. 1 The accents which appear in the earlier papyri of Houwr (Harris, 
Bankes, etc.) in the British Museum are not l,y the first hanel: lmt in 
one of the thir(l ccntury they are original. The earlier 
[SS. of Hyperilles 
are devoid of them. It woulll appear, then, that the third cf'ntury is 
the period when accentuation was becoming more general. But on the 
introduction of vellum codict'" the practice wm; again suspended, and 
was not s.p;tematically resumed hefore the seventh century. 
Originally, in theory, all syllables which were not marked with the 
acute accent or circumflcx receive.l the 
ra"e accent. as e
,íôw[JÒ'i: anel 
several examples of this practice occur in the papyrus of Bacchyli.les, 
and in the Harris Homer. In the salllc :\I;:;S., and occasionally in tIlt' 
Bankes Homer. we also see instances of the practice of indicating 
normally oxytone words (in which the acute accent should mark the last 
syllal)le) by placing a gnt\'e accent on the penultimate, as ÈÀwz'. In 
later )IS8. a douhle accent marks emphatically ILEz' amI Õ
. 
The rest of the ten signs attrilmted tu Aristophant''' of BjTzantium, 
to assist in the correct readin
 of texts, are as follows :- 
The XPÓVOL, or marks to distinguish a long (-) anel a short C) syllable, 
instances of their employment occurring in the Harris Homer amI in 
some other early documents on papyrus. 
The ÕWtTTOÀ1í or iJ'r.oÕWtTTOÀ1í, a ,'irgule or conuna inserted hetween 
wor,ls where the distinction might he ambiguous. as t"ITTt,VOV'i, not 
EtTTtV,OV.. 
rrhe hyphen (vIþÉv), a cUlTe or line drawn unller the letters to in(licate 
cOJ1llt'xion, as. for example, to inelicate compoullll words. In the Harris 
Homer the hyphen, in the form of a long straight line, is use'} for this 
purpose. 
The apostrophe (à7fÓITTPOIþO>), which, besides marking elision. was used 
for other purposes, and whose form varie.) from a cun'c tu It straight 
accent or even a mere dot. It was very generally placed in early :\I:::;S. 
after a foreign name, or a name not ha\'ing It Greek termination, a<;, for 
example, 'A/3paClIL', and aft"r a word pn<1ing in a hard consonant, as K, X' 
Ç. t, and also in p. "Then a double com;onant occurrell in tIlt' middle of 
a word, an apostrophe was placell above the first or l,etween the two 
letters. In a papyrus of A.D. j4t (Pa'. 81)('. ii. 123) a Ilot represents the 
apostrophe in this position; and in a :\18. of the eighth or ninth ccntury 
(Pal. Soc. ii. 126) a double apostrophe is employed. The apostrophe is 
also uscll to distinguish two concurrent vowels, as LlLaTta'avrwv. In some 


I The occurrence of f,'equent accentuation in these two :r.I'3S. 'sugge
ts the possibility 
that I:rric pods were considerell to requirE: mOl'e aids to the reade,' than other authors '.- 
Ken)-on, Baccllylicles, xx. 



y 


THE TEXT 


63 


instnnces it is even placcù hetween two Ilifl:èrent con:"onl1nts, ns e.g. 
aptO'jlo,>, in the \ïennn )I
. of Dioscorillcs. 
In addition to the marks and sign" already noticcll, there are some 
others which occur in nreek :\1:-;:-:. 
)[nrks of diaeresis, placc,1 onr t nnd v when at the l.eginning of 
a word or ,..-hen they do not form a diphthong with a fore}!oin
 ,-owel, 
occur in pnpyri, being either it single or double llot or short stroke, 
or, sometimes, a short nceent: in later )15:-:. usually a donl,le Ilot. 
Quotations are imlicated by marks in the margin. the most common 
lleing the arrow-head. :> or < : the cross. horizontal stroke, or wa,-erl 
...troke heing also used. )Iore rarely, Iluoted passages are indented or set 
out. that is, written within or without tbe marginal line of the text. 
To distinguish words consisting of a single letter, a short ncute accent 
or similar mark is found in use, a<;, in the Coclex Alexandrinus, to mark YJ 
in its various meanings as a worl1. Apparently from ignorance or con- 
fusion the scrilJes of this :\[5. e,'en placed a mark on 1/ when merely 
a letter in a won1. The article ú is found similarly distinguished in 
11 papyrus of A. D. 5!)5 (Pal. 
ut'. ii. 12-1-). 
To till small spaces left vacant at the end of a line, an arrow-head or 
tick was employed: as, for example, in the papyrus of Hyperides (Lyco- 
plu'!))!) amI in the Codex: ::'inaiticus. 
_\rhitrary signs. or signs composed of dots or strokes. nre used a., 
reference marks to marginal scholia. or to indicate insertion of omitted 
wonls or passages. In the papyrns of Hyperides (L!roplu'un) the place 
for insertion (If an omitted line is marked, amI has the word ãz-w. while 
the line itself. written in the margin abO\ e. has KáTW. In the papyrus of 
Aristotle on the Constitution of Athens a letter or word inserte,l between 
the lines has sometimes a dot on each sille. 
In the sallle manner nu-ious signs are employed to indicate tmnsposi- 
tion, such as numerical letters, or (as in the pnpyrus of Ari&totIe) slanting 
<;trokes anll dots ( .) place(l alJO\-c the wonk 
To distinguish words or other coml,inations of letters from the rest 
of the text, a lÌ1w wa<; drawn alJO\-e them; thus the grammatical forms 
in the papyrus attril,utell to Tryphon, in the British ::\luseum. tUld the 
reference letters in the Oxford Euclid of A. D. 88R are sO marked. Proper 
names also are sometimes thus distinguished (see Facs. 57, 74). 
Eesitles actually striking out a letter or word or passage with a pen- 
stroke. the ancient scrilles indicaterl erasure by including the word or 
passage between im'erted comma" or Lrackets or dots. one at the heginning 
amI one at the end: sometimes by accents aùove, as e.g. TWV Ito erase the 
I')' f.J. anti f.avTá (to cover the whole worù), as Seen in the COllex Alex- 
andrinus; sometimes l,y a line abm-e, as Kat ; sometimes by it rIot alJove, 
rarely IJelow, each letter. 



64 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


ClUP. 


Accents and other Signs.- Latin 
Accents were seldom n
e(l by Latin scribeR. In early 1I:-;S. written 
in Ireland and Enp:lallll. in particular. an acute accent marks a mono- 
sylla1!ic word. as the exclamation Ó. or a preposition. as á; and it is 
sometimes emplo
'ell to emphasize a syllahle. .\pparelltly from the 
ninth to the eleyenth century the practice obtained among correctors, 
perhaps from mere affectation of learning. of expressing the aspirate 
by the Greek half-eta sym1JOl (.) insteall of writing the letter h in the 
ordinary way, as tr nnibu f . 1 Yery rarely the deletion of h is indicatpll 
I,y the smooth breathing (i). 
As in Greek .MSS.. qnotations are indicated llY marks in the margin 
or by indentation: and arhitrary signs are usel] to fix the place of 
insertion of omissions. Common reference marks are 1//7. Its = hie dee
f. 
Iwe bltpm or Ilie 
C1'ib(Js. etc. 'rransposition of words might he illllicated 
in yarious ways. as 11Y letters or numbers. and very commonly by ohlique 
strokes above the line. as 1íím ?fUller = matcr mea. 
Finally, for correction. t,he simple method of striking out with the 
pen and interlining or ndding in the margin was followed, as well as that 
of marking words or letters for deletion with dots aboye or helow them. 
Besi(les the abo\"e. other marks and signs are found in 110th Greek 
and Latin :USS., such as the pri \"ate marks of correetors or readers. 
There are also critical symbols. such as the diplë and the asterisk 
employed 11Y Aristarchus in the text of Homer. and the ohelus awl 
asterisk use1l1.y St. Jerome to distinguish certain pas
ages in nrsions of 
the Latin Psalter. But the consideration of these is 1.eyollll the scope 
of the presf'nt work. 


PALDIPSESTS 


A palimpsest 11S. is one from which the first writing has l)een 
remoyed I)y scraping or rubLing or washing in order to make the leaves 
ready to receive fresh writing. 
ometimes this process was repeated, 
and the leayes finally recei\Oed a third text, the 1\[S. Leing in such a casp 
doubly palimpsest. This metholl of obtaining writing nIaterial was prac- 
tised in early times. rrhe term' palimpsest' is used IIY Catullus xxii. 5, 
apparently with referenee to papyrus: also by Cicero; 2 and hy Plutarch. 
who narrates J that Plato compare,l DiOl1Ysius to a t'
tßÀíov 7õuÀí,.,..V n l tTTo l'. 
his tyrannical nature, ÕVUlK7õÀVTO>, showing through like the imperfectly 


1 :Many in
tance" "èCUl' in the Harley :MS. 
7a.;. Cicero Dc Ora/ore, of the ninth 
centur
; others in Hllrley :MS. 2
04, f. :no b, ""inchester PSlllter. tenth century; 
in tlw Sherborne PontificlIl, Paris, Bibl. Nat. :MS. Lilt. 94a. ci,'c. A. D. 
\J;); in Brit. :r.lus. 
Add. 
IS. 30b6I, em'ly eleyenth century (Feu: Pal. Soc. III, II2, 21 I) ; and in Ropl 1>IS8. 
8 C. iii, 15 B. xix. fo,('e also Bodl('y 1>IS. Lat. Litmg. e. 2. mill C31nbr. Trin. CoIl. 1>IS. B. 10. 4. 
2 At! Fam. vii. l
. s Cllmprillcip.l'ltilosop1l., lid fin. 



, 


P ALDIP
EST
 


65 


era!';ed writing of a palimp
e
t :M:-;.. that is. a papyrus roll from which 
the first writing had heen washed. The word. howewr. literally indi- 
cating. as it does. the action of scraping or rubbing (r.áÀu' v,áw). could 
originally h11'\"e only hpen strictly appliell to material strong enough to 
bear such treatment, a-; vellum or wa:\.ed tahlets. Papyrus could he 
washed (amI then, probably. only when the ink was fresh and hall not 
had time to harden), not scraped or rubbed: and the application of the 
term indifferently to a twice-written papyrus or wax!:'fl tahlet or vellum 
codex pro,-es that the term had hecome so current as to 11:\\"e passe(l 
beyund its strict meaning. Specimens of rewritten papyri, even in 
fragments. are rarely met with. 
If the first writing were thoroughly removed from the surface of 
vellum, none of it. of course. could e,-er be recovered. But. as a matter 
of fact. it 
eem8 to have heen often very imperfectly ettilCed; ancl even 
if. to all appearance, the vellum was restored to its original conrlition of 
an unwritten surface. yet slight traces of the text might remain which 
chemical reagents, or e,-en the action of the atmosphere. might again 
intensify and make legible. ThuR many capital and uncial texts ha,-e 
been recovered from palimpsest )ISS. Of modern chemical reagents 
used in the restoration of such texts the Illost harmless is probably 
hydro-sulphuret of ammonia. 
Great destruction of ,-ellum 'I-';
. of the early centuries of our era 
must have followed the decline of the Roman Empire. Political amI social 
changes would interfere with the market, amI writing material would 
become scarce and might be supplied from )I8S. which had become usele!"s 
amI were considered idle encumbrances of the 
heh'es. In the case of 
Greek codices. so great was their consumption that a synodal decree of 
the year 691 forbade the destruction of 
18S. of the ::;criptures or of the 
Fathers. imperfect or injurefl volumes excepted. It has been remarke(l 
that no entire work has in any instance been found in the original text 
of a palimpsest. but that portions of different 
JSS. were taken to make 
up a volume for a second text. This fact. ho\\"e,-er. does not necessarily 
pro'-e that only imperfef't volumes were put under requisition; it is 
quite as probable that scrihes supplied their wants indiscriminately from 
any 01(1 :US
. that happened to be at hand. 
The most valuable Latin palimpsest texts are found generally in 
,-olumes rewritten in the seventh to the ninth centuries. In many 
instances the works of classical writers haw been obliterated to make 
room for patristic literature or grammatical works. On the other hand, 
there are instances of classical texts having been written over Biblical 
:llSS.; but the:se are of late (late. 
The texts recovered from palimpsest volumes are numerous; a few of 
the most important may be enumerated :-In the great Syriac collection 
11
' F 



66 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRÂPHY 


of M8S. which were obtaincd from the monastery in the Kitrian Desert 
of Egypt and are now in the British )luseum, man)' important texts have 
heen recowred. A ,'olume containing a work of Se,'erus of Antioch, of 
the beginning of the ninth century, is written on palimpsest leaves taken 
from )18S. of the Iliad of Homer and the Gospel of St. Luke of the sixth 
century (Cllt. .A nc. ...11:)8. i, pIs. 9, 10) and of the Elements of Euclid of 
the seventh or cighth century. Another ,'olumc of the same collcction is 
doubly palimpsest: a Syriac text of St. ChrJ'sostom. of the ninth or tenth 
century, covering a Latin grammatical work of the sixth century, which 
again has displaced the annals of the Latin historian Licinianus of the 
fifth century (Cat. .Anc. Jl
"S. ii, pIs. 1. 2). At Paris is the Codex 
Ephraemi, containing portions of thc Olll and 
ew Testaments in Greek, 
of the fifth century, which are rewritten with works of Ephraem 
yrus 
in a hand of the twelfth century; and some fragments of the Plwetlul1t of 
Euripi(les are found in the Codex Clarolllontanus. In the Yatican are 
portions of the De Rcpublica of Cicero, of the fourth century, under the 
work of St. Augustine on the Psalms of the se,'enth century; and an 
Arian fragment of the fifth century. At Y crona is the famous palimpsest 
which contains the :US. of Gaius of the fifth century, as well as the :Fasti 
Consulares of .-\. D. 48/1. At )Iilan are the fragments of Plaut us, in rustic 
capitals of the fourth or fifth century, coveretl hy a Eiblical te:Ji.:t of the 
ninth century. Facsimiles of many of these 1188. are gi,'cn hy Zange- 
meister and Wattennach in their Exemplct Coclic1on LatÏ1w1'lWI. 1 


1 See albo 'Vattenbach. Schriftw. ::!99-317. 



CH
\PTER YI 


:::iTICH01IETRY AXD COL01lETRY 


IT wa
 the custom of the Greeks and Romans to compute the length 
of their literary work!oo hy measured lines. In poetry the unit was of 
course the '-erse; in prose works an artificial unit had to be found, for 
no two scribes would naturally write lines of the same length. On the 
authority of Galen (De Plucit. Hi/ljJ. et Plt/t, ,-iii. 1) we learn that the 
unit of measurement among the Greeks was the aYerage Homeric line 
consisting of ahout sixteen 
yllahles. Such a standard line was called 
by the earlier writers ;"00;, afterwards ITTLXO!) (lit. a row). 
Recor.ls of measurements are found in t" 0 forms: in references to 
the extent of the works of particular authors made l.y later writers; and 
in the entries of the figures themselves in )18S. Thcse latter entries 
may actually gi,-e the extent of the .M
S. in which they are found; hut 
more frelluentIy they tran
lllit the measurements of the archetypes. 
They are, however, of comparatively rare occurrence. 
The quotations found in Greek writers are fairly numerous, and 
were no llouht mainly lleriyed from the catalo;;ues of libraries. where 
details of this nature were collected. Such a cabtl0 6 rue was contained in 
the fàmuus ..LvaKH of the Alexandrian lihrarie
 puhlished 1 'y Callimachus 
al,out the middle of the third century B.C. 
The earliest instances of the entry of the actual numl,er of lines occur 
in papyri. A fragment of Euripides,1 of a period earlier than the year 
161 B.C.. has at the end the words CTiXOI Mt.. In the Herculanean 
papyri are found such entries as 4>1^Ot.HMOY nEPI PHTOPIKHC 
XXXXHH (=-l,200 lines), or EnlKOYPOY nEPI <ÞYCEnc ff. API0. 
X X X HH (= 3,200 lines), which, howen
r, are prohahly trcHlitional num- 
lJers copied from earlier examples. In addition to the number of lines 
we sometimes find a record of the numher of columns or ITf:ÀLÔH. Among 
the me.liae,-al1I8S. which bave stichometrical memoranda, a copy of the 
Haliel,tiCH of Oppian, of the fifteenth century, at )Jadrid, contains 
a statement of the numher of lem-es (IþvÀÀa) as well as lines in the 
several huoks, not of this particular 118., but of its archetype. In like 
manner the Laurentian Sophocles of the eleventh century has 
imilar 
memoranda of the length of the seyeral plap;_ The Laurentian 118. of 
Herodotus. of the tenth century, and the Paris 1IS. of Demosthenes, of 
the 
ame period, afford data of the same kind. In certain of the more 


1 Un papyY1ts ;n "elif rle la Bibl_ de ll. A. Firmin-Didof, Paris. Ib";9. 
F2 



68 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOnRAPHY 


CH_\P. 


recent )IBS., a
 well a<; in the early papyri. the ancient system of Greek 
numeration is employe,l-a proof of the antiquity of thi" method of 
calculating the length of written works; lmt, on the other haml, the 
later sy!ötem of alphal,etical numeration is followed in some of the 
Herculanean rolls. 
The practice of /-itichometry can actually he traced hack to nearly 
a century before the time of Callimachus, who has l.een sometimes 
creditell with its im-ention. Theopompus. as IplOted hy Photius/ boast
 
that he had written ;20,000 fr.1J in rhetorical !öpeeches, awl} 50.000 in 
historical books. When we thus find a writer of the fourth century RC. 
measuring his works in terms which are clearly intelligihle and need no 
explanation for those to whom he ad(ln-'sses himself. we can uwlerstaml 
that even at that early period the system must haye heenlong estahlished 
hy common usage. 
The most practical use of such stichometry waS no doubt a commercial 
one. Ðy counting the numlJer of lines, the l'aYIlIC'nt of the scribes couItI 
be exactly calculated and thc market price of MSS. arranged. When 
once a stamlard copy had been written awl the number of UTíXOL regis- 
tered, subsequent copies could he made in any form at the pleasure of the 
scrihe, who need only enter the ascertained number of standard lines at 
the end of his work. Thus, in practice, papyri and early vellum :\lSS. 
are commonly written in narrow columns, the linps of which by no means 
correspond in length with the rpgulation UTíXOL, but which were more 
easily read without tiring the eye. Callimachus. in compiling his cata- 
logue, registered the total UTíXOL of the several works. Although he 
has heen genprally praised for his care, it has been suggested that this 
methodical action of his is it!>elf answerahle for the neglect of scribes to 
record the number of ITTÍXOl in the l\ISS. copied out by them, on the plea 
that it was unnecessary to repeat what coul.l lIe founrl in the r.ívaKf>: 
and hence the paucity of /-iuch entries. Anothel" more prolJabJe explana- 
tion has been offered. namely, that the hook:-.ellers and professional 
scribe:'> coml.ined to suppress them, in onler to take adntntage of their 
cw40mers. The edict of Diocletian, De j)/'etii8 1'el"lOn reualium, of 
A. D. 301, settled the tariff for scribes, at the rate of 23 denarii for 
one hundred ITTíXOl in writing of the first quality, and of 2() denarii 
for the second Iluality; hut what the difference was lletween the two 
qualities does not appear. A sUl"\'i,'al of the ancient metho(l of calcu- 
lating such remuneration has IJeen found in the practice at Bologna and 
other Italian univer"ities. in the middle ages. of paying by the pecht of 
sixteen columns, each of sixty-two lines with thirty-two letters to the 
line. An analogous practice in our own (hty is found in the copyist's 
charge by the folio of either seventy-two or one hundred words. 
I Bib/iotheca, cod. 17(;, 9 120. S
e ubo hocrate
. Hilla/hen. 136. 



'I 


'-iTICH< mETRY AX}) COLUlIETRY 


69 


The appliclÜion of stichometry to Latin literature was also in force, 
although actual records in the 
l:-\S. are not numerous. The unit of 
measurement wa
 the average Yir
ilian line of sixteen syllahles. This 
,lppears from an interestin
 memorandum, which was written about 
.-\. D. 3;:>9 allll i
 found in a 3rs. in the Phillipps Lil,rary at Cheltenham, 
gi,-ing a computation of the t'U.-llS in the l.ooks of the Bible and in the 
works of Cyprian. The text of the memorandum is imperfect. hut the 
meaning of the writer is clear. namely, that it had become the practice 
l.oth in Rome and ebewhere, with a ,'iew to unfair protits (in the hook- 
tralle), to manipulate the reconls of the length of the contents of literary 
works; awl that therefore he had made calculations of the number of 
I'er'-:ll'-: in the se\"emll.onks uIlller his haUl I. the awrage Yirgilian hexa- 
meter of sixteen syllables bein
 the unit of measurement, aIllI had noted 
the total in each instance.. 
In addition to the list in the Cheltenham 3IS.. the oldest extant tal,Ies 
of bilJlical stichometry are: a list. applying to the Pauline Epistles, in 
the COllex ::;inaiticus: one in the Code...: Claromontanus, in Paris: one 
in a Freising \IS. uf the eighth century, in )Iunich; and the list of 
)j"icephorus of the ninth century. 
Besille<; the system of stichometry just explained, to which, on account 
of its llealing with the full measurement of literary works, the title of 
'total stichometry' has heen applied, there was also another system in 
practice which has been named 'partial stichometry'. This was the 
numbering of lines or 'erses at convenient intenals, which, in the first 
place, selTell the same purpuse of literary reference as our modern system 
of numhering the wrses of the BilJle or the lines of a play or poem. 
Instances of such partial stichometry indeed are not very numerous 
among existing 3ISS.; IJllt they are sufficient to show that the system 
was recognizell. Thus, in the Bankes Horner, the verses are numbered 
in the margin hy hUIlllred
, and the same practice is followed in other 
papyl'Í of Homer (C'lll""icn[ Tats fl'om, Papyri iil tlte B),it. JI'U.-:.); so 
likewise in the Amhrosian Pentateuch of the fifth century, at )lilan, the 
Book of Deuteronomy is numbered at e,-ery hundredth (J"rLXo>. Euthalius, 
a deacon of Alexandria of the fifth century, also announces that he marked 
the (J"TLXOL of the Pauline Epistle.. l.y fifties. And in the Codex Crhinas 
of !socrates, and in the Clarke Plato of 3.. D. boL3, at Oxford, indications 
of partial stichometry have been traced. 
'Ye have hitherto consi,lered lTõÍXOL a,> lines of measurement or space- 
lines. But the same term was also applie(l to the lines or short period'! 


I 'Iomm,..n. Zur lateinischen Slichomeilie. in Hermes, xxi. Il:!. The pas
age, as aDlended 
b) Mommsen. is 113 follows: . Quoniam indiculum 't"r,.uum in nrbe Ruma non ad liquidum, 

..d et alibi avariciae causa non habellt integrum. per singulos liLros computatis syllabis 
numtro xvi, ver5um 'ergilianum omni"u
 libri
 a.l,..rib
i.. 



70 


(;REEK A:XD LATI:X PALAEOnRAPHY 


CHAP. 


into which certain texts were di\"ided in order to facilitate rea,ling: in 
other words, Rense-lines. This system has IJeen more correctly entitled 
Colometry. The works which would naturally more than others call for 
arrangement of this nature would be such as were read in public: speeches 
of orators, or the IJooks of the Bible. The Psahns, Proverl1s, and other 
poetical hooks were :mciently thus written, and hence received the 
title of ßí/3ÀOL UTLX1ÍfJH'>, or uTLX1Jpaí; and it was on the same plan that 
St. Jerome wrote first the books of the Prophets amI subsequently all the 
Bible of his '-ersion pm' cola ef cmnm.ufa. 1 
Suidas explains a colon as a UTíxo'> forming a complete clause; Joanues 
Siculus lays it down that a clause of less than eight syllables is a comma, 
and that one of from eight to seventeen syllables is a colon. In the 
passage cited, St. Jerome tell:,; us that he has, for convenience in reading. 
followed the system of the :\l
S. of Demosthenes and Cicero, amI nrrangell 
his translation in this' new style of writing". But, as we haye seen, he 
had found the same system already followed in the Psalms and poetical 
books of the Old Testament-just where one would look for the first 
experiment of casting tbe text in sense-lines" The UTíXO'> or 'l:ln','1.(S harl 
therefore, under this new emplo
'ment. hecome a sense-line, although the 
ancient stichometricalmeasurements of the text into space-lines were still 
recorded at the ends of the Biblical books. Euthalius is credited with 
haying written at least the Acts and Epistles in this stichometrical 
sense-arrangement; although it seems more probahle that he only 
re,'ised the work of predeces
ors, also accurately measuring the space- 
lines and numbering them as noticed above. As might be expected, one 
arrangement of the text of the Bible in rhythmical sentences or lines 
of sense would not be consistently followed by all editors and scribes; 
and hence we fiwl variations in tbe length of lines and sentences in 
the different extant Biblicall\ISS. Among Biblical codices which haYC 
colometrical arrangement of the text are the COllex Bezae, the Codex 
ClarollJontanus. the Laudian Acts, the Codex Amiatinus, and other 
MSS. of the Yulgate. 2 
'Ve haye e,-idence of an early anll regular di,-ision of the orations of 
Demosthenes and Cicero into :,;hort periods: tlIP cola and CUlìwwta to 
which St. Jerome refer
. )Ianuscripts of the works of the Latin orator 


I Preface to 1s...Üah: 'Kemo cum l'rophetas ver:Übus vide,'it esse descriptos metro eos 
aestimet apud Hcbraeos ligari. et aliquid simile habere de Psalmis vel operihus :Salumonis; 
sed quod in Demosthenc (.t Tullio solet fieri. ut per cola scribuntur et commata, qui ntique 
prosa et non \"ersibu," cfonscril)serunt. nus quuque. utilitati legentium providentes, inter- 
p,'etationenl non\ll1 novo scrihendi genere distinxinnb.' 
2 On the subject of :-;tichometry and Cülometry see Graux in Rente de Philologie, ii. 
9;-143; Diels in Hermes, x\-ii; J. Rendel Harris, Sticlwlllet.y, in American JOIII"n. Philol. iv, 
and contribution to 'Yibll'Y'
 Companion to GTc. ,c::fll(li,cs. (jO;; 'Yo :Sanday in Stlldia Biblica, 
iii. 21; sqq. 



\I 


TACHYGK\.PHY 


71 


are still in existence, the text of which is written in this form, one of 
them ùcing a )18. of the T/I,
/'1.d(tllt5 and the Dt' t:5el!edllte, attributed to 
the ninth centur,y, at Paris: and it is evident from certain passages in 
the writings of early rhetoricians that the,y were familiar with this 
sJ
stem in the orations of Demosthenes. 


TACH\'"( :n.\PHY 


Greek 


Although the suhject of shorthand writing does not concern the 
study of palaeography very nearly, it calls for a l'rief notice, inasmuch 
as there is some connexion between its symbols aUlI cprtain of those 
employe. I in the aùbreviations and contractions of ordinary ::\1:::,.;., amI 
as tachygraphic signs themseh
es are occasionally usell by scrilJes amI 
annotators; and, furthermore, there are in existence a certain numlJer of 
)ISS., hoth Greek and Latin, written in shorthand system
. 
First, as to shorthand systems among the Greeks, we are at once 
invoh-e(1 in difficulties. For the question wLether they possessed 
a system of true tachygraphy, that is of a shortluulll capable of keeping 
pace with human speech, still remains to he Roh-eù. There were. as we 
know from exiRting records, l)oth as early as the fourth century R.C. and 
in the early centuries of the Christian em, as well as in the llli,ldle ag(:s, 
5ystems whereùy words could be expressed in shortened form Ly signs 
or groups of signs occupying less space than the ol'llinar,y long-haml. 
But these systems seem to have been rather in the nature of Rhortened 
"riting, than of the tach,ygraphic script which we know as shorthand. 
It is true that a pas8age in Diogenes Laertius was formerly interpreted 
to imply that Xenophùn wrote shurthand notes (vr.om/ll-ÆtwCTá/l-ao..) of the 
lectures of Socrates: l,ut a similar expression elsewhere, which will not 
bear this mcaning, has caused the idea to be abandoned. The first 
umloubtcd mention of a Greek writer uf what may be shorthand occur8 
in a pas8age in Galen ('T.fpl TWV lOíwv ,3tßÀ(wv ypacþlí), wherein he refers to 
a copy made hy une who could write swiftly in signs. otà ITII/l-f(WV fl.. 
Táx o .. ypÚ.cþHV; but whether in thi8 instance a shortened form of writing, 
IJrachygraphy, or a true tachygraphy is impli.>d, we have no means of 
a'icertainillg. 
The sunivillg recor,b of the {{reek systems have heen divided into 
three groups. At the head of the first group, which eml'races all that 
has lie en found dating down to the third century .\. D., stands the 
fragment of an inscription, discoyere(1 at Athens in 188-1, which is 
ascribed to the fourth century B.C. The inscription describes a s,ystem 
wherelJY certain vowels and consonants can be expressed hy strokes 
place.] in ,-arious positions. But in this instance, also, it has been 



72 


t:REEK 
\
D LATIX PAL_\EOORAPHY 


CIL\P. 


nutintain
,l that a system of l,rachygraphy and not one of tach.ygraphy 
is l'cferred to. l A few papyri of the spconcl and third centuries also 
helong to the group; but the most important memtler is a waxed book 
of sL'veml lmve:-.. in the British )Ius('um (Adel. 
lS. 33270), of the third 
century, inscrilJed with characters which ar\' inferred to l,e in O
'eek 
shorthand, the only words written in ordinary letters being in that 
language. This important l\IR. appears to be the exercise book of 
a shorthawl scholar whu has covered its pages with symbols, which in 
places are repeated again and again, as if for practice. Here we lIIay at 
length have a system of true tachygraphy; but as yet the symhols 
rcmain UlHleeipherc(l.2 
The second group is confined to a few fragmentary papyri and 
tablets, from the tourth to the eighth century, chiefly among the Rainer 
collectiun in Yienna, to which Professor \rpssely has given much 
attention. 3 
The third group stands quite apart from the others, and is repre- 
sentati\
e of the system of the tenth century. First is the Paris :US. of 
Hermogenes, containing some marginal notes in mixed ordinary and 
tachygraphical characters, of which 
Iontfaucon 
 give!:> an account with 
a tahle of forms. Xext, there i<; a series of )ISS. which owe their 
origin to the monastery of Orotta Ferrata, viz. the Add. MS. 18231 of 
the British :Museum, written in the year 972, and others of the sallie 
period (Pal. Soc. ii. 2
. 
3, 86), which are fu]] of partially tachygraphic 
texts and scholia awl alsu cuntain passages in shorthand symhols. And 
lastly thcre is the \T atican )IS. 1809, a volume of which forty-senn 
pages are covere(l with tachygmphic writing of the eleventh century, 
which have heen lU
tlle the sul
ect of special study llY Dr. Gitlbauer for 
the Yienna Aca(lemy.;; 
Here, again, it appears that the mediaeval system of the thir,l group 
is not one of true tachygraphy, but a syllat,ic system, ha\'ing little 
advantage over ordinary writing in respect of speed, but capable of 
ensuring the packing of a larger amount of text into a gi ven space. It is 
therefore Hot rega,l"lled as a developement of any ancient system, hut 
rather as a petrified fragment, as it has IJeen called, of an earlier and 
better system. 


1 601ll})erz. Ueber ein bisher t1nbekwmtes griech. Selll'iftsyslem (lI/S (lei" J.llitte (Ies Û"len rol"- 
ch)'isllichen Jalu'lwndfrfs Vienna Academy" 1884, and Nf?te Betne)'kungln, 18!J5. S,'e nIso 
P. Mitzschke, Eine gliech. Kur::schrij1 alls dell! t'ierfenJaln"hlll!(le)'f, in theA)'ch;,'fÜrSlenogmphie, 
no. 4:34,. 
2 See F. 'V. G. Foat, 011 old Greek Tacltygmp1ly (JOUI"Il. Hellen. Sfudies, xxi), giving a full 
bibliography,1!J01. 
S Ein System altgrltch. Tachygmp1lie Vienna A...ll1.), 189(;. 
4 Palaeog)'. Graee. 351. 
5 Die (Ini 8ysteme eler g)'iech. Tacl.ygmlJhie (Vienna Acad,'. 1896. 



H 


TACHYG R_-\.PHY 


ï3 


Other varieties or pha"-es of Gr
ek shorthand. of a later time, have 
been traced. Some shorthand passage!> which occur in a fourteenth- 
century )IS.. and a pas!"age from a fifteenth-century )1S. in the Yatican, 
have recent1.r heen puhli!<hed. 1 


Latin 
According to :'uetonius,
 the first introduction of shorthand signs, 
?wtae. in Rome was due to Ennius; hut more generally the name of 
Cicero's freedman, Tiro, i:" a
sociatetl with the invention. the spnbols being 
commonl,). named Ilutae Tit'ouiaual'. Seneca is said to have collected 
the various ,wtae known at his time. to the number of five thousand. 
Shorthand appears to have been taught in schools under the Empire; 
and the Emperor Titus himself is said to have heen expert in writing it. 
There seems to ha,-e l.een some connexion between Greek and Latin 
tachygraphy, certain symhols heing the same in both. 
The Tironian notes belonged to a system which was actually tachy- 
graphic; each word W11& repre&ented l,y an independent character, 
alphabetic in origin, hut with an ideographic value. In the mediaeval 
forms in which they ha'-e de:"cended to us. they have prolJably been 
amplified from simpler aUlI more COluprehensi,-e shapes of ancient date, 
having received tliacritical additions after the practice of the system had 
died uut, and when the study of the notes had become a mere anti'luarian 
pursuit. 
There are no documents of very ancient date in Tironian not
s. But 
the tradition o"f their employment sur\'Ïved in the :Merovingian and 
Carolingian chanceries of the Frankish Empire, where a limited use of 
them was made in the royal diplomas, indicating briefly, e.g. the 
composition of the deet!. the name of the person moving for it, that of 
the revi!'oing official, etc., perhaps a" safe,!:;Uards against forgery. rnder 
the Carolillfrian line theY were more larO'eh- elll l )lored , and official )J
S. 
l:"" ... 
 11/ .J 
were written in these characters a'3, e. g.. the formulary of Loui", the 
Piuus. The.r are found wurk
ll into the sul.scriptions aud other formal 
parts of royal deeds down to the end of the ninth century; and so 
customary had their employment l'ecome in those positions, that the 
scrib
s continued to imitate them after they had forO'otten their meanincr. 

 I:' '" 
In literature the Tironian note,; were adopt
d in the ninth and tenth 
centuries by the revisers and annotators of texts. For example, the 
i'ocholia and glv,,"t:'
 in a ::\IS. of \ïrgil. at Berne, of the latter half of 
the ninth century (Pal. S'le. ii. 12) are partially written in these signs. 


1 T. 'V. Al1en, Fourteenth Centlll Y Tachygrapl.y, in the JounwZ of Hell nic Stullies, xi. 286 ; 
Du.rou,seaux, SUI queZqllls Jlanusc,"its ù'I1alie, in the .M.langes of the Écnle Fran<<;ai-" de 
Rome. 1
S6. p. 544. 
2 . YuIga,.e
 notas Ennius primus mille et centum in'l"nit.' 



74 


(;REEK 
\SD L\TIX PAL\EI þ(:RA.PHY 


Of the same period also are several )1:-,::). of the P:ôalter written in the
e 
characters, which it has heen suggested were composed for practice; and 
the survival of Tironian lexicons, or collections of the 
igns. copied at 
this time, seems to point to an effort to keep them in the recollection of 
men. A syllabic system, composed of Tironian notes and other imle- 
pendent signs, has heen found in use in documents of Xorth Italy of the 
tenth century; and has been reco
nized as the system employed hy 
Gerbert ù'AuriIlac, Abbot of Bohbio in 9
2 and afterwards Pope 
Sih'ester II. Traces of similar s,ystems in France and ðpain have also 
been fliscovered. But artificial revivals of sy:4ems which have lost their 
real vitality can only prove spasmodic and aborti,
e. E,'en the pretentious 
vanity of the scrihes could not protract the use of the notes, an, I they 
disappeared entirely in the ele'
enth century. I 


CRYPTUGRAPHY 


The various methofb which at ditlerent periods have l)een adopted 
for the purpose of concealing the meaning of what is written, either l)y 
an elaborate system of secret sign:-; or 'ciphers'. or hy a simpler and 
less artificial system, such as the substitution of other letters for the 
true letters required by the sense, onl,r incidentally come within the 
scope of a work on Palaeogmphy. The cipher-system, like shorthand, 
has a special department of its own. It is only the modified practice of 
substituting letters and other common !>igns which need for a moment 
detain us, as it is followed occasionally in me,liaenll )ISS. This simple 
system, as might be naturally inferred, appears to be of some antifluity. 
Julius Caesar and Augustus, accor(lin
 to Suetonius, both had their own 
private methods of (lisguise, by l'hanging letters. In the middle ages 
consonants for vowels, or vowels for conSOlHlnts, or other exchanges 
occur: sometimes we han the substitution of Greek letters or of 
numeral:ô or other signs. But the 
urvi,
in
 instances are not very 
numerous and generally appear in colophons for the purpuse uf dis- 
guising a llame or year of date, at tllC caprice of the writer. 


1 E. Chatelain, Introdllction à la U!ctllre des Sotes Ti'-Ollimnts (with IS l'late
 , I!>>OO, gi,
e
 
a full bibliography of the 
uLj{'ct. 



CHAPTER YII 


ABBREYL\TIO

 A
D CO
TRACTI()
S 


Greek 


ABRREYIA TIOXS amI contractions play an important part in Palaeo- 
graphy. Abbreviation is the shortening of a word l,
' the oll1Ïssion or 
I'w!pell.
ion, as it is called, of the end (or vf letters from the l,ody, as well 
a,> the end) ; contraction is the shorteniÐg of a word h
' omittin
 letters 
from the body and leaving the heginning amI end. The system of con- 
traction is superior to that of suspension, in that it aHortls a key to the 
inflections. 
Two reasons in particular dispose men to curtail written worlIs: 
the desire to ayoicl the lal,onr of writing m-er amI oyer again wurds 
of frequent recurrence, which can m; easily he understood in an abbre- 
viated as in an extewled form: and the necessity of saving space. 
From the earliest times there must have been a constant "triving 
among individuals to reliew the toil of writing l,y shortening word::>. 
The author would soon construct a system of alllJreyiation of his own; 
and, especially if he were writin
 on a sul
ect into which technical 
words would largely euter. hi" system would lIe adopted llY other writers 
in the same fielll. In law deeds, in puhlic and prinÜe accounts, in the 
various memoranda of the transactions of llaily life. cummon and oft- 
repeated words must 11tH-e l'een alway" !o,uhject tu curtailment-at fir:-.t 
at the caprice of individuals, hut gradually on recognize,l systems 
intelligible to all. 
The simplest form uf al,lJreyiation is that in which a single letter (or 
at most, two or three letters) reprt'sent-; a worc!. Tlms, there is the 
ancient Grf'ek s,ystem of indicating numerals by the first letter, as n = 
..iVH, 
=OiKU, H (aspirate)=fKuTóv, and so on. On ancient coins, where 
availahle space was limited, we find the names of Greek cities illllicated 
hy the first two or three letters. Certain ordinary words also occur in 
inscriptions in shortened forms. The Roman usage of employing single 
letters to represent titles of rank is familiar to us from inscriptions, and 
has heen handed down in the works of classical authors; the 
.P_Q.R of 
the great Repu1llic will occur to tlw recollection uf e\"Cry one. Such 
abbreviations by cunstant u
age became a part of the written language. 
The fullest de\-elopement to \"hich a s.r
telll of alJbreyilition and 
contraction can attain is. of course, a perfected 
hortha1}(l: llut this is 



ï6 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


far too artificial for the orflinary husiness of life. 
mnething hetween 
simple single-letter signs and complex tachygraphical 
ymbols is required: 
and hence we find in the miòdle age" a good working system developed 
lJY Greek and Latin writers, which comhined the advantages of both 
kinds of abllreviation. The letter system was extended, and certain 
tachygraphical symbols were taken over as representatives of entire 
words in common use or as cOl,venient signs for prefixes and termina- 
tions. 
In tracing. then, the history of Greek awl Latin abbreviations and 
contractions, as far as it can be ascertained from existing .10cuments. we 
must be prepared to find in the systems of -each certain elements which 
are of great antiquity. "'hen we see in the case of mediaeval minuscule 
Greek .MS8. considerahle flitierences in the system there in use from 
that which appears in uncial ::\188., we might be led to infer that it was 
a new invention: but a closer examination shows that in its elements 
it is the same as that which was practised hundreds of years before, 
even in the third century B.C. ". e may even carry our view still 
farther lJack. For, if in some of the earliest documents which have 
survived abbreviated forms are in existence, not made at random but 
following certain laws in their formation, we have sufficient ground for 
assuming that the practice of abbreviation was, even at that remote 
time, one of SUllle antifluity, and that a lung period must have passed 
for the de,. elopement of It system intelligiltle to all readers. A still 
further, and even stronger, proof of the very ancient origin of this 
practice i
 ationled hy the many symbuls fur particular words which are 
found in early papyri. 
There does not exist, however, sufficient material for the construction 
of a fully continuous history of Greek al''-Il'eviation awl contraction 
between the two periods noted above, viz. the third century B.C. and the 
ninth century of our era, when the minuscule of the vellum ::\1;::;8. came 
into use as the literary hand. It will be therefore convenient, first of all, 
to state at once that the ancient Greek system was that of suspension, 
not that of contraction. But, as in the later of our two periods we find 
contraction also in practice, it is necessary to ascertain whence the system 
of contraction was ol,tainell; and fur this purpose We turn especially to 
the uncial 
1::;8. of the vellum period.] 
. The contraction system was a Christian system. an innovation l,rought 
in through the Hellenistic Jews who translated from the Hellrew, particu- 
larly the authors of the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament. 
In Hcllrew .U8S. it was the practice to treat the ]lame of Jehovah with 


1 The late Prore
sor L. 'fraube ha" m,l<le so thol"ough :111 ex:unination of the early 
histor)" of contraction in his work Nomina Sacra, )Iunich, 1907. that I offel" no apology for 
following him in my sketch of the subject. 



HI 


ABBREYIA TIn
s A
I) C< IXTR.-\l'TluX:-; 


77 


special re,'erence. It was, for e
ample, often written in golden letters: 
a usage which we fillll followell in the Greek uncial )JS:3. on purple 
vellum. The Tetragram or Tetragrammaton, a term denoting the 
mystic name of God, was written in the Hebrew Bibles as in.,,, that is 
YHYH, Yahveh with the vowels olllitte.l. It was, and still is, consi.\ered 
irreverent to pronounce the Xame; hence, in vocalized texts, this 
Tetragram was usually furnished with the vowels 1=:, Ö. A, borrowed, with 
the necessary phonetic modification, from '
,
, Adonai, Lor(\ ; and accord- 
ingly it was, and i
, mmally pronounced AdO/wi. The Hellenist Jews, 
when translating into Greek, appear, from reverence, to have sometimes 
copie
l down the actual Hehrew letters of the Tetragmm; or else they 
imitated the vowel-less Kame by writing the two cunsonants, antI 
omitting the ,'owe]s, of the Greek 0EOC, thus 0C: a contracteù form. 
And again, on the same lines they wrote KC for KYPIOC. Thus 0C was 
an equivalent of the Hebrew Yahwh; and K C of Adonai. Each 
receiving a horizontal stroke above it. they appear in the Greek )1:-;:-;_ 
in the forms 0( , K C. This employment of the horizontal stroke is to he 
traced to the ancient practice by Greek scrihes uf (listinguishing in this 
way. from the rest of the text, words or other combinatiuns of letters 
which were to be regarded as foreign or emphatic matter. l Thus the 
Hebrew Tetragram, when copied by the Greek scribes. was provided 
with the stroke, in.,,, and, when imitated in Ureek letters, appeared as 
n I Tll. And so other Hebrew nallles transliterated in Greek were marked 
in the same way, as 
, i'ë'PAA. Frum l.eing applie(\ to the contracted 
forms of ()fÓ
 and K"ÚpW
, the stroke llecame b.r u
age the recognized 
mark of contraction, covering the whole contracted word, as AN OC, 
(U'()pW7rO
.:!. 
The sacred names, the .J.Yullli-nn f,LtC,'((, comprising words of a sacred 
character, thus treatetl by the Greek scrilles were strictly limite.l to 
fifteen in numher; and it is to he borne in mind that the primary 
motive of presenting these words in a contracted form was a sense of 
reverence, as already explained, and not a (\e"ire of saving time or 
space-the usual reason for ahl.reviation and contraction. They 
are:- 
()fÓ
, KVp
O
, 'lljuov
, XpL(TTÓ
, dó
, 
7TVEvllu, .ð.UVEí.Õ, UTUVpÓ
, 1l 1 íTlIP, 
7rUT
p, 'IupmíÀ. uwníp, 
áv()pw7ro
, 'IfpovuUÀ1íll, olpuvó
, 
and their cases. 


1 Parallel uses of the horizontal 5troke also occur in Latin III:-.:-._ 

 By natural confusion it was sometimes applied eV..n to uncontraeted forms, as 
0EO( , 
 \Brit. Mus. Cat. G1.. Pap. ii. 3011. Mystic words. including tIll' sacred 
names. in Egyptian Greek magical papyri are also thus mark, d. 



78 


GREEK AXD LATIX PAL\EOURAPHY 


CHAP. 


The contracted forms show se,-eral variants; llut the most normal are:- 
Ð C , K C. iC. XC , Y C : the first aUfI last letters expressed. 
nNA , l:1Al:1 , CTC , MHP : the first. second, awl last letter. 
nHP , IHA . CHP: the fi rst. a1ll11a
t two letters. 
ANOC . IAHM , OYNOC: the first and last syllables. 
These XVIIIll/a ::)tfaa, tl":)ll, are found in the earliest vellum codices: 
and, a<; might be expecte,l, also in theological papyri from the third 
century. But the principle of contraction thus introduce,l extended 
hut little outsi,le Christian literat ure in Greek palaeography. It led to 
hut little contraction on the same lines in )155. of general literature, 
except in the case of certain Ilcri,'atives. There the suspension system 
prevailed. l 
'VeSel', then, that in Greek palaeography the contraction system may 
be regarded as an interpolation only, which did not affect the historical 
continuity of the system of suspension. 'Ye may now, therefore, turn 
to the papyri recovered from the tomlJS and sands of Eg,ypt, and note 
the system uf suspensiun, or omission of the end of a word, therein 
followed. In well-written literar,}' papyri abbreviations are rare: in 
cursively written papyri of all classes the,}' are not uncommon. Either 
the wur,l was iwlicated J,y its initial letter alone with an ablJreviating 
dash, as v = VLOL; or the letter which immediately preceded the omitted 
portion was either marked with a stroke, as nÀ = riÀo
, or was written 
above the line, as a key to the reading, thus: re"; or two letters were 
sO written, as rEK=rÉKm, op.o'=óp.o[Cù
. It is true that early examples 
of Ruch ahbreviation are comparatively rare, llut there are (Iuite enough 
to prove that the sYRtem was recognized.
 Certain of these over-written 
letterR, even at this early perio,l, hetray a tendency to degenerate into 
dashes,:: and this natural degeneration hecomes more intensified in 
course of time. Thus, in the second and third centuries after Christ, 
this dash system is found to he de,'eloped to a cunsiderable debYTee. 
The long oblique stroke, too, the cOUlmon mark of suspension in the 
middle ages, is to he seen to some extent in the papyri. 
The scrihes of the papyrus uf Aristotle's work on the Constitution of 
Athens, of about A.D. 90 (a papyrus written in more or less cursive 
hands), employed a regular system of ahhre,'iation by suspension for 


1 In ihe uncial codiceo; and in Christian theologieal papyri aLbre\ iation by suspen- 
sion is rare. being chidly confined to omi,sion of final N, as TO - for TON. 
" See Flincl,,"s Petrie Papyri, ed. Mahaffy Ropll Iri"h Academy, Cunningham Memoirs), 
1891 ; pa,.ticularly no. xxiii. 
3 'Vilcken, Ohse/"
ationes ad hist. Aegypti provo Rom. 40, selects fl'Om the Paris 
Papyru
 no. 5 ,Notices et Exlraits des JISS., pI. xvi'. of the )'ear 114 B.C.. the following, 
among other, contractions, -rp-=-rpá[ 1TE(a
], 1TTOÀE - = 1TTOÀEI'[ aíov
. aaKÀ,(1 = &aKÀ'I1T[.að'l
]' 
In the'e we ha\ e early cnrsivû form of a, 1', and 1T. 



VII 


_\BBREYL-\TIU

 AXD COXTR.-\CTIOX
 


79 


certain ordinary words (together with a few symbols).1 The same 
method may l,e traced also in the Herculanean rolls of the firRt century 
B.C. In the pap:yri of succeeding centuries the same system is fullowed. 
To descewl to the vellum period. the palimpsest fragments of the Iliad, 
in uncial writing of the sixth century, in the British )[useul1l (Ade\. 
)IS. 17210: ('ut. A nc. JI:i.'). i. 6), have se,-eral wore Is curtailed, an s-shaped 
mark indicating the omitted emlings. )Iore numerous are the examples 
in the fragment. preserved at )[ilan, of a mathematical treatise of the 
seventh century, also written in uncials. In this )[S., dealing with a 
suhject in which technical expressions constantly occur, an opportunity 
for the full employment of suspension presented itself, and, accordingly, 
not only the ordinary abl.reviated ellllings.lJut symbols also are found 
(see below. Fac:". -18). From the analogy of later 
I
:3. it may be 
taken for certain that all technical works, intended as they were rather 
for the student than for public reatling. were sul
ect to unrestrained 
su'"'pension from a ,-er.r early period, 
Tlms the continuity of the oM system of abbreviation by suspension 
remained unhroken from the earliest times: ami, although in the early 
yellum period that system was screened, as it were, by the contraction 
s
'stem of the uncial IJihlical ami liturgical lISS., which, from the fact of 
their suryinll in fair numbers. ha,'e thrust themselves into more general 
notice, yet it was still practised in the contemporary cursi ,-ely written 
)I:-;
. and llocumcnts of daily life; awl accorelingly, when the flood of 
the literary minuscule l.ook-hand of the ninth century suddenly rose and 
swept over the uncial, it hrought with it the older system of suspension 
sti1l existent in the cursive writing from which the new literary script 
had heen formed: awl at the same time it ahsorbed the limited contraction 
s
-stl'm of the early Christian theological )[
:::;. 
"ïth the disuse of uncial writing, then. as the ordinary literary book- 
hand, the theological system of contraction did not perish. The same 
scribes who had copied out the majuscule texts were now employed upon the 
new minuscule, and naturally introduced into the latter the contractions 
which they had heen accustomed to write in the former. In minuscule 
writing, therefore, from the ninth century onwards, the two systems, of 
suspension and of contraction, are ayailahle. At first, however, compendia 
were, in general, sparingly used in the calligraphic )188. of the period, 
although, when necessary, the apparatus was ready at hand to be applied, 
a<; in the case of marginal and interlinear scholia, where in this matter 
greater freedom was exercised than in the text of a )18. The horizontal 


1 The)9 are: >=terminativD at. à=ll'å, 'Y' ="(fÍp, ð' =ðf, ð' = &á, '" = Elvaf, I =i:uTå", =EÌuí, 
6'=Ðw, ,,'=ICaí, ,,'=ICuTå.. p.'=p.Év, P.'=fLETá, o'=ovv, w'=Trapå, ,r'=Trfpl or Trfp, s'=uvv, T'-=rqV. 
T' =Tii
, T' = TÔJV. IJ'= imfp, IJ' = i",ú; and also ,f: = XpÚ
()f, and J, =avT(,
 and cases. Many of 
these abbre..-iation
 are al
o used for "'yllables in composition. In addition, termination
 
are occasionally abbre\ iated with the 0\ er-written letter as p.o' = p.åX1J v . 



80 


GREEK AXD LA.TIX PALAE()(;RAPHY 


CH\P. 


stroke which marked contracted words in the hilJlical uncial texts served 
the same pm'po
e in minuscules. ] t also lIistinguished letters which were 
used as numerals or special &igns. But the ordinary terminal abhreviations 
by suspension were marked ity the long obli(!ue stroke (already noticed as 
in u:-;e in the papyrus period), as in ao'/=åoÛ\Cþó'i, r.O^'l=r.Ó^EP.OS'. although 
this stroke",\ as also often dispensed with, and a mere flourish added to 
the over-written letter. This O\oer-written letter was also subject tu 
modifications. It was doubled occasionally to indicate a plural (a prac- 
tice also followed in the papyri), as r.mBB/=r.a{owr, uH=uríXOL. It was 
also in some instances the emphatic letter of the omitted portion of the 
word, as ^ 1/= ^lYELV, KTï = Karà. AmI the arrangement of letters was 
::,ometimes inverted, a
 
=^úyoS', <!:J=Õ/TWS'.l 
But with the new minuscule book-hand also appear
 a further 
developement in the use of certain signs. mostly tachygraphicaL which 
are employed either 11.:-. component parts of worfIs. OL' as entire, inde- 
pendent words. They had been empluyed to some extent also in late 
uncial M:-;
. They genera]].r are found as terminations. but in ::\188. of 
the early minu
cule perio,l they are also used in the middle or at the 
beginning of ,yords. For the most part, they are placed ahove the level 
of the words to which they belong; in a few instances they are pendent, 
or in the line of writing. At the later period. when the writing became 
more cursi\-e. ther"e signs were linketl with the letters below them in 
a flouri
h. They also. e,'en at an early date, show a disposition to 
combine with the accents, as in CS which is the sign 'i (11S') comhined with 
a circumtlex. This developement, wllPn exercised to its full capacity, 
renders the text of a MS. difficult reading, without some considerable 
experience of the meaning of the various compendia with which it may 
be crowded. 
Having thus brietly traced the history of the growth of Greek 
abbreviations and contractions. it may be w5eful to giyc, first. a list of the 
more general single-letter ahhreviations and symhols, other than ordinary 
ahbreviations llY sllspension, as found in papyri; 2 to be followed by an 
analysis of the mediaeval symbols of the vellum )I8S. 


I From the recently is
ueù catalogue of the Aphrodito Papyri (Gk. Pap.,..i in the Britis!1 
Musellm, iv), which are of the end of the seventh ami early years of the eighth centuries, 
we find that by that time the fuller system of suspension had come into practice in cursive 
papyri. In this collection, in a.ldition to the simple suspension s.ystcm, e.g. av"=áv()fX'Jrros, 
tv" / = IvliLl"TlÚVO
, letters arc also omItted from the body, as well as from the end, of a word, 
the over-written letter being almost invariably a consonant (either the fil'st to follow, or 
an emphati<, one', e. g. /Jarrav lI = ðarraV'1()ÉvTa, À W = À.rrTó
, :uld <þo,<< / = <þoív,,,..; 0" two letters 
were over-written, e. g. aVow =';vôpárro/Ja. Thi:; developement is practically unknown in 
papyri of an earlier period; and we may therefore re:lard its presence ill the Aphrodito 
collection a:; dIll' to the influence of the contemporary vellum codices. 
2 See Appendix IV in Kenyon's Palafogr. Gk. Papyri. and the Indexes in the Catalogue 
ofGk. H11'yri in the British Museum. 



HI 


ABBREYIATI< )XS .A"XD CUXTRACTIU"XS 



1 


The chief sing-Ie-]etter ahl-,r<.',-iations amI symhols in papyri, then. are 
as follows:- 
( t f ù) " , - " '1- v lj - - 
 

,3=at as par 0 awor ; a=ava; a. a-=m;o; I, v';;, , ^=apovpa; 
, , C) - , L L - f - ( (- ( ,', 1 ' , 
--;;-, 
 = al'Tup 1 l: a, a-, a, 7' 7' '7' ", J> ) = UVTO!i" anI cases; y, y = 
, 
, 
 '. 
, 
 v 
'. ( ( L 
 
 '. \ ... . / ' '. \\ 
yap;u=Uf,u,U =uLa,I-,<, ')'v,,='JpaX/ll1, =ftl'UL, =fITTL, \= 
fllTLv; t)=fd: L, S=ÉTo<; anll cases; 6' = ijÀLO<;; !j-, 1}/=lj1J.fpa; "i, L/=ll'(JLI(- 
, I' S ")- ,,''t' I ' 
nOl'O<;: K, K, K" = "aL; K, K, K = KaT a ; 1J. = 1J.H'; 
 = 1J.fpo<; anI ILtTIJlITl/!i"; 
IL" IL'. ILl, ILh IL- = ILfTá: IL -, IL", IL' = W/l'ó<;: v) = 1 ólLLlTlLa; 0, 1::1 = óvolL a ; -;;- = 
ovÀ1Í; O'=OVI'; Õ=OVTW<;, óILOLW<;; n', ü', n/=napá: n'=nfp anll 1TfpL; 
(\ (the cursi,
e pi) = üiìxv<;; foT = nOL1IT
<;, 1ToLlllLa; 'ú' (cursi '
e pi oyer 
'1 ) , , rfi A ,'t A If , ' , , 
omi"l'on, r.\=r.OAL<;; n, , p=nl'o<;; 
=üvpOV; \I. =lTfM/I'll; IT=ITVV: 
i\=TúÀaI'TOl'; T-=T!ì; T=Tlív; /,T\T'=Tiì<;; T'=TÓI'; T\f=TOiì: T', T'= 
A , ) / ' I, --'2-" . , ". d> cþ ' ) L - , - 
TWI', v, 1.i, v, 
, \.jJ, 
 = Vüfp, V = vr.o, f = fJITU': X, X , X , X, X) = 
XaLpfW; 
=>-'PÓI'O<;. Arithmetical symho]s are these: q, "'->=1-; 
, 2, 
d,d'=!;I Ii=
; L,L,C,I..._,
,J='!; ßJ,oJ,o)=j; R=!; <;,q,q (l.'op/Ja) 
= 90; l' (.,ampi) = 900; iL = 10,000; ÎI = 10 000; nn = 100,000; -,
, 

 = 1 obol; ==2 obo]s; r= 3 obo]s; f= 4 01018; F= 5 Qltols; XI. XL, 
j(, XU= 1 chalcus; XO= 2 chalci: X"Y=3 chalci; 0'=4 chalci; O'XL= 
j cha]ci; O'Xo=ô chalci: p', p=l per cent.; v', v=2 per cent.; L= 
minus; I, r, 1-,.-', I
 
=total (y[,'fTaL); ), ......=remaillller (TofPLfITn). 
The following are the explanations of the :o;,ymho]s of the mecliae'
a] 
system in alphabetical order, beginning" ith the '
owell'õ. It will assist 
the memory if it is horne in mind that, as in Greek tachygraphic 
writing one sign representerl seyeral sylla1les, different in spelling but 
phonetically the same, so the symho]s which we are now consiclering may 
he phonetically groupe.!. For example, in the two group" 
I' 71 1 '. /'1' W', i" U'. 
<; 71<;. H fL<;. 
 L<;. 
we see a sign representing a particular bY lIa.ùIe 
double,l or marked to represent its homophones. 
l,e oh
en
ed in other instances. 
a is early representell hy the tachygraphica] sign, a horizontal 
stroke -. It was written either above or in line with the preceùing 
letter. as T or T-. hut in the latter position, to aid the eye, it receiyecl the 
aclliition of two dots, as T+, or, coa]e!>cing, r.. But this sign --:- thus 
dottecl also inllicated Ta, as the two dots (:J were also the tachygraphica] 
sign for T. In course of time the construction" as forgotten, anll 
 was 
taken to mean sirnp]y a, and, last of all, the - llroppecl out, and the two 
dots remainell to represent the letter. 


differentiated hy heing 
The same system will 


I The s
 mbul d is formed from o. a cur"ive cOlTuption of /!;. = 4, with a st."oke abo'"e, 
In the numerals whercin 2 is rel)resented b)- 0, this !')'mIJo! i;; d....h-..d from the cursive 
u-shaphl bela, 


UBi 


G 



82 


rmEEK A
D L\.TIX PAL\'E()(mAPHY 


CHAP. 



 is frequentl,r represente(l hya short waved stroke, as in the worcl 
tJ.t=tJ.
ya, and in participial terminations. as À
yó/-l
=Àqó/-l
voS'. 
1J is also occasionall,r found in a silllilarl,r waved-stroke form, neady 
always written in the line, as b;ftÒ
, T.V. 
t is ver,r rarely represented hy two dots (a late usage), as r.'
' = r.
pì.. 
w appears in the tach,ygraphical form of a kind of circumflex, as 

..., " 
((I'ye =aI'WY
. 
at. The abbreviated sign of this termination is, in its earliest forms, 
an obli(jue or angular or :-;-shapetl stroke, as KI 
 K5; later, ordinarily 
a waved stroke, which was afterwards exaggeratell into a flourish: 
sometimes v, as 
/-Ifp" = 1J/-Ifpm. 
aLç. 1'he earlier sign ""as 
, as (TT1íÀ
=uT)lÀars: later >>, as TavT>>= 
TaVTutS'. This second form appears to he a doubling of the sign for 
S', a 
phonetic equivalent. 
al'. An angular L and rounded L are found in early M:::'::;. Then 
a further developement in the CU1'\"O took place, amI a 6-shaped sign 
. t 
 l" ,L, . 
I, '" 
COllIes In 0 use. OT =OTav, r.a<Y=r.auav, YH'l'av =y
vvavav. 
up. The horizontal stroke -, for a, and a ring representing p, were 
combined as the sign-.:J, as jl'TvpÚ=/-IapTvpe'i. Or it was turned upwards, 
à/fháv=à/-lapT{m'; or written in the line, as J.l-;--DTvS'=/-IápTVS', with dots 
representing a. 
as'. The constant sign was J. as UT{X" =UT{XaS'; XPlíutlOm=XP1í(TaaBal. 
avo From a combination of -, for u, and the upsilon, comes the 
. ""V , 
 0 ' 
 A .. I I' . 
SIgn -v, as OtJ.a
fL= aVfLa
ft. rare sIgn IS II, as T OWTJ I=TOWVT1J. 

tv. At first was used a single sign I' (i.e. also the sign for 1JV, a 
phonetic equivalent), as iTit/-lM' = f7l'l/-lfVftV. Then this was doublet 1 for 
the Fake of distinction 1'1'; afterwards one or both of the hooks are 
thr
vn off I/" II; and finall,y the strokes are reduced in length II. 
Eì;r/'/ = 
ìT.Úl', À
í.r." = À
í.T.ftv. 
ftS'. The sign 
, which represents 11>, was sometimes also used for ftS'; 
more generall,r it was doubled, as nO" = nO
lS'. _\.nother rare form is Þx 
which appears to be the ortlinar,r ligature of 
 and L with a cross-stroke. 
H'. 
\.n angle L, as Þ.=/-IfV, whieh afterwards took a more rounded 
form, as YfYOV=YfYOVH', degenerating at a later period into J.., or e\"en 
into a looped flourish like a wide a. The tach,ygraphic sign 'l{ is abo 
occasionally found in use. 

p. The olÆque stroke, the tachygraphic sign for 
, combines with 
a loop, for p, and makes the sign b, as wur.I,=wur.
p, fÍ7I'b=
fr.
P' More 
rarely a lIar is used, as Vr.T = V1r
p, WC'"11T = wur.
p. 

S'. The early sign was J, as cþ';YOIT)=cþáyoVTfS'. But two dots, 
representing tachygraphically the letter T, being frequentI,r added in the 
comTllon termination HS', j, a confusion between] and J wa:,; the result, 
and at last] caIlle to be used for H, as ÀVOI'T';='\VOVTfS', amI superseded 



VII 


\BBHEYL\.TIO
S AXD C()XTRACTIOX
 


H3 


the !'.imple J. The f;ign, thus changed, varies occasionallr m form, as 
.::; j C. 
Th ] f l'. ^ ,. , t . I 
III'. e angu ar orm;,. as T apx = 7"lW apXIJV, waf; some lInes curvet, 
/> , L t . t I t I . t .A ß . '" . , 
as TUtaVT = TOWVTIjI'. a er 1 I egene
'a el In 0 . ,.." as apET=apfT1JL'. 
IIp. A not common si
n i
 />, as àJ1' = ((l1,p. 
II
. .\. sign resemhling 
, as f=TÎ/... This sign early combined with 
the circumflex a., (5. It is somctimes doublcd. 
U'. The sign for ljV wa<; often use' I also for this termination. It wa,:; 
also differentiated hy two llots, thus, Táe'=Táçw. It passed through the 
"ame stages of degeneration as its prototype. 
L". The sign for lJ'> was also use,1 for L". It was also differentiated hy 
two dots, thus, aVT< = aVTL\". The signs for L" amI lJ
 are sometimes 
confused. 
OL
.. .A horizontal stroke terminating in an angular or round hook, 
""7 
; ^üy= À(;YOL
. In later )[SS. the sign is sul
ect to flourishing. 
In some instances the position is ol,]iljuc, as 
=TOL
. 
01'. The oblique stroke \. a<; ^óy' = Aóyov. The danger of cunfusion with 
the grayc a
cent led to its heing [engthened; but this e,-entua.lly re- 
sulted in the lengthening of the accent also_ as T
=TÒV. In late )[::;8. 
the sign degenerates into a flourish, or wawd line. 
0'>. The tachygraphical sign for 0.. is &ometimes used, as ÀUY = Àóyo.. ; 

ometimes the uncial c, as fKWTT C = fKaU"To
. 
\ 1 f . f ' 1 "", tl " 
ot'. An ear y orm V appears In a ew p aces, as TT = TOVTOl,'; lIS IS 
afterwards cun'ed, as 
=TOV. The form )(, which is not uncommon, is a 
monogram of the two lettcrs. 
OVI'. The 0 with a wa\-ell '5troke beneath. as r.OLVTO..=r.OWVVTO.., ljyr= 
,jyavl'. 
uv). The sign 4. which is formed by combination of v = ov and..; as 
Àóy4=Àóyov
, ír...Y =Z......UV... The double waved stroke 
g (as in E''') is 
also used: as X(lóv

=XPó"ov;; also single, as aVT.=avTov
. 
WV. A sign re!'.embling a circUlntiex; in early )188., of small size, as 
TUtÍÎ" = TOVTWV; nfterwanb, a sweeping tiourish, as Òtacþó'þ = Õtacþo,Jwv. 
wp. A not common sign ./J or..:>, as vò'" = vòwp, plíT
=MTWp. 
W
. A curving line <', v>, as uvr"" = ovrw;, cJ!, "'EP = WU"T.EP, La.ter, the 
:-oign turns downwards, as KaÀS=KaÀW... 
Certain prepositions and particles are represented by special 


sIgns, as- 
å"Tí.: ), a very rare sign. 
. .. I .. .. <1 
((r.o: vv anI -v ; a rare sIgn IS olJ. 
àpa: !G. 
ò,á: -t' or J with a w&'-ed pendant. 
ir.í.: 1 the 1 being a cursive form of 7r. 
'Ll!a: ï. 


G .
 



84 


0REEh. _\SD LATIX PALAEOnRAPHY 


CHAP. 


.,. 
Karu: 
, v+, c.:-. 
r.pó<;; ):., f' 
1J1;É(): X) or 
. 
. 
vüó: X. uV. 
71'apá: *; also r.r. 
yá p : y.;, or ..,., r+, rr; that is, [j(WOiW crossed \\ ith an inverted p, or 
with a bar or flouri
h. 
p.fv: 'L. 
Of: 7, which l,ecomes rouncled y. In course of time it was confuscd 
with the sign for E<; U); hence the scril)es came to a,ld dots. 
1jyOVV: 1jV. 
we. From the tachygraphical form 7 (KE) came the f>ign 
, which 
went through ,'arious changes: 
 
 5 S. 
óp.ov: '*, very rare. 
õn: 1- O. (the dots imlicating the T); also.r. 
WrYüEp: ii. 
The auxiliary ÈrTTl or flTTlv was represented IIY the taehygraphic 'j. 
(frYTí) or J.' (ÈrTTll'); but this distinction was not kept up. Later, from 
confu:-;ion with the sign for U' </ ), the position of the duts was altere,1. 
and the sign became; , which afterwartl
 passed into the flourished style, 
on the pattern of the signs for 1jV and U'. A dou ble ÈrYTl, !;., was use,l for 
ELrYl; and in the :-;ame manner >>
 or ð". = ELlTlv. The symbol 
= Eil'm. 
The future frYTUL is found in the form:-; 'l:}. 6'>. 
Certain signs were also used for technical wonls, as 
 = àpLepÓ
', 


=àpLeP.ol; LI, 
í=rlTo<;, LrYOLj X=ÈÀárYrYwv. And, finally, there were 
certain symbols for certain word:-;, as <:) = KVKÀO", t =1íp.fpa, 7= vvç, L = 
frO
', and others already noted al)o,'e in the li:-;t compilell from papyri. 


Latin 
Of Latin abbreviations the mo:-;t ancient forms are thuse which cunsist 
of a single letter (nearly alwa,ys the illitialletter), representing the whole 
word-an extreme form uf suspension. The most ordinary instances of 
such single-letter al,breviations, Zittaae 
il/!JuZa1'eð, .-in[jtdac litterae, or 
ði[jZn, are those which indicate proper names, or titles, or words of common 
occurrence, and which are familiar to us, not only in the inscriptions on 
coins aUlI monuments,l,ut also in the texts of classical writers: lleing 
generall,y llistingui:-;hed from other letters or words by the full point (the 
special mark of abbreviation h,y suspcnsion) which is placed after them. 
The same sy:-;tem was fullowe,l in the middle ages and survives at the 
present day. 
But the representation of words by single letters could only be 
carried out to a limitell extent. Olwiously the same letter must do 



'II 


ABBREYL\.TIUXS AXD COXTRACTIOXS 


8:} 


duty for many words and confusion be the consequence. Hence arises 
a farther extension of the system: the u!"e of special marks, or of two 
or more letters. The Romans wrote )r. = )lanius, to distingui
h that 
name from :U. = )[arcus; Cn. = Gnaeus, to prevent confusion with C. = 
Gaius. These 
imple lll\:'thods of ahbreviation led on to others, the 
de,-elopement of which can be traced in the early legal MSS., such as the 
Gaius of Yerona, or the wax:ed taùlets, and particularly in the' Xotarum 
Laterculi' or' Xotae luris '-the lists of abbreviations used in the Roman 
law-hooks. I In these documents, as regards single-letter aùbre,-iations, 
we find not onlJT such forms as A.=aut, C.=Cllusa, D.=divu
, E.={'
t, 
and ,,0 on, any of which might occur independently in a sentence, but 
also whole phrases, as, C. D. E. R. 
. E.=rui/ls dc ea 1"(' notio {'.<:-t, or 
A. T. )l. D. O. = (lio te 1/
ilâ dare oJJortae, showing to what an extent this 
elementary system could be employed in books of a technical nature. 
Indeed, in technical works, single-letter phrases continued to be u<;ed in 
)[S;:,. down to the inwntion of printing. Eut the inconvenience of such 
abbrm-iations is seen in such double meanings as A.=aut or annU8, 
C.=emISlt or CÙ'Ùl, D.=dÜ'U8 or dellif, F.=fecit or j
rrnilia or jide
. 
Yet the sense of the context might ùe generally depended upon for 
giving the correct interpretation: and confusion was also, in some 
instances, .ob,'iated by the addition of a lIistinguishing mark, such as 
a horizuntal struke placed abo,-c the letter or an apostrophe or similar 
sign placed after it, as 
 = lIOn. 
' = nee. The representation of words 
hy two or more of their letters is seen in such ahbreviations as IT= itcm, 
ACT. =aduln,AX =allte, ED. = edidl 1 1ll, l)IP= illlper(ltul', CO)I.=comes, 
EU=eorum, crI=cui
/s, FV =jlât, in which the first letters of each 
word are written, leaving the rest in suspension; or in such primitive 
compendia a,> EXP = exelllpllwl, 01iB=umll,ibus, )l)IT=momentllllì, 
BR=bollOnon, H D =/luedun, where the salient letters are expressed, in 
some instances with a view to indicating the inflections. From this 
latter method was de,-eloped the more systematic syllabic sJ'stem, in 
which the leading letters of the syllables were gi,-en, as EU=eI'!Jo, 
HR=/ICl'e
. (
 D =ll/1idem, QB=ljuibl l ,",. QH =quure, SÏ'=suti
, :\I'Ì'= 
melltem, T )I =tamen, SX =8lllli, EX = "helle, DD=dcintle, and the like. 
But still there remained the need of indicatin
 inflection::> and termina- 
tions more exactly than by this simple proces::>. This want was supplied 
in the fir
t place hy the adoption of certain of the Tironian symùols- 
others of those shorthand ",igns being at the 
allle time used, for certain 
prepo
itions or prefixes-and also by smaller oyer-written letters, a
 
QO=q
w, Vm=VU'ltlll, H"=htlIlC, Tc=tUI1C. This over-writing was not, 
howe,-er, confined to the indication of terminatiuns: it was aIi'o adupted 


1 
ef> ill Keil, r;"wlIiwlici Latini, i\". :?65. the Yof((lUln LaterCllli, ed. :Uommsen. 



86 


GREEK AX]) LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


,'HAP. 


for general u
e to mark lear1ing letters, aR in ::;i=8illt, NO=1W8tC1'. 
So =801',", etc., a practice which may lIe regarded n:, à stage between 
suspension and contraction. As will preRently be seen, it holds an 
important place in the later me<<liae,-al Rcheme. 
Here we ha,-e to take account of the new I'ystem of contraction 
which, as deRcribed abo,-e, was introduced into Greek )ISB, of the early 
Christian period from the HelleniRt treatment of the Komina Sctc/'((, and 
which was adopted by the Latin scriheR from the Greek. On the nati ,-e 
Greek system of suspension thi1i new b,ystem, as we have seen, had no 
serious effect. The result was different in the case of Latin )1
S, There 
the sJTstem of contraction, once accepted, beeame predominant, and, 
although that of suspension was not altogether superseded, J"et the 
elaborated methods employed in the 
ISS. of the middle ages were in 
the direction of contraction, not of suspension, By transliterating the 
contracted forms of the following 1Yornin(( 1::)(((,,/'((, they appeared in 
Latin tllU!'.: Ðë llecame lJ
 (the fir
t and last letters of DC1t8); 
 
hecame SPS (the firRt two letters and the laRt letter of Spi'/'ifl l ."); 
(HC XPC (a variant of the more normal IT xC) became IH::; XP::; l 
(that is, IeðW, Cll1'i."tll.", the forms of the Greek eta, ('It i, and '/'lto being 
imitated, just as we have seen the Heùrew name of Jehovah, copie,l in 
imitative Greek letters); and KC IJecallle D
:-; or ]))1:-; (three letters 
IJeing written instead of two, which strict transliteration would lU1,-e 
rerluired, in onler to a,'oid confusion with D::; ) .
 The form IH
 Xl'::; was 
the first to IJe used ill Latin; a later form lHU Xl'C appears in English and 
Irish l\lSS., and then, from the ninth century, in tho
e of the Contincnt,3 
The two forms of DOJII imt.", lJ
::; and D)1::; , were used i"imultaneouslJ" in 
early :m:3S,; ùut the form D
::; :,uperseded the other as the title of thé 
Almighty, D:\lS being reRerved for human beings.'" 


1 Christian of Sta\"elot, in the ninth centU1'
-, commenting on Matt. i. 21 (I\ligne, CH. 
1278", writes: 'Scribitur Jesus per iota et eta et sigma et apice [stroke of contmctioll] 
òesuper apud nos. Nam in Graecorum libris solulUlUodo per iota et sigma et a!,ice desuper 
invenitur scriptum, et sicut alia nomina Dei com!'rehen
Ï\'e dehent scribi, quia ncmcll 
Dei non potest litteris e
plicari: 
2 It is to be borne in mind that the horizontal stroke marking contraction CO\Oer" 
all the letters of the contracted word
, as it does in the Greek. And as in Greek, as 
already noticed, by a natural confusion the uncontmctpd 0EOC was 
oll1etimes marl<.d 
with the !'.troke, ëEõ(; so in Latin there are in
tances of a parallel confusion, It.EL
, 
DEU , etc. 
s The rese.u'chesofT.-auhe (Vorles"llyfn und Ablwndllmgen, Bd. i. HIll . of Professor ,Yo :\1. 
Lindsay, and of others have been directell to the ÏIl\ estigation of the s
'stems of imle- 
pendent schools in 'Vestern EUI"O!,e !,re\"ious to the Carolingian period. 
. At a later time a distinction was drawn hetween the full word dominus and th" 
syncopated form dcmmus or dompllus, the latte,' heing employed III monastic life as a human 
title, e, g. 'domnus ahhus', while tht' former was resen'ed for the Lord of Heayen.-Cus" 
tomary of St. Augllsfille'.<. GmlerlJury, etc. ,IIenQ" Brat1shaw Soc.', i. 4. 



'II 


ABBREYL\TIO
;::; AXD CO.xTHACTIUX
 


87 


The above contracted 
YOlII i Mt S,ICI.(t appear in the earl,}' ,-ellum 
uncial codices; the others were not taken o,'er from the Greek, with the 
exception, afterwanls in the sixth century. of the namL'S DL1,-id, Israel, 
and Jeru:,alem. But the contractecl '::'.C:-:; =
allrl118 and SÏ (to be distin- 
guished from the later 
RI ) = 110,'(1"1" were added. A fewaM,re,"iations 
hy suspension are also found in those codices, such LIS B. = termination 
Lu
. Q. = termination q'lle, and omission of final )1 or K reprt:'
ented II,}- 
a horizontal stroke. 
The scribes naturall,}" extended the new principle of contraction to 
general literature and its com-enience ensured its adoption, espeL'iall,}" in 
books of a legal and other teehnical nature. 
The principles of the methods sketched out abm"e held good al
o 
throughout the later middle ages; hut of the simple letter-forms onl,}" 
a certain number sunived. They were too arùitrar,}" to ùe ccntinueù in 
general use; aIllI more exact and con,-enient combinations and sign!'. took 
their place. Ewn where the,}" still sun"i,"e,l in form their original meaning- 
was sometimes superseded: e.g. the early s,}-llabic suspenùed compendium 
T )l = (mnen under the contraction system l.ecomes fa n( 1111
. The period of 
transition from the older to the newer system lies in the course of the 
eiJ,!hth and ninth centuries, at the time when the nu'olingian !'.chools 
were effecting their great reform in the handwriting of "-estern Europe 
anel hall the authorit,}" to enforce the adoption of settled rules. By the 
ele' enth century the contraction "ystem had grown to full de,"elope- 
ment. It reached its culminatin;; point in the thirteenth century, the 
period when it was more excessiwly use,l than at any other. After 
that date mark" and symbols nre less exactly formed and graduall,}- 
degenerate into hasty dashes anll tlourishe:-. 
Ha,"ing thus traced the general construction of Latin alJbreviation 
and contraction, we ma,}" now ùrietly notice the Hlrious "ig-ns and mark:, 
which are employed for thi:, purpose in the 1\1:-;"';. of the middle age
. 
)Iarks or siu-ns of ahhreviation or contraction are either (reneral or 
o ð 
special. General signs are those which indicate the suppre:-sion of one 
or more letters without gi,"ing a direct clue to what such letters ma,}" be. 
Special signs indicate the suppres:,ion of particular letters. Among the 
latter must IJe also included o,"er-written letters which, in some instances, 
ha,-e in course of time changed their forms anll ha'"e \Yorn down into 
mere s,}-mbols. 
The earliest amI simplest mark of ahhre,-iation is the full point. 
usuall,}" placed on a le,-el ,\.ith the middle of the letter or letters of the 
al.bre,-iated wonI, as A'=OII(, FF.=fi"a(l'e13, or-to give the conllllone",t, 
amI often the onI,}", abbre,-iatiuns in early maju:,cule )I::;
.-B.= (termina- 
tion) lrns, Q.=q/le, ahead,}" noticed above. In place of the full point, 
a colon or ,.emicolon wa:, next employe'I, as in B: B: Q: Q:, amI the latter, 




8 


GREEK AXD LATI
 PALAEO(lRAPHY 


CHAP. 


hecoming the favourite form, grew, Ly rapid writing, into a 3- sha ped 
sign, which appears from the ele,-enth century onwards, as 1'3=lms, 
q3=q
W. From its frequent recurrence in the latter common word it 
even came to represent the q as well as ue, in composition, as at3 = 
(dqlle, ne3 = nequc. But it was not confined to the representation of 
terminal 
t8 and ue; it also appears for termination et, as in deL, = dehct, 
p t 3=placet, s3=set (i.e. 
'ccl): a survival of which is seen in the z in our 
common abhreviation, ,'iz. = videlicet. At a later period it abo repre- 
sented final m. as in na3=/wlU, ite3=itcm, ide3= idclll. 
The same 3-shaped sign likewise is found sometimes as the sign for C13t 
in compu:-;ition, as in intcr3= i nte/"c
t. But here it has a different deriva- 
tion, being a cursive rendering of the spnLol -:- = Ct;t. 
The horizontal stroke (L'iI'[Jlda, apc.è, titulni>, titula, titellui>, t:tellu) 
is the most general mark both of su:>pension and contraction, awl in 
110th uses it maJT indicate the omission of manJT letters. 'Ve ha ,'e seen it 
employed in the' :K otae Iuris'. It is usually either a straight or a waved 
line. In early carefully-written )ISS. it is ornamentally formed with 
hooks at the ends '--;. In its simplest use as a mark of alJIlreviation it is 
found in majuscule ::USS. at the end (rarely in the hody) of a line to 
indicate omission of final )1 or X. It wa'! placed high in the line, at fir:st, 
to the right, as ArTE-=autem; and in some instances a point was 
H(lded to distinguish omission of)l from omi:-;:-;iun of N, as EXI-:- =enilll, 
:K 0- = no Il. Afterwards the simple stroke was placed aLo,'e the last 
letter, as EN!, :IS O . 
Analogous to the horizontal stroke is the ol,liliue stroke, which in 
minuscule texts takes the place of the horizontal chietly in words in 
which the tall letters Land 1 occur, as apli=apustoli, mlto= lIlulfu, 
lit'e=lilJac, procl=ZJ1'vcul. 
Of the same class is the waved ,'ertieal stroke (sometimes in the form 
of a cun'e rising from the preceding letter), often userl to signify the 
omi
sion of CI' or ?'c; as b'uiter=brc/'itCl', c'tm.i=cci'iHi>. 
Less freriuent, l)ecause it dropped out of general use, is the final 
oùlique stroke, also found in the earlier minuscule )ISS., usuallJ' for 
terminations 
t8, 
tl', u?n (after I'), as aI1f=U1WI', aman1f=a?IHt?nH.
 
amatf=a1lwtll1', reJj.=TeTum. Of these. the last termination ?"turn con- 
tinued to Le represented in this way, especially in words in the geniti,'e 
plumP 
Another general sign of early use was the round eurve or comma 
allove the line, which, as late as the ninth century. continued to repre- 
sent the terminations UI', o.
, Uti. In later )lðS. the curve alone was 


1 A curious result of the use of this sign is seen in the second name fur Salisbury, 
'Sarum.' The Latin S.lrisburia in abbre, iat(,J form was written Sa!/-, and camc to be 
read SUl"1lm. 



'"II 


ABBHEYL\TIUX::; AXD CUXTIL\CTIOXS 


fm 


retaincd to indicate the termination '1',,< (sometimes V1"). and so became 
.1 special sign (see below). 

\. long drooping stroke attached to the end of a wurd is often foullIl 
.1S a general sign to indicate the suspension of an
" termination. It is, 
however. specially u:-;ed for termination is. In the fourteenth century it 
(le,"elopes into a loop. as dictf=dictið. 
A ..ign nearly re:-;emhling an invertecl C or the numeral 9, Tironian 
in its ori
ill, usually signifies the syllal)le con or COii
, also more rarel.r 
nul, or CUla, as 9do=CI)Jt(7o, 9munis=cullwwnis. cir9scrÌptus=cir- 
('l'lII,'<aillfllS, 9 cti = cUllcti. 1 It always stands in the line of writing. 
A similar sign (to which reference has already heen made), alJove the 
line. represents the termination '1l"', as bons=bomls: also more rarely vs, 
as n 9 = nos, p 9 t = l'o.
f. In the last wonl it is sOluetimes used for the 
whole termination o:--t. as p9. 
A sign &omewhat l"(.:-;eml.ling the numeral 2 placed olJliquely C)..., also 
.lerive.l frolU a Tironian note, is written for the termination '1lr, as 
mnat'J. =u'Ilwfl' 1'. It is also placcd horizolltall.r. as fert
=jcrt'llr, Being- 
comm.ml.r pmployed in the case of ,-erbs. it also sometimes stands for the 
I I .. 'J. 
W to e terllllnatlOn flu, as ama . 
The letter p having a cnrve llrawn through the down stroke. ,po i<; to 
l,e read j"'o. In Yisigothic )IS:-ì.. however. it signifies pU, very rarely 
lll'V, which is usually in such )1:-;;-;. written in full. P crossed with 
a horizontal bar. p. is per. also Pili', PilI'. as }?tem=l'ltrfem, optet= 
VlJU'rtct. The salUe letter with a horizontal or wave. I ol,li(!ue stroke ur 
cun-e placed ahln-e it (when not at the end of a word) lJecomes 1)/'c, ao; 
[.sertim = jn'c
crti ilL, p'Let = jll'd,ct. 
The following connntiollal signs, partl,}" from Tironiannute
, are also 
I1se.l with more or It,,,;s frequency, some of them especially in early Irish 
.lUlI English )lS
. :- 
If=al,teln, 3=eiIl8, ==e1"
e, ..:;..=cst (which degenerates into a 
,-shaped sign: see allon), If= }I.:'1', 7 =et, 7 =Cti((llì, 
 (later -tt and .tt. 
and thence .n.)=eaim, .i.=id e
t, t=/'cl,-&=ubiit, obiÜt:;. li=ltOc, \" awl 
Ù='1tf. 
With rep-ard to the Latin contracted form of our Lord's name Jesus 
Christ, it is tu llc noted that it continued to Le written by the later 
me.liaeval 
crilJes in Greek letter::; awl in cuntracted form as it had been 
written in uncial )l
S., thu:-: lHS 
l'
 , or IHC 
l'C . When these words 
CiUlle to be written in minu::,cule letter
. the >-cril.es treated them as if 
Latin words written in L'Üin letters, and tran:,crilJed them ills Xf)
, illc 
xÏJc. Hence aro:-;e the erroneous idea that the form Ihesus was the 
currect one, and l,y fal:,e analogy the letter h was introduced into other 
pruper names, as lheru:,alem, l:-rahel. 
ilJlilarly the terminating letter c, 


I The letter c surmounted l,y n horizùntallìlle :Ibù r('pr"
ents cwo 



gO 


GHEEK AXD LATIK PALAEO(;RAPHl 


CHAP. 


for s, was carried o'"er by Eeribes to other wonls. as epc=el)i8COp11
. 
sfc=l'pi ritlls, tpc = tClllpU
. 
)[ost ordinaril,}', o'"er-written letters are ,-owcls. to which the letter 
l' has to be supplied to solve the reading, as g3tia=gmtiu, cfita=cal'la, 
tes= tl'es, vPba=1'e
'[,a, pior= in.ior, vituS=1'id1t.
, agOs= agro8, cOpus 
= co i'j J'U 8, pUdens=prudcut', t U ris=f1l1Til:i. The more usual contractions 
of this character are those in which the l' precedes the vowel. Other 
letters may also he understoofl, as in q"=qua, bo"=blJlla, qiLus=quilJU8. 
m i =1nilti, mO='iJwdll. The letter a when over-written frequcntly has- 
the open form (it), which degenerates into a mere zigzag horizontal line 
or flattenell u (,^,). 
\Vhen con<;onants are over-written the numLer of letters to be 
supplied is quite uncertain: a single vowel is omitted in such words 
as n C = aec, hc=hic; se,-eral letters are understood in such a contract-iun 
as pt= plltcöi. The m-er-written consonant is usually the last letter of 
the wonI. I 
In some instances two or more letters are over-written, as hu 9oi = 
lt1.1Í111:i/1/()(li, incorple8= iUf01ïJondcs; hut such full forms are seldom 
wanted. 
The compendia of certain common wonls, in which the letter g i
 
prominent, take a special form, as gi and gr= i[/it111', g"=CJ'Ult, gO=C1'YO. 
The amount of ahLreviations and contractions in a :MS. depended to a 
considerable extent upon the character of the text. As has been already 
obsen-ed. the,}- were more freel,}' used in technical books than in works of 
general literature. In )188. written in majuscule letters. and particularly 
in biblical and liturgical codices, which were specially re,}uired for pulJlic 
reading, they arc ,'ery few (see aLm-e). \\ïth the introduction of 
minuscule writing for the hook-hand. anll if the )IS8. were written 
for printte use, there was more scope for this convenient s,}'stem of saving 
labour and space; hut in works intemled for general use there was 
seldom au excesS uf compemlia or the employment of arbitrary forms 
such as to render the reading of the text difficult. Wheu once the 
elcments amI principles of the Hystem are under:::tood. and the eye has 
been fairly practised, no ordinary )[:--;. will present difficulties to till' 
reader. 
In the case of texts written in the ,-ernacular languages uf thu
e 
countries of Europe which have adopte(l the Roman alphabet, it will Ill' 
found that al)l>reviatiun is more rarely allowed than in )[SS. written 
in Latin. A s,}-stem suited to the inflections amI terminatiuns of that 
language coulll not IJe well adapted to other languages so different in 
their structure. 


I "'ith I'egard to oyer-written s, it may he noted that in Yi
igothic writing a sig.. 
re
emlJling that lette,' is u-ell in the word lJ.' = que. But thb is deli ,-ed from thl' cur
in' 
fOI"111 of o\"er-writtùn u. 



,u 


91 



T)IER.AL:::' 


In Greek )J

. we find two systems of expn.ssillg numlJers lJY signs, 
hoth l,eing taken mainly from the alphahet. The older system emplor
 
the initial letters of the names of certain numl,ers as their symbols, a... 
n for 5, !::. for 10, H laspirate) for 100, X for 1,000, M fur 10.oua. The 
numerals from one to four are represented hy units, from six to nine hy 
n with added units: multiples of tens and upw,tnb are ex:preso.;e(l l'r 
repetitions or differentiations of the several symbols. This has lJeen 
called the Herodian system, after the name of the grammarian who 
described it.. It is seen in use in the papyri. especially in the stic1w- 
nwtrical memoranda of the numbers of the lines contained in them: 
and such notes are abo found tran!'omitted to yellum )I::;
. of the 
middle ages. 
The other system ""as to take the tirbt nine letters of the alphal,et 
for the units, and the rest for the tens and hundreds, disused letters 
being still retained for numeration, ,'iz. F, d iywJi/lw, for f\ which in its 
early form appears as <; or ." and afterwards, in the mid. lIe ages. 
hecumes 9", like the coml,ined (J" and T or 
ti[Jm((,; <;, kOP1JU, for 90: and 
a syml J ol derind from the old letter 
alt, which appears in papyri a,> T 
or 1" and at later periods as q which, from its partial resemblance to 
pi, was called 8Umpi (=I<(l/
+ pi), for 900. This "ystem was in full uo;e 
in the thinl century lI.C. 1 The numerals were usually distinguished from 
the letters of the text hy a horizontal stroke above: thus ã. To illlli- 
cate thousands a stroke was added to the left of the numeral: tlm:-. 
,/3=2,000, ;y=3,OOO. Dots were sometimes added to iwlicate tens of 
thousands, as ä, .g., 'é. Fractiom, could be imlicated by an acute 
accent alJove the letter, a'S ")1' = !, ò' = -1-, 1'= -1, etc.: or special symbol... 
were employed, a,; shown in the list of those found in the papyri (!'>ee 
a1)o\-e, p. 81). 


The Roman system of numerals, with the use of which" e are familiar 
eyeD at the present llay. wa" emplo
'ed throughout the middle age!"', awl 
wa!- not displaced by the introduction of the Arabic sp..tem, although 
the latter, from its conyenience. was widely adoptel1. The Roman f.ystem 
was continued as the more official, and money accounb "ere calculated 
in it!', numerals. 
To distinguish the numerals from the letters of the text they were 
phwed between points: thus .XL.. Eesides the ordinary method of 
indicating thousands b
' repetitions of :\1. units with horizontal strokes 


I The practice of numbering the succe"si,-e book" of a wor!., as ".g. the twent)'-four 
books of the Ilj(,d, b
- the successive letters of the alphabet, is hanlly a 

 stem of numera 
tiûn in the proper sen,e of the wont In certain ca
"s we find it c0nvenient to m.,ke uw 
of 0111' alphabet in a sC'me" hat similar way, to mark a series. 



!J;! 


GREEK AND L.\.TIX P_\L\.EOURAPHY 


above were also cmployed for the purpose: thus, i, ' II ', . III., etc. 
Certain special signs occur in somc 
ISS.: as the Visigothic 9" =] .OOU 
awl )("=40, and the not very uncommon sign ç=6, which has IJeen 
,lerived from the l{reek symbol, but which lllay IJe only a combi[]ation 
of U (Y) awl 1. A cross-stroke trnversing a numeral sometimes indicates 
. I t . 1 I If . t . ... _'>1 )( _nl -)( - I C ) 1 
lee uc 1011 )y 1a a unl , as IH-
2' ')( - v2' x.)( - '"2' 
Arabic nUllleralR first appear in European )1
S. in the tenth century 
(A.D. f)i6), hut they were not well known till the thirteenth century, 
their early use being general in mathematical works; hy the fourteenth 
century they had IJecome universal. They have not changed much in 
form since their first introduction. the greatest difference from the 
modern shapes IJeing seen in 7 = 2, Q = 4, II = 5, and ^ = 7. The modern 
2 hecame general in the fourteenth century IJY adding a horizontal foot 
to the old form; the ^ IJecame the modern 7 in the fifteenth century, 
simply by alteration of position; Q also in the same wny took its mOflern 
form in that century (in Itnly, early in the century); nnd, last of all, the 
II became the moclern 5 partially in the fifteenth, and generally in 
the sixteenth, century.I 


Here we bring to n close the preliminary section of this work, in which 
we have dealt with the inception. the early growth. aUlI the developement 
of the book in thc Greek and Roman world and in the middle ages, its 
external qualities, the materials of which it was composed, the shape::; it 
assumed. 'Ye have examined the practices which governed the arrange- 
ment of the text; we have noted the implements with which it \Va::; 
inscribed, the mechanical devices for its measurement, for its punctuation, 
for its ready .lelivery, when necessary, in public reading; and we ha,-e 
described the means employe,l for its compact setting l,y artificial 
systems of aU)re\"Ìation. 

ow we pm'R to the stUlly of the several cla::;t:;e::; of handwriting which 
fall within the scope of our inquiry unùer the two separate and compre- 
hensive divi::;Ïons of Greek Palacography and Latin Palaeography. 


1 See G. F. HilI, On the cally use of Ambic SI!III
mls in,Europe, in A,c1weolugia, lxii. 1;37. 



CIL\PTER YlII 


GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY 


Papyri 
THE condition
 of the 
tlt(ly of Greek Palaeogral'hy ha\-e I,ecoml' 

ul
ject to serious mollifications (luring the course of the latter part of 
the nineteenth century. owing to the extraordinary disconries of Greek 
papyri in Egypt. At the beginning of the century the existence of such 
papyri "oa
 scarcely suspectecl: at its close the mas<; of documents accumu- 
late,] in the museums and lihrarie
 of Europe awl in prinÜe hanrlf., has 
proved enough to tax the energies of the f.,cholars who han r]e\"oter] 
themselves to their r]ecipherment anò interpretation. A new branch of 
palaeography has grown up, and papyrology is now an important amI 
well-estal.lished 
tw ]y. 
The excavations to which we owe these results h:l\ o e lairl out l,efore 
us not only many examples of the ancient literature of Greece, hut also 
a va<;t store of documents of hoth an official awl pri\-ate character. The 
dry soil of Egypt ha!' l)('en impartial in its preselTation of all that has 
l'een conlluittell to it either hy design or by accident. If, on the one 
hawl, there has been recoverer 1 a more or less perfect roll containing some 
long-lost work of great writer or poet from the toml. of the 
cholar who 
owned it when li\-ing and harl it laid by his bOlly in death, so also, on 
the other hãmI, haw the miscellaneous papers of r]aily life he en dug out 
of the rulJhish mounds of the desert-records of revenue. taxaiion ro])s, 
con\"eyances of land. IJUsiness contracts l,et,,-een man amI man, corre- 
spondence of officials, letters of father aUfl son and of master amI servant, 
wi])" of the deceased, the trivial memorandum of an irlle moment. 
Hence the student of Greek Palaeography to-day has to extend his view 
onr a vastly wider fiele] than his predccessor harl to 
un-ey. He no 
longer is restricted to the scrutiny of a limiterl numher of papyri of 
classical literature written in the hook-hands of the time, awl to the 
decipherment of a fe\\" documents written in the cursive hawls of one or 
two sparse decarles. He ha:o. now to nHtke a stwly not only of newly 
disco\"ered anrlmore ancient forms of l'ook-writing. hut still more of an 
endle:-s variety of cursi\"e han,ls of imlivi,luals, sprearl no longer through 
decades hut O\oet. hundrerls of years. In a wor,l, he has to l'ecome 
acquainted, rlm"iug thé papyrus period, with Greek hallflwriting in many 
phases, and not only in its literary dre[o;s. AmI in proportion to the 



9-1 


GREEK .ASD LATIX PALAEOURAPHY 


CH.\.P. 


prog-ress of exca,-ations and the acquirement of neW" material will his 
toil increase. But, if his labours are thw, enlarged, so likewise are his 
ach-antages amI opportunities. If before the new disconries he was 
groping in the dark and could onl
' conjecture whence and how the 
Greek uncial and the Greek minuscule Look-hands of the vellum period 
arose, hc has now the means for the solution of t]w problpm a11l1 can link 
the middle ages with the past. 
In the particular of being representati '"e of all killlls of writing- the 

eries of Grcek papyri stanch, alone. XI) other class of )ISS. is equally 
comprehensive. For early Latin examples even Egypt fails us. Greek 
was the official and polite language of the Ptolemaic, the Roman, amI the 
Byzantine periorls of government in that country. But few Roman 
tlocuments in the Latin tongue have come to light there; and although 
some lucky chance may from time to time yield to the spade of the 
cxcavator isolated specimens or even small groups of Latin papyri, such 
fortune seems to be the Lest that we may reasonably look for. 
Turning to the Europe.:'ul sources of matcrial for stmlies in lJoth (h-eek 
a11l1 Latin Pltlaeography, we have literature in those tongues emlJodied 
in the codices of the early centuries of our era and of the middle agcs, in 
which we can follow the progress of the lJook-hand. ""e han. too, in 
Grcek, in ,-ery scanty nUJulJers, in Latin, in large numlJers, documents 
which show what were the official cursive hands of the middle ages; and 
from them and from 
mch cursively writtcn cOllices a:-> scholars haxe left 
behind, we can, in tentative fashion, reconstruct the domestic handwriting 
of different periods; but the domestic 110cuments themselves have sur- 
vived in very insigniticant numhers. The casual papers of pri,oate life, 
once done with and cast aside, naturally perished. 
The first discovery of Greek papyri in Eg-ypt took place in the year 
1778. when fifty rolls were found in the neighhourhood of )[emphis, 
according to the natin account, llut more probalJly in the Fayùm. 
Unfortunately, all Lut one were carelessly destroyed; the survivor was 
presented to Cardinal Stefano Borgia, under whose auspices it was 
pulJlished in 1788, Cltad(f pap!Jmcea Jlusei BfJ?'uialti relitrii, lJY :-)chow. 
It is of the year 191 aftcr Christ, Lut is of no literary importance. This 
tind was followed early in the last century, aLout 1820, Ly the disconry 
of a collection. enclo:-;ed, according to the story of the Arabs who found 
it, in a single vessel, on the sitc of the Sl
rapeum or temple of Serapi:-; at 
)Icmphis. The finders tlivided the hoard among themselves, and hcnce 
the collection founll its way piccemeal into ditferent lilJraries of Western 
Europe. Paris securetl the largest number, which have heen puhlished, 
with an atlas of facsimiles, in the Xutices et r;,ctmits des Jlauul5c/.its de 
tf( lJiUi{Jtltèlpte lmpériale, etc., vol. xviii, 1865. A certain numlJer fell 
to the share of the British Museum and are pulJlished in the Catalog'lfe 



, III 


(ìHEEK PAPYRI 


9;') 


(
f Greel
 PllJI!JI'i in tlle Br;ti.
lt JhU'
el' Ill. Some are in the Yatican, and 
others are at Leyden amI Dresùen: 
The larger numher of the documents thus hrought to li
ht have 
perpetuated a little (hmestic romance, ancl have preserved the memory 
of two poor twin sisters allli the wrongs they endured in the second 
century R.C. Thaues awl Thaw, were the daughters of a native of 
)Jemphis, who in an unhappy hour married a woman named X L})llOris. 
Deserted by her, and maltreated by her paramour, he tiell away amI died; 

l1ld the twins wpre forthwith turned out of duors. But a friewl was at 
hawl. 
\mong the recluses of the temple of Serapis was one Ptolemy, 
son of Glaucias, a lIacedonian hy hirth, whose father hall settled in the 
Home of Heracleopolis, and who hall entered on his life of seclu"ion 
in the year 173 B.C. As an old friend of their father, he now came 
forward and ohtaim:ll for the two girls a place in the temple. Their 
duties. upon which they entered in the year 165 B.C., included the offering 
of libations to the gods, a sen-ice which entitled them to certain allow- 
ances of oil allll Lread. All went well for a ùrief six months, lJlÜ then 
the supplies began to fall into arrears. The poor twins triell in vain to 
g:et their rights, and their appeals to the sul,onlinate officials, who hall 
prolJ1lbly di,-ertetl the allowances to their own use, were disregarded. 
Again the good Ptolemy came to the rescue amI took the matter in hawl ; 
and very pertinaciously did he pursue the claim::>. Petition after petition 
issued from his ready pcn. Appeals to the gonrnor : appeals to the king; 
a reference to one official ,,-as referred again to another, who, in his turn, 
passed it on to a third; reports were returnell, duly dockete(l, awl 
pigeon-holed; again they were called for, allli the g:ame wa'! carried on 
in a way which would 110 credit to the government offices of the mmt 
ci,-ilized nation. But Ptolemy was not to be beaten. \Ye know that he 
at length succeeded in getting for the twins payment of a large portion 
of arrears, and at the moment when the documents cease he is still left 
fig-hting. That his eHorts were eventually crownetl with a full success 
we cannot douLt; and thus ends the story of the twins. 
These documents, then, and certain others inclulling other petitions 
and documents of the peJ'sistent Ptolemy, form the lmlk of the collection 
which was found on the site of the Serapeum at )[emphis. Its palaeo- 
graphical value cannot Le too highly estimated. Here, thauks chieBy to 
the ready pen of an obscure reclu<;e, a fairl.y numerous series of documents 
hearing dates in the secowl century B.c. ha
 descended to us. If the 
sands of Egypt had preserved a collection of such trivial intrinsic impor- 
tance, proLal J ly from the accident of its !.eing l,uried in the tom!. of the 
man who had written so many of its documents, what might not be 
looked for if the la<;t resting-place of a scholar were found 1 The expecta- 
tions that papyri inscriljed "ith the works of Greek classical authors, and 



96 


nREEK AXD LATIX PAL\.EO(mAPHl 


CHAP. 


written in Egypt or importetl thither during tIll' reigns of the Ptolemie:o. 
or in the Roman period. woulll sooner. or later come to light gra(lually 
lJegan to be realized. 
Several papyri containin
 I)ooks, or fragments of hooks, of Homer's 
If icul haTe heen recovercilo One of the best known is the' Harris Homer' 
containin
 a large portion of hook xxiii, ,,-hich wa,.; fouIlll in 184fJ-50 Ly 
J\lr. A. C. Harris, in the Crocodill' Pit at 3Ia'ah1eh, in the Fayûm, and 
is now in the British )[nseum (Cat. A Ill'. 11/ :is. i. pI. 1: Pul.:i 'c. ii. (4). 
It has been assign('ll to the first century of our pra. Of later date is the 
'Bankes Homer', of the second century, containing the greater part of 
hook xxi,-. which was bought at Elephantine, in 1t\21, hy the traveller 
"ïlliam Eankes, amI is also in the British 
[u
eum (Cat. A 1(('. .lIS:i. 
i, pI. 6: Pill. Suc. ii. 153). It was the first Greek literary papyrus 
found in Egypt. A third important )IS. of HOIlwr, which has also matlp 
its way into the national collectiun (Brit. Mus., Papyrus cxxvi), is the 
papyrus in form or a Look, inscribe. 1 on the recto sille of the leaves with the 
Iliad, from line 101 of book ii to line 40 of hook iv. It was lliscovered 
in the same Crocodile Pit as the Harris Homer, and also helonge,l to 
)[1'. Harris. It is not, hO\yenr, of early date. heing pro!.rthly as late as 
the third century; Lut it has a special interest fmm the exi>>tence, on 
the 1,ack of three of the leaves, of a portion of a treatise on Greek 
grammar. which gives an outline of various parts of speech, and which 
1,ears in its title the name of Tryphon, a grammarian who flourishe.l in 
the latter half of the first century :B.C. The treati
e, however, is pro1.- 
aLly only an abstract of the work of that writer. Among later acquisi- 
tions by the British )Iuseum is a papyrus, 1.rought fmm Egypt in 1896. 
contn.ining the greater part of 1)00k8 xiii amI xiv of the II Lad (Papyrus 
dccxxxii), of the first or second century. AUfl of 
reat palaeographical 
value is the fragmentary papyrus of book ii, in large uncial ldters 
of the second century, which was found by Professor Flinders Petrie 
at Hawara and is now in the Bodleian Lihrary (Petrie, IIlm'u)'C(. 188f1, 
pI. xxiii). Besides these Homeric pap,yri, there are others of a frag- 
mentary character: such as the British )Iuseull1 Papyrus cxxviii, con- 
taining considera1 J le portions of the lfiurl, 1 J ooks xxiii and xxi,-, and the 
fragments in the LOllVI'(' of hooks vi, xiii, and x,-iii PTot. e f E,d/'., pIs. xii, 
xlix), all of an early period; and, of rather later date, Papyru& cxxxvi in 
the British Museum, containing portions of 1.00ks iii anll i,-. 
A noteworthy addition has hf'en made to classical lib-'rature 1.y the 
recovery of several of the orations of the Athenian orator Hyperides. 
The papyrus containing his three orations against Demosthenes and for 
Lycophron amI Euxenippu8 originally must have measured SUllle eight 
and twenty feet, and is, for half its length, in unusually good condition. 
It was acquired in separate portions by .!\fl'. Anlen and l\Ir. Harris 



nIl 


GREEK PAPYRI 


97 


in 184,7. (::;ce editions of Professor Babington, 1850,1853; Cat. Ane. JI::;S. 
i, pIs. 2, 3; Pal. 
oc. i. 126.1 It is ascribed to the first century A.D. A fourth 
work of the same author is the funeral oration which he delivered over 
the Athenian general Leosthenes and his comrades, who fell in the Lamian 
"ar in 323 B.C. (ed. Babington, 18:>8). The date of this text was formerly 
placed in the fir,.,t or second century B.C.; a horoscope of a person born 
in A.D. 95 being inscribed on the other side of the papyrus. But it has 
now been prm'ed that the oration is on the l'eI'SO side of the papyrus (i.e. 
the side on which the fibres run vertically). and therefore was written 
subseyuently to the horoscope in the second century A. D.; anll, further, 
the faults in orthography and the rough character of the writing have 
led to the conclu5ion that it is a stUllent's exercise. All the papyri of 
Hypericles ju'St enumerated are in the Briti
h )[useum, as well as the 
concluding portion of an oration, which is believed to lJelong to the speech 
against Philippides, in writing of the first century B.C. The )Iuseum 
of the Louvre has also heen fortunate in securing an important 
papyrus of an omtion of Hyperides against Athenogenes, of the secoml 
century D.C. (ed. E. Redllout. 18a21. 
The large collection of papyrus documents and fragments which 
pas
etl in lR77 into the possession of the Archduke Rainer attracted con- 

iderable attention. Slowly. and with the expenditure of much patience 
and f'kill, they are lleing fleciphered and published. But sifted, as they 
chiefly are, from the saml and light soil of the Fayíì.m, the rags and 
tatters of ancient tlust-bins, they could not l,e e
pected to yield any text 
of considerable extent. The Rainer collection is, however, of very great 
palaeographical importance; for it covers a wide field, principally of 
the Byzantine period, and pro\-ides large material for the history of the 
developeIIlPnt of the minuf:>cule literar
' script. 
But a more important tliscovery, as far as palaeography is concerned. 
was that of Professor Flinders Petrie, in 1889-90, at the village of Gurob 
in the FnnÎm. Here he found that the cartonnacre coffins obtained 
. 0 
from the necropolis were composed of papyri pastetl together in layers, 
fortunately not in all instances too effectively. The result of careful 
separation has been that a large number of documents dated in the thinl 
century B.l'. have been recovered. These, together with a few of the 
same century which are scattered in different libraries of Europe, and 
whose early date had not in some instances heen recognized, formed, at 
the time of their discovery, the most ancient specimens of Greek writing 
(as distinguished from sculptured imcriptions) in e
istence above ground. 1 
Besides miscellaneous documents, there are not inconsiderable remains of 


I These PlIp:yl"Ì have been )Jublh,hed in the CWl1IitigllQm Vemoirs of the Royal Irish 
Academy (On the Flinders Petrie Pnpyri. toy J. P. :\lalulffy, with additioI:s and corrections by 
J. G. Sm)"ly, 1891-190;)'. 


1I
4 


H 



98 


(mEEK AXD LATIX PALAEOURAPHY 


CHAP. 


registers of wills, entereù up from time to time. aUlI thus pre!:'enting us 
with a ,-ariety of different handwritings as practise(l under the cady 
Ptolemiø;. Still more interesting in a literary aspect are the fragments 
(Jf the Plwedo of l'lato, al1l1 of the lost play, the A/ltiope, of Euripicles, 
two )IS8. written in the literary hook-hanel of the time, which have 
happily IJeen gleane,1 from the Gurou mummy-cases. 
'l'hese discoveries, of such inestimal,le value for the history Loth of 
Greek palaeography amI of Greek literature, had he en scarcely announced, 
when the world was astonished by the appearance of a copy, written 
about the end of the first century, of Aristotle's treatise on the Constitu- 
tion of Athens, the OoÀtnía rwv'A81]vaíwv, a work which had Ylmished 
from sight more than a thousand years ago. The papyrus containing this 
valual,le text came into the possession of the B.'itish ;\1 useum in the course 
of the :}
ear 18
O. Like the Funeral Oration of Hyperides, the work is 
written on the lJack of a disused document, th.. account-roll of a farm 
ln1Ïlitf in the district of Hermopolis in Egypt, rel1lIered in the reign of 
Yespm:;ia n , A. D, 78-7D. Four hands were ell11'10yecl in the transcription, 
the first of which is proLahly that of the scholar who clesired the copy 
for his own use; for a text written so roughly, amI that, too, on the l.ack 
of a waste papyrus, would ha,-e had no sale in the market. This recovery 
of a lost classic of such trallitional fame cast into the shade all p..evious 
finds of this nature, however important many of them had been; aUlI 
very reasonahle expectations were raised that the more systematic and 
careful exploration of Egypt in our days wouM achieve still greater 
results. By the sicle of the work of Aristotle, other papyri which have 
passed into the British Museum, containing fragments of works of 
Demosthelles, of the second or first century 11. C., amI of Isocrates of the 
first century after Christ, may appear insignificant: but the acquisition 
of a papyrus of fair length, restoring to us some of the lost poems of the 
iamLographer Herollas, who flourished in the first century B.C., is one 
more welcome alldition to the long-lost Greek literature which is again 

merging into light.! 
In 18D;!, chiefly on the site of a village in the Fayûm named Socnopaei- 
nesus, a large series of documents was fouml, ranging from the first 
century to the third century of our era. l\Iost of them are now at Berlin; 
but a large munher have found their way to the British l\Iuseum, while 
others are in the liln'aries of Vienna and Geneva, aud elsewhere. 
Again, in 1896-7, an immense collection of papyri, thousands in 


I Ari
totle's nol\I'TEía was puLlisl...d in 1891, togdher with an au tot) pe facsimile of the 
papyrus; and the poems of IIerodas, with collations of other papyri, lire printed in 
Classical Texis from Papyri in the B1itish Mus,-um. 1891 : Loth works edited by F. G. Kenyon 
for the Tl'ustecs of the British l\Iuseum. A facsimile of the papyrus of Herodas has also 
Lgen issued. Tile latel'literature reluting tu both wOI'ks is very extcnsin'. 



nn 


GREEK P.\PYRI 


!m 


nmnller. allll nUIg-inJ,! over the first six centuries of the Christian era, 
was cliscovered at 13ehllesa, the site of the ancient Oxyrhynchus, by 
1lessrs. C;renfell allll Hunt, exca,-ating for the Egypt Exploration Fund. 
Here, l)esicles innumerable documents of a non-literary charl\cter, a con- 
s:derahle cluantity of fragments of likrary works Were }'eeoverell, among 
them heing the now well-known LO:JÙt, or' Sayings of Our Lord " of the 
third centur,y, and early fragments of the Gospel of ::;t. ::\Iatthew, as well as 
remains of c1ao.;sieal authors. ExeM-ations were resumed in the winter 
of 1Ð02-3 with a result no less striking than the forlller one. Another 
fragment of the logitL; a portion of the Epistle to the Hebrews, of the 
third or fourth century: awl numerous fragments of lost Ureek classics 
have Lecn itlentifiecl. It is to be noted that, while such extensi,-e deposits 
of Greek papyri are being discovered, very fe'w exmnples of Latin papyri 
h
l\"c heen found; and it is. therefore, of particular interest that in this 
later instalment from Oxyrhynchus there is 11 Latin historical text of 
some length, ,,'hich contains part of an epitome of Livy, in a hand of the 
third eentm'y (V.r. Pap. i,-, no. (j6
; Xel" Pul. Soc. 53). Once more, in 
1906, a further exca,-ation at Oxyrhynchus was rewardefl by the recovery 
of un unusual number of literal")" papyri including the P,lC" n
 of Pimlar, 
the JJ!II",i[Jyle of Euripides, the S:Jmpo,
ilWt of Plato, the Hellellira of, 
perhaps, Cratippus, amI otlwrs. Selections from this great collection 
ure in course of publication in T11C O,)'!P'/iy'tchu;:; Pap!Jri 1JY the Egypt 
Exploration Funtl. 
A furtlll'r discovery was made in 18Ð9-1900 by 31es8rs. Grenfell and 
Hunt on the site of the ancient Tebtunis in the south of the Fayûm, 
which yidded a great store of pap,yri, chiefly of a non-literary character, 
which had heen generally used in the cartonnage of mummies and as 
wrappings of mummies of croco(liles. They range from the third 
ccntury }j.e. to the third century A.D.: and It portion of them has l)een 
puhlished in The 'L'eUUl1Ís Papyri, 1902, etc. Again, in 1902-3, mummy 
cartonnages fuund at Hiheh provided a further collection of both 
literary and domestic fragments, of the third century D.C. (1'he llibeh 
PaJl!Jri, 1906). 
Two smaller groups of miscellaneous documents have also to be noticed, 
yiz. the correspontlence of a Roman officer namell Ahinnacus, of the middle 
of the fourth century, which has been shared between the .British 1lu:seulll 
and the rni,'ersity of Geneva, in 18U2; and a coI1edion ranging from the 
second century B.C. to the third or fourth century .\.D., acquired by 
the Egypt Exploration Fund and published uy that Society (FIIYÛm, TU1J'118 
(/ltel thci?' PajJ!J?'i, 1900). 
The collection of papyri at Florence (ed. Vitelli and Comparetti, 
}909-11) has been augmented hy the bulk of the correspondence and 
papers of Heroninus, steward of domain lands at Theadelphia, of the 
HZ 



100 


GREEK AXD LATIX P ALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


middle of the third century, which have been found within the last 
few years. 
In 1896 the British 
[useUll1 acquired a papyrus of the first century R.C., 
containing a large part of the odes of Bacchylides, the contemporary of 
Pindar (edited, with a facsimile, llY F. G. Kenyon in lR97); amI early in 
1902 the oldest literar
- Greek papyrus as yet discovered was found in 
a coffin of a mummy at Ahûsîr, the ancient Busiris, near Memphis, awl 
proved to contain a large portion of the Per
úe of the poet Timotheus in 
writing- which has been estimated to be of the latter half of the fourth 
century B.C. It is now in Berlin, and has been edited, with facsimile, D'l" 
'l'imotheos-P(lPYl'US (Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaftl, by von 'Vilamowitz- 
l\löllendorff, 1903. With this papyrus also came to light a number of 
documents written at Alexandria in the reign of Augustus (et1. ,Yo Schubart 
in the Berlin GÚech. C1,k1wÛe1L, iy). A few years later. in 1906, a series of 
very early Ptolemaic papyri, one being of the year 311-310 B. C., was found 
at Elephantine (ed. RulJensolm, 19(7). Exca\"ations at Aphroditopolis 
(Kom Ishgau) in lUOI anù 1903 lJrought to light collections of papyri of 
later periods, the most yaluahle being a coùex of 
lenander of the tifth 
century (etlited by its discoverer U. Lefebvre). The greater Ilmnl)er of 
the documents disco,'ereù in 1901 were acquired by the British l\Iuseum 
(ed. H. I. Bell, in Gl'eel
 Pap?JI'j, in the B..Il1. iv. 1910); they are most 
valuable as illustrating the Arab period within the narrow space of 
A. D. 698-722. 
Among other early literary papyri of importance may he mentioned 
a portion of a commentary on Plato's 'l'!teadelu.s containeù in a roll of 
seventy narrow columns now in Berlin, and written in the seconfl 
century, and the comnlt'ntaryof Didymm; 0n the Philippics of Demo- 
sthenes, also of the second century (Berli1LC1' ]{[assike1'texte, 1904-:>). 
Other remains of Corinna, Sappho, Euripides, etc., are also published in 
the Bed. ]{[assilæ1'te.rte, 1907. The longest hililical roll in existence is 
now at Leipzig, containing Psalms xxx-Iv, written 011 the hack of accounts 
of A.D. 338; anù at Hei(lelberg is a papyrus codex of the Minor Prophets, 
of the seventh century (cd. A. Deissmann, 1905). 
Outside of Egypt, Herculaneum, which was ùestroyed by an eruption 
of Yesuvius in A. D. 79, is the only place in which Greek papyri have heen 
found. Here, in a house which was excavated in the year 1752. a number 
of charred rolls were discovereù, which were at first taken for pieces of 
charcoal, many IJeing destroyed before their real nature was recognized. 
Almost immediately attempts were made to unroll them; and with more 
or less success the work has been carried on, at intervals, down to the 
present day. The process is a difficult one; the hardened crust, into 
which the outer portion of the rolls has IJeen converted by the action of 
the heated ashC's which lJUried the ùeyoted city, must be removed before 



\III 


(:REEK PAPYRI 


101 


the inner and less injured layers can be reached, amI so fragile are these 
that the most skilful amI patient handling is required to separate them 
without irreparably injuring the remains. Copies of the texts recovered 
have been engra,'cd and published in a series of volumes, the llcrClt- 
[anen8Ía Volnmilttt, printed at 
aples. 
In the year 1800, the Prince of Wales, afterwards King George tho 
Fourth, undertook the expense of unrolling and copying the papyri; Imt 
the work was interrupted by the French inva!-.ion of 1806. The tracings 
and copper-plates which had been prepared by his agent werc prcscnted 
by the Prince to the University of OXfOl'fl in 1810. together with a few 
unopened rolls, part of a numher which had been given to him by the 

eapolitan Government. Fuur of the lattcr and the unrolled fragments 
of a fifth were subsequently presented by Queen \Ïctoria to the British 
)luseum in 1865; and the two remaining also came to the .lluseum, in 
1900. hy gift of King Eflward the Seventh. In 18:.!4 and 1825 two volumes 
of lithographs of some of the Oxford facsimiles were published; amI, 
in 18H5, others have been given in the Fl'Hymellfa llC1'NdHnen1<in of 

Ir. Walter Scott. But none of the facsimiles in these publications can 
be consillered sufficient for palaeographical stud,}', and unfortunately the 
blackened condition of the rolls is such that little can be dune I,y the 
agency of photography. 
Of the Herculanean rolls which have been opened, a large proportion 
arc found to contain works of the Epicurean Philodemus, while others are 
tbe writings of Epicurus amI the leading members of his school; and it 
has been suggested that the principal part of the collection was formed 
IIY Philodemus himself, and that the house in which it was found was 
thfLt of L. Calpurnius Pi so Caesoninus, the patron of the philosopher aIllI 
thc father-in-law of Julius Caesar. The papyri would in that case 1e of 
the first centur,}' B.C., the period to which on palaeographical grounds 
they may 1e Msignc(J.I 


The Antiquity of Greek Writing 
The most important lesson which we, as palaeographers, learn from 
these ancient papyri is, that, as far back as we can reach, we have sifle 
by side two classes of Greek writing: the Literary hand or Book-hand, 
in which works of literature were usually (hut not always) written, and 
the Cursin hand of everYflay life; that, however remote the date of 
these documents, we find in them evidence that then all sorts amI 
conditions of men wrote as tluently as we do now; that the sClibe of 
those day:! could produce finely written texts; and that the educate,l or 
profe
siollal man coulfl note down records of daily bUf-iness with as much 


I See Kl'nYOl1, Po11awyr. of Gk. Papyri, 71. 



lOt 


(:HEEK AS)) LATIN PALAE()(;RAPHY 


CHAP. 


facility as any of his descendant<;. And if we fiml these evi(lences of 
:1 wille-spread knowledge of Greek writing so far l'ack as the fourth 
century B.C., and writing, too, of a kind whieh I,eal's on its face the 
stamp of matured de\'elopement, the \luestion naturally arises. to what 
remote period are we to a
sign the first stage of Greek writing, not in 
a primiti\-e comlition, but so far lle\'eloped as to be a practical means of 
intercourse. There has hitherto rather been a tendency to regard the 
earliest existing Greek inseriptions as the first painful efforts of unskilled 
hands. But it is far more natural to suppose that, almost simultaneously 
with the adoption of an alphabet, the keen-witted Greek trader must 
have profited hy the example of Eg.rptian and Phoenieian amI soon ha\'e 
learned to express himself in writing. It is impo
sible at least to doubt 
that the Greek mereenaries who were able to eut 
o skilfully not onl.r 
their names but also longcr inscriptions on the statue of Abu Bimbel 
some 600 .rears B.C., were perfectly able to write fluently with the pen. 
But without speculating further on this suLdect, we may rest content 
with the fact that in the papyri uf the fourth and thinl centuries B.C. 
we have styles of writing so confirmed in their character that there is 
no difficulty in forming an approximate idea of the style of the writing 
of the best c1assicallwrio(1 of (;reece. 


Divisions of Greek Palaeography 
It will here be COll\'CIÚent to state thc pIau adopted in the following 
sketch of the progress of Greek writing. 
First it is necessary to explain the \litierent terms which are used I 
I to describe various styles of letters. In both Greek and Latin palaeu- 
graphy, large letters are called' majuscules'; small letters, 'minuscules.' 
Of large letters there are two kinds: Capitals. or large letters, formcd, 
as in inscriptions, chiefly by st.rokes meeting at angles amI .woi\ling 
cun"es, except where the actual forms of the letters al1solutely relluire 
them, angular characters t.eing more easily cut with the tool on hard 
substances such as stone or metal; and Fnciab., a 1I1Oliitication of capitab 
in which cur\"es are freely introduced as beillg more readily inscribed 
with the pen on soft material such as papyrus. For example, the fifth 
letter is E as a capital, amI E as an uncial. The term 'uncial' tirst 
appears in :-;1. Jerome's Preface to the Book of Joh, and is there appliell 
\ to Latin letter::;, , uncialilms, ut vulgo aiunt, litteris,' hut the deri,-ation 
of the word is not dccilled: we know, howcver, that it refers to the 
alphabct of curved forms. 
In early (
reek pap,p'i, as well as in early, ellum :\ISS., thc ordinary 
character in use is the uncial. But, as will be presently seen, in some 
of the very earliest specimens on papyrus certain of the letters still 
retain the capital forms of inscriptions. And, indeed, at no period did 



nIl 


GHEEK P.\.LAE<)( ;}{.\PHY 


103 


the Greek alphabet evolve so fully the uncial type as di,l the Latin: 
for example, while in the Latin unciab we han' the cun-ed evolutionR of 
D and )[ (b and m), in the Ureek the capital forms of delta and 11m 
remained IH"actically unchauge c 1. 
)linmcule, or 
mall. letter
 are deri,'ccl fromlllajuscule s ; but., although 
in early Greek curf;i,-e Rpl'cimens on papyrus we fiwl at once certain 
forms from which the later book-minmcules grew, a full minuscule 
alphalJet was only slowly de,'eloped. 
In the fir:-;t place, then, we !'ohall ha ,'e to examine the progreRs of 
Greek writing on papyrus; and the courseR of the two style:-;, which han
 
already Leen referred to :ts the Literary hand or Book-hand and the 
Cursi,'e hand. will Le separately followed. The examples of the book- 
hand will first ue cunsidere(l; next, those in non-literary or cursive 
writing. 
But when we COllie to the periorl of the vellum )1:-;:-;. a new condition 
is imposed. Here we ha,'e well (lefined and distincti,'e st,r les of the 
book-hand which had not been develope(l in the early papyrus period. 
We have first the nUljuscule literary style, the Look-hand in uncial 
letters; and next we ha,'e the minuscule book-hand, evolved from the 
cursive (domestic) hand amI forming It class of writing of its own, which 
came into general use for literature in the ninth centnr,y, Thus, in the 
,'ellum period, we have not to do with the cursive hand in general, as in the 
papyrus period, but only with that set amI refinerl form uf it which wag 
used as a minus<:ule book-hand, mIll which is in fact no longer a cursi,'e 
hand properly 80 called, although it is often so described. X aturally 
the cursive (domestic) writing of the time still continued in use in 
the ordinary atrair
 of life: anc 1. if sufficient indepemlent material had 
survived, this current hand would have formed a separate division of 
the subject. But no riuch material practically exists. We have no 
great collections even of Greek charters amI documents wÚtten in 
official cursive hands, such as we have in La,tin. 'Ye must therefore 
look for the traces of the progress of the nreek cursi,'e hand in the 
middle ages in the more hastil,y written minuscule literary 
lSS. which 
may Le assumed to be, more or lcss, in the natural cursÍ\'e handwriting of 
scholars. Our task, then, in describing the Greek palaeography of the 
middle ages will be first to trace the histor,r of the uncial book-hand in 
the vellum codices; aUtI then to follow the de,'elopement and changes 
of the minuscule Look-hand through the later centurie!'. 



CHAPTER IX 


GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY (colltinuecl) 


The Literary hand or Book-hand in Papyri 
OUR first division of Greek writing is the Literary hanll or Book-hand 
in papyri; the chamder employed being a formal uncial, except in the ver.r 
earliest examples in which a more primitive style, approaching nearer to 
the epigraphic alphalJet, is found. The general character of the ]itemry 
hand being thus in closer affinity to the capital alphabet than the more 
independent and fluctuating cursive, the papyri written in the book-hand 
may claim to take precedence. It is not. however, to be understood 
that aU surviviug literary remains are written in this hand: there are 
exceptions, certain works having been copied out, apparently by scholars 
for their own use, or at least by persons not writing for the book-trade, 
in less formal hands which we must dass as cursi,-e. There is, indeed, 
in the case of the earl,}T papyri, some difficulty in drawing the line of 
separation between the literary hand and the cm'sh-e hand; for, until 
minuscule characters were in course of time e,-oh-ed, the general structure 
of all Greek writing, whether literary or non-literary, was uncial. 
Certain documents are written with sufficient care to gi,'e them a claim 
to be sepamted from the cursives, and .yet with not enough furmality to 
be included under the book-hand. On the other hand, there are one or 
two instances of the formal literary script heing used for ordinary 
documents. 'Ye would define the literar;}- hand to be of the formal 
type which professional scribes would employ in writing books for the 
market; and, in the following re,Tiew of this di \'ision, chiefly .:\188. of 
that formal t.ype are examined, a few (non-]iterary) documents in which 
this hand is adopted being also included. 
The number of available literary works written in the literar,}' hand 
on papyrus has I J ecn largely incrensed llY the recent discoveries in 
Egypt; and one of the principal flifficuItics that be
et the palaeographer 
has been thereby considerabl,}T lessened. Before these discoveries the 
data for arriving at a satisfactor,}T estimate of the pel'iotls of the se,-eral 
specimens were so scanty that it was with extreme hesitation that one 
ventured to risk an opinion on their approximate age. But now 
so much material has been brought to light that we are better 
acquainted with the develupement of Greek writing on papyrus amI 
can therefore essay nearer accuracy. Still it is to IJe remembere(l 
that formal hands must always present more serious tlifficulties than 



CREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 


105 


naturaUy written hamls. Book-hanlls are artificial and progress with 
a certain uniformity which is naturally averse from change, and on 
which the influence of the natural (cun;ive) haI1llwriting of the scrihe 
works but slowly. Still that influcnce does effect a gradual change anI I 
hrings about those different phases of book-hand writing which it is 
the palaeographer's business to mark and study and explain. And, as 
it was not the practice to inscribe the date of production in copies of 
literary works, it is only by such scrutiny and study that, in most 
instances, the true periods can be ascertained. On the other hawl the 
study of the cursi'
e documents affords spccial advalltages, for among 
them are a sufficient numLer bearing actual dates to enable us to check 
the progress of the de,'elopement of that class of writing b,r fixed land- 
marks; and the student who masters the history of that developement 
finds his laLours lightened when he turns to the stuJy of the literary 
hand. The training of the e,re acquired from the patient examinatioll 
of a series of Jated documents quickens its faculties to a high degree for 
the study of undated examples, not only of cursive pap,p'i but also of 
those written in the literary hamI. 
\\Then we come to study the CUl'sh'e script in pap,}.ri, that form of 
writing will be found to pass through certain phases under the influence 
of the changes in the govcrnment of the country, successi,'el,r hy the 
Ptolemies, the Romans, amI the B,}'zantine Empire. And it will be found 
that in some measure those phases are reflected in the developement of 
the literar,}. script. 
It is only within recent Yf'ars that an,}.thing of certaint,}' has heen 
known regarding Greek writing previous to the second century B.C. The 
,exca,'ations of Professor Flinders Petrie at Gurob, in 1889-UO, first put 
us in possession of many valuable specimens both of the literary and of 
the cursive scripts of the third century; and enabled us to identify a slllall 
number of documents already in European collections, which had been 
assigneJ to a later date, as belonging to that more remote time. To these 
are to Le adlled the papyri recovered more recently at Tebtunis, Hibeh, 
and Elephantine, of the mme period. There was, howe,-er, one single 
Greek papyrus known to scholars which was tentatively given to the 
fourth century B. C., viz. the so-called Curse of Artemisia. a document in 
the Imperial Library of Vienna, which will be referred to more fully 
below. But in 1902 a literary work of unusual palaeographical impor- 
tance was discO\'ered at ALûsîr, which now takes the first place in the 
series of papyri written in the lJook-hand. This is the unique papp'us, 
now in Berlin, of the PeT:3ae of Timotbeus, which is af'f'igned to the 
second half of the fourth century Ð.C. 1 
1 Edited, \\ith f.\c
imile, Ly L. n,n 'YiIlln1Uwitz-
I.jJ)endorff, for the Deutsc1\e Orient- 
-Geselbchaft, Lei}>zig, 1903. A specimen is gÎyen in Scbul."rt, Pup. Gruff. Berolin. 1. 



106 



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UREEK LlTEIL\.RY PAPYRI 


!Oi 


Before proceeding to dl'serilll
 the points of interest in the hamlwritin
 
itself. it ma.r iirst l,e noticed that the arran
ement of the text does not 
conform to the rule:-. ol,seryed in later examples. The colulllns of writin
 
are broad and \"3.ry in dimensions. rangin
 frum 
 to ll! inche
; and the 
h-xt runs on continuou
ly without distiuguishing the ,-erses of the poem. 
The sections. ho\\'e,-er. are marked off with the separating stroke, the 
7õapáypa
o
: hut in such instances they are kept quite fli
tinct from one 
another, the fir:st worll of a neW !-cction I,cginning "ith a new line, and 
not following on in the conclUllin
 line of the previous section, as would 
ha ,-e Leen the case in later periods. 
1'0.1 
The writing is in a tirm lar
e SfpIare character of the epigraphic style. 
without the cun-ed forms of the uncial type; e\"Cn sigma, which fluickly 
tended to the semicircular shape, is still the ancient angular letter
. Other 
letters which call for special notice in points of their construction are 
"eta, of a clums.r form. running down to a point at the 1.ase; epsilo/!, 
with a long head-stroke; :;da, composed of two parallel horizont::tl 

trokes close together. connected in the centre l,y ::t \"ertical stroke 
scarcely more than a dot; tlleta, 8maH, with a central dot; iota, often 
thickened on the right side of tllt' head; I1W, inclined to hreadth; ;ci, 
consisting of three parallel horizontal strokes rather compre:-;sed, the 
central one shorter than the others; pi, ha,-ing the right leg shortened; 
'I.ljJliiloll, with :-.hallow cup ; oille
f(/, showing ,'arietie8 of the epigraphic n 
temling to angular cnrsi\"e forms (see the Table of Literary 
\.I}JhaLets). But 
while this pap,ynIs place::; he fore u'" the forms of letters of the Look-hand 
of the fourth centur.r B.C., and is on that account of the greatest ,-alue, 
the handwriting itself is of a larger awl rougher character than we 
should expect in the hest examples of litcrar.r )1;:;;:;. of the time. The 
smaU neat script of the Plllwdu and the .dlltú,pe of the thinl century, 
which we shall presently examine, postulate
 at least a corresponding 
neatness of execUlion in the hest examples of the hook-hand only some 
half-century earlier. 
A!' alreatly st:Üetl. the only document of this class of writing 
h.nown until 1902 was the Curse of Artemisia, a roug-hly written 
papyrus. im-oking ,'engeance on the father of the woman's child. 1 
The forms of the letters are reproduced in the TaLle of Alphabets. 
and it will be seen that, ",hilt, they are generally :-.illâlar to those of 
the Pen;u.e, there are certain ,-ariation:; which may Le taken a
 indica- 
tions of a somewhat later tlate. Tn particular the angular epig;raphic 
1 First de"c1"ÎLeù \'y Petrettini, P"jJÎri Greco-Egizi dd I. R.ltfuseo di Culte (\826" 4. wh,) 
gives a very rough fac-imile; afterwards by Blass in PllÍlo/úgus, xli. 741;. and in Mül!er.s 
Handbuch der klassischen .A/lerlhlltlls-Jlïs>eIlschajt (lS
6", i. 280; and agnin by "-essely ill 
EilfterJaltr-esberic/1f iibe, clas Fran:-.T<,s(l'h-GYllln<<si"1II m Wie.. .1SS;;
, 4. A fac"iluile is gi'én 
in Pal. Soc. ii. 141. 



108 


GREEK AXD LATIX P_\LAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


sigma has disappearc(l, and the cUr\
ecl uncial letter takes its place; 
::e(a is not so compressed as in the Pasae; and ollwglt 11Y cUr\Ting 
upwards the initial stroke shows progress towards the uncial W. It 
is a curious fact that this document should ha"e been written in the 
book-hand; and it has Leen suggested that Artemisia. an ignorant 
wuman. jotted down her letters in this form, just as children or un- 
educated people among us 'write in capitals as the characters which they 
Ilre most accustomed to see in public places. This, of course, is possihle; 
1mt it is more probable that. if the writer was too ignorant to write in 
the cursive writing of the time, she would not have used her own hand 
at all, Lut would have had recourse, after the custom of the East, .to 
a professional scribe. But, however this may Le, it is remarkable that 
the only document which has hitherto come to light bearing an actual 
date ill the fourth century B.C., a marriage contract of the year 311-310 
found in Elephantine in 1 g06. is also written in the literary hand, though 
roughl.y. I This. howe,'er. 1H<1'y be merely accidental: amI further dis- 
cm'eries will pruhahly prO\'e that it is so. For there can Le no doubt 
that a fluent cursi,'e hand was practised at this time. 'Yhen we come to 
re\'iew the cursi,'ely written papp'i of the third century B.C., we shall 
see that a nnel.y de,'eloped cursi,'e was in full vigour already in the first 
half of that century. which could only luwe Leen proùuceù by the 
education of many generations in the acti,'e use of the pen. 
The writing of the marriage contract of 311-310 B.C. makes no 
pretence to beauty (see the TaLle of Alphabets). The letters rather 
slope to the right; they are generally tall and narrow; and down- 
:-;trokes. as in Ùda, ,.110, (a'll, 
l}jsilul
, are often exaggeratetl. Comparing 
the alphahet with that of the Pc'/'sae, its inferiority of formation is 
evident; although the construction of individual letters is very similar 
in hoth alphabets. The contract, howe,-er, has the cun'ed uncial sigHla, 
as against the epigraphic capital letter of the other MS. 
Reverting to the papyrus of Timotheus, the interesting fact must not 
be o,'prlooked that. in point of (late, it may be said to bring us into the 
\"Cry presence of Alexander the Oreat, the conl)ueror of Egypt in 33:! B.C. 
There is no reason to dispute the age assigned to the )lð., viz. the second 
half of the fourth century, and, therefore, it is a (!uestion whether we 
may not ha,-e IJCfore us a work actually writtcn in Ureece and brought 
thence into Egypt; for the material employed dues not prove that it 
must lun'e been written in the latter country. Pllpyrus, made up as 
a writing material, was, as we know, largely exported and was widely 
used throughout the ci\,ilized world. Howc,'er, we need not stay to 
delJate a point which is 1Jeyoml dennite solution, amI we lIlay rest satisfied 
with the illlportant fact that, at least in the fOl'nls of its letter", the 


1 SchuLart, Pap. GI'rHC. Eo'olill. 2. 



IX 


(:REEK LITER_-\.RY P_-\.PYRI 


1O!J 


Per
((c no doul)t resellll,les contemporary )l:--;S. produced III Athens a11l1 
other literary centres of Hellas. 
It will he com-enient to record in this place certain literar,}' frngmenb. 
which, though placed in tJw earl,}' part of the third century, may possil)l
 
fall within the fourth centur.r D, C., lleing alliell in character of writing to 
the Tilllotheus papyrus amI other contemporar,}" examples which we haye 
ùeen discus:-ing. 1'he:"e arc a numller of small fnlgments containing 
some line'> in tragic iamlJic \"erse. identified as from the Oenellt: of 
Euripides. written in sman neatly formed characters, among which 
appear the square-headed ep;,:ilull, the 
 form of ::<iYI)UI, and especially 
,I i in an archaic shape: the three-stroke letter tranrsed by a ,-ertica1 
1Jar, :i. I Rather younger than these are the fragments of the Ad,'entureS 
of Heracle<: found with the other papyri at Gurol) llY Profes
()r Flinders 
Petrie. 2 They do not appear to l,e earlipr than of the third century B.I'. ; 
but. as they are 'Considered to Le rather older than the examples of that 
period which will come next under consilleration. this seems to be the 
proper place to mention them. 


Passing to the third century B. c., we must not omit first to notice 
a papyrus of considerall1e literary as well as palaeogral'hical \"alue. and 
one most useful as a chronological làndmark, which is written in the 
llook-hand and, moreO\-er, can Ill' approximately dated early in tlw 
century. It is a single sheet inscril,ed with the words of drinking- 
songs (UKó)\ta), etc., "hich was found in 1!Jü6 at Elephantine-a cast- 
awa,}- used as the wrapper of a bundle of documents, the latest of which 
is dated in the second ,}'ear of Ptolemy Philadelphus. The papyrus nUl,} 
therefore be, at the latest, of about the year 2
O B.C. 3 Comparing the 
alphabet emplo,}"ed (see TaUe) with those of the examples of the fourth 
century, we find the uncial cun-ed epsilon and 
i[Jm(l, and further progress 
in the shape of the OJ/lega towards uncial de\"elopement. But it should 
not Le forgotten that, although inscriLed in the book-haml, the papyru<; 
is onl,}" a scrap of pri,-ate composition (written in that class of script 
presmnaUy because the contents were of a literar,}" nature), and that 
therefore a certain laxÜy tending toward!> cursi\"eness ,\"as permissihle. 
Xone of this temlency is noticeahle in the fragments of two literary 
works discovered at Gurob, viz. the Pl/((nlu of Plato allll the Autiojlc 
of Euripides-the remains of Looks manifestly written llY professional 
scribes for the market. 


I These fragment.;, dbcovered by 
Ir. B. P. Grenfell, are now in the British Museum; 
Pap
rus 688_ See Grenfell and Hunt. GTfek Pap?1'i, ii. 1; and Hibel. Papyri, 21. Ken
on 
gÏ\es an alphaLet, compiled frolll the fnlgments, in hi" Pal. Gk. Pap. 

 ",ow in the British :Museum; P..pyru
 ;)92. See the nlphabet in Petrie Papyri, i. 6;;. 
, EtTliner Klas"kelltx c, v. ::?, Tar. ,-iii. Sdmbart. Pap. Graee. Eerulm. 3, l,lac,,:; it ahcut 
;.;00 EC. 



Ill) 


FACSTII[TJ,y, No. 2 


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WV n.. DtljOH1] av I DWV 1] l'Da1]tTa
 1] n avaÀwua
) 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYHI 


III 


The papyrus of the F1o(cdo of Plato may he placerl in the first half of 
t he third century B.C" for it was found in company with official ano! 
other documents which are actually llateù in tbe l'eigns of the secollli 
amI third Ptolcmies; and the latter, we may assmne. woulll natura.lIy 
have l'een regal"tIed as of a more common awl ephementl character than 
a litenu-y work of a great writer. and wouItl have l)een thrown a
i.le in 
an earlier lwriorl of existence. This beautiful )[
. (Brit. )Ius., Pap. 488) 
woul.l surely ]1I1\'e heen treasure!l hy its original owner for man
" years. if 
not for a lifetime, amI it can only have heen 1,y some acci(lent that it wa<.; 
at len
th use.l up as ""a<;te material. The small portion of the Allfiope of 
Euripi.les which has m8t with the same fate awl lut<; descended to us in 
the same way must he practically of the salllP date. But the" riting of 
t he latter is not (l'1Ïte so goo.l. and, thül1
h there may I,l' little to choose 
l,etween the two :\):-;::;.. yet preference may he gi,'en to the :\18. of Plato 
(see the TalJle of Alpha1 J etsl. The text of the latter is written in narrow 
columns of twenty-two lines, whieh are from 2
 to 3 inches in lengtb. 
The height of the papyrus appears to hfl\-e heen al.out 8! inches. 


:So. 2 


The writing is a ,'ery heautiful uncial hanJ. minute and exact. the 
chief general characteristic being the gl'eat breadth, almost flatness, of 
many of the letter;; (e.g. !/(/)/WW, :;ela. ela, mn, pi. omega), as compare' 1 
with their height. That this is a characteristic uf the perio.l, and not 
a personal usage of the v,riter of the )lS.. is prO\'ed hy its prominence 
in other. cursi,"e. documents of the third century B.c.-a characteristic 
which is partially obsen'able in the pu;>({e of the fourth century, amI 
which. 'we may forecast. will he also prominent in the clusi,'e writing 
of tlutt century, whene,"er good fortune may place u<; in possession of 
examples. As in the specimens of the precerling century, in certain 
forms the writing has not adopted the recognized curves of the uncial and 
approaches more nearly to the rectangles of lapillary inscriptions. Thi<; 
is seen in the al1,11f(, and in many instances of epsilon in which the 
upper horizontal stroke is perfectly straight and of disproportionate 
length. Certain, cun-ed, letters are rlistinguished l.y their small size, as 
tlteta, omib'on, sigma, and orne[la. The la<;t-muned letter. we may notice, 
is of the nearly full uncial type. For the study of other particulars, the 
realler is referred to the TalJle of Alphabets. 
The Pltaedo and the Anti.ope are the best examples of the classical 
works of the thinl century B.C. recovered at Gurob. Other fragments, 
indeed, of that age were found there, notably a considerable piece of the 
Lacltes of Plato, but the latter too much defaced to be of UEe for our 
purpose, and the rest not of sufficient importance to be taken into acc
unt 



112 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


FACSDULE 
o. 3 



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DIALECTICAL TREATnm.-BEFORF. 160 B.C. 


(vaL OV aÀKp.av 0 7rOn]T1]<; I OVTW" a7rHþalVETo OV K 1]" aL1]p aypOLKO<; ovSt" I (nmo<; 
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OV EU TLV TL KaTucþaTLKOV) 



IX 


GREEK LITERARY P
\.PYRI 


113 


for illustration of the book-hand.} There is, however, at Berlin, a well- 
preserwd fragment of the Plwetlton of Euripitle& of the same cla
s of 
neat, small handwriting. 2 
Hm"ing. then, before u-; the three papyrus )188., the 1'1'J'.'ae, the 
Pltaedo, al1l1 the A'ltit/pe, !-upportell by the contemporary documents 
which have heen quote,l, to repre:>ent the most ancient Greek literary 
"Titing extant. we may consider our:"elves fortunate in l,eing in pUf'session 
of e'"en so much material of a llmrke(1 style on whieh to l.ase our know- 
ledge of the hook-hand of the hundred ,years lying within 330 and 
250 B. c.: so marked. iwleed. as to l,e Ullluistakal,le. when once we ha"e 
mastered tlU' principles of its structure. 


Here, then, we lea,-e tlH' thirll century B.C., and we have to pass over 
a gap of about a hundred:) ears he fore we can re
ume the threall of our 
inquiry in the first half of the second cf'ntury. Of this period we meet 
with an example in a fragmentary dialectical treatise, now in Paris, 
which was written earlier than the ,year 160 I..C., as proved hy the 
exi:>tence on the hack of it of memoranda of that ,year (..V"Qt. el EAr., 
pI. xi, no. 2). 


:No.3 


In this text adnmce in details is ol.&en"al,le on the olùer style of the 
third century B. c. The hand is altogether uncial. The alpha has lost 
all trace of the capital formation with the horizontal crüs
-har; nuw it 
is formetl in two stroke:", the fir&t an angle (in many instances slightJy 
looped), the secollli a tlownward oblique 
troke more or less cUlTetl, 
epsilflh and I:'i[llllu both curyed; ÚTfIÆ[llL of the full uncial type. On the 
other haml the archaic form of ;e(a in some measure &urviyes, the 
connecting central IJar, while oUique, keeping well within the extremi- 
ties of the horizontals, :50 that the letter is still far from the later Z-form; 
and xi is still the three-stroke letter. But it is perhaps unfortunate, 
for purposes of comparison, that the writing is in a sloping hand, 
and that the 
IS. thus loses something of the squarenes:i amI :,;tately 
procession, if we ma) use the term, which we naturally connect with our 
idea of a book-hantl: and that ÍI} the setting of this te....t, as it has l,een 
obsen"ed, , a certain concession to the cursive style is discernible.' 3 The 
effect on the eye is, perhaps, heightened hy the tendency of the columns 
to trentl very perceptibly to the left: that is, the marginal line of writing 
is not vertical. hut each successive line begins a little more to the left 
than the one abm"e)t, with the re:-ult that the ]a"t line may stand a,; much 
as an inch outsille the true perpendicular. 


1 
ee Ken) on, Pal. Gk. Pap. G3. 
, Schuhart. Pap. Grcn " R ro/in. 4 b. 


3 Kenyon, Pal. G
. Pap. G7. 


118-1 



114 


ealEEK AXD LATI
 P ALAEOGRAPHY 


CIL\l'. 


F ACSDIILE No. 4 


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erWfJ-aTWV 01-) 



IX 


GREEK LITERARY P.\PYRI 


11:) 


The second century B. c. is also representell hy the unique papyrus of 
the oration of Hyperide
 against Athenogenes, which was acquÏ1'ell by 
the Louvre in 1888. 1 It is placed in the second half of the centurJ'; 
and it at1ònls a striking contrast to the Dialectical Treatise in its general 
aspect. 


No.4 


The writing IS carefully formed and in SOIlle respects is rather in- 
clinell to be ornamental. The letters are upright and spaced out with 
regularity, and, in reganl to size, are mostly malle ill Lolly to fill the full 
l.ulk of the line of writing. AllIll(( generally re\"erts to the old capital 
shape, with hol'Ïzontal cro,<s-l.ar: lJeta, (7elta, etIT, 'JII'l(', /(,U, pi are all of the 
formal type. On the other hand :eta, while sometimes using a modifie(l 
01. I fOTIn. is usually of the Z-shape: e)ll"'ilon, t!teta. omikJ'on, :,iYJi/(( more 
than usually circular: ,I't still of the three-stroke pattern, but tending 
to ornamentation: omey" the full uncial. When we place this hand- 
writing side by side with the older hands of the third centUl'
-, at one 
g-lance we see how 
reat ha'! 1.een the change wrought 1.y the lapse of 
a century and a half. 'I'll{' later haw 1 i
 no longer of the \ igorous, if 
irregular, type which, in our opinion, lli
pla.rs more character than the 
st,de to which the \\ riting of the Hyperilles is tCIlfling, that is, one of 
careful exactneo;,s aiming rather at calligraphic ettect and re
training 
natural freedom in onler to attain to e\-en regularity. 


The exact style just referrml to, as it ,1m-eloped in the first century B.C., 
is well illustrated by the script of the papyri reco\'ered at Herculaneum. 
The taminu8 ante qlWIi(, of the latter is, as we know, \.. D. ,9, the year of 
the destruction of the city; but the character of the writing indicates an 
earlier date. It has been pointed out that many of the papyri contain 
works, some even in duplicate, of the Epicurean philosopher PhiIo,lelllus, 
a contemporary of Cicero, an,l that nearly all the rest are copies of the 
writings of Epicurus or are generally of a philosophical nature; and 
hence it has l,een suggested that the collection may have been part of 
the library of Philodemus himself. 2 This view seem,> to be by no means 
improbable amI it receiYCs support from the appearance of the writing, 
which has heen placea rather lJefore the middle of the first century B.C..! 
The deplorable condition of the original fragments, blackened and 
wrinkled l.'y the heat of the volcanic eruption, makes it difficult to pre- 
sent a \"erJ' legible specimen, l,ut the accompanying reprolluction of two 
fragments of )letrodorus ..E/Jl al(dhíCTEWl', with the aid of the Table of 
Alphabets, will enable the stmlent to jmlge of the character of the 
Look-hand of that age. 


1 E.litt'd, with facsimile, by E. Revillout, Lc PI(,; 
- "'. Scntt, FH'ym'"la He, <(.1all IIsi<<. II. 
I 
! 


i d'JJyperide conlre ÁtllenogL"ne, ISO:? 
.' J\:. "lu". P.d. Gk. Pal', 'i:!. 



116 


GREEK AXD LATIK PALAEOGRAPHY 



 


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IX 


'HlEEK LITEf:ARY P.\.PYRI 


117 



o. ;) 


In general structure the writing of this ::\1S. resembles the Hyperides 
t Fncs . 4) in the upright and regularly-!\paced lettering. e\'enly sized so as 
to fill the line of writing. But on comparing the in(li\-idualletters the 
ad\ance in the Herculanean script is evident, The three alphahets in the 
Tal,le. \.iz. one from the Hyperides and two from Herculanean papyri of 
Philodemus and )[ctrooorus, show a fairly close alliance in most of the 
letters. The differences appear ill the alphu, which in the younger :\rss. 
are of the uncial formation, often with the little loop at the left angle, 
like the letter seen in the Dialectical Treatise. Coming down to nt/I, the 
older amI simpler form of the letter, as seen in the H
'peri(h,s, breaks 
down in the Herculanean examples, where it fluctuates towards the 
cursive; and although in most of the rolls the old pattern of it
i, written 
in three distinct strokes, prp\-ails, 
-et the more current form, in which 
the midllle and lower strokes are connected and the letter i:-. thus written 
lJY only two actions of the pen, is of fairly frequent occurrenee. I Here then 
are interesting imlications, in the ca"e of m1
 as well as of xi, of a hreak- 
ing away from the strictly formal lettering of the artificial writing of 
the nook-haml to the natural writing of the cursi\"e. As we proceed in 
our task we shall find this tendency not uncommon at all periods and 
in all forms of literm'y script. 1'11" natural cm'sh"e hand is, a.<; it were, 
enr watching for its opportunity to take the scribe unawares, and to 
slip into the ranks of the artificial hand. The Herculanean papyri, then, 
may be regarded as occupying a transitional stage towards the close of 
the Ptolemaic period, and demonstrating in the cursi\-e temlencies of the 
two letters referred to the natural law of decaùence inherent in any 
artificial system. 
At this point we have to eXaIuine a )I:-i. which, apart from its literary 
\"alue, has a particular interest on account of the type of its \\ riting- 
a type ljuite unlike the regular, even, amI carefully spaced style which 
we ha\'e just now been considering. This 
IS. is the unillue papyrus of 
the poems of Bacch
-liùes (Brit. )lus., Pap. 733) which has been placed by 
Sir F. G. Kenyon, its editor, in the midllle of the first century B.r. 
1'0.6 
Hitherto no other )IS. of exactly the sallle character has heen re- 
covereù. It hac;; in the forms of its letters so much nearer relation to the 
hands of the thirfl century H.C. that it almost seems aR if it representell 
a re\"ersion to the older type amI a reaction from the exact and rather 
calligraphic style of writing which hall !teen c1e\-eloping since the secontl 
century. This archaistic rendering of forms iH conspicuous in the small 
1 See Kenyon, The Palaeography nf the Herclllaneum Papyri in Festschrift {tir TMwtnr 
(.omper::, 1902. 



118 


F ACSDIILE X O. 6 




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BACt'HYLIDES.-FIRST CENl'UHY II.C. 



UREEK LITEIL\.Rl P_\.PYRI 


119 


(Kãpvç 7i"O(TLV îaB1J.íav KfÀEV80v. 
acþaTa '6' Epya ÀEYEL KpaTaLOV 
fþWTO<;' TOI' V7i"Epj3LOV T' E7i"EcþVEI' 
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Kpf1J.VWl'O
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ITKLpWva KOTÉKTOVEV' 
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EITXEV 7TO^VT.lí1J.ovû
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ITcþvpav EçÉj3aÀÀEV "'pOKO 
7i"Ta
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'I WTO
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TLVU Õ' E1J.1J.EV 7i"08EI' av'6pa TOVTOV 
ÀEYEL' TU'U TE ITTOÀaV EXOVTU' 
\ :t 
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7TÀOLCTL ITTpaT't' UV aYOVTa 7i"oÀÀm' 
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ITTLXEU' E1J.7i"OpOV ÓL' aÀáTav 
E7i" aÀÀo'6a1J.[av 
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w'6E KaL 8l'a(Tvv Ó
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al'OpWV KapTEpoV (J 8EJ'(;
 
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'6oVTa 1J.I/ VTVXEÍV KaKwL" 
7i"aVT' EI' TWL ÕOÀLXWL XPOVWL TEÀElTat. 
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ÇfITTOVS' OE Ov' EV XEpfITIT' aKOI'TaS') 



I:W 


(mEEK 
\SD LATIX P 
\L\En(;RAPHY 


CHAP. 


amI narrow epsilon and sigH"w; in the small thettL and mnikl'on; in 
the early ::;hapes of zel(f awl xi: and in the flattenetl, shallow Jn1L and 
olneYlI. The date assigned to this )IS. has not passed unchallenged; amI 
two fragments among the Oxyrhynchus papyri, which have been placed 
by the editors in the second century of OUi' era, are cited as examples of 
similar and contemporaneous writing. These fra
ments are no. :W 
(0. P., vol. i, pI. vii). from the' IJpooíJ..lLa ð1JIJ.1JYOptKå of DE'mosthenes, amI 
no. 665 (0. P., yol. iv. Ill. i). from a History of Sicily. They certainly 
resemble tlw BaccLylitles in general typl-' of writing, IJut they do not 
appear to be so early; and it is open to lluestion whether they themselves 
are not of an earlier date than that to which they are assigned. namely 
of the first rather than of the secoml century.I If this he so. the papyrus 
of Bacchylides may then remain where it hm; been placed, in the first 
century H.C. Howe\'er, luwing regar,l to the scanty material a\-ailahle, 
it seems wiser to suspcn(l final judgement until further examples of the 
same class of writing are forthcoming. 
"
e rf'turn to the llirect line of de\'elopemellt, resuming examination 
of the more exaf't aIllI e\'enly spaced book-haml which we IUl\'e seen in 
the papyrus of Hyperilles and the examples from Herculaneum, inclining 
to a formal calligraphic type. Fin;t, the student may l)e referred to the 
papyrus containing the last two books of the Il i(((l (British 1luseum, 
Papyrus cxx\'iii). a facsimile from which is gi\en IIY Kenyon. ('l((.
siclll 
Te.ds, pI. viii. The :MS. is ascrilJed to the secolllI half of the first century 
H. c., that is, rather later than the Herculanean fragments. The te'\:t, 
evenly space(l, and as far as possilJle precisely formed to fill the full body 
of the line of writing. as in the earlier papyri just mentioned, is extrPlllely 
llelicate, the letters lleing composed of finely inscribed strokes, amI, in 
construction. tl1(' LOlly of each one lying within the boundaries of an 
imaginary square: a mark of advance, as compared with the LrmHI 
formation of the early centuries, and characteristic of the period at which 
we now arrive, entering on the time of the Roman occupation towanls 
the close of the first century B. u. 
Here a papyrus (Brit. Mus., Pap. cccliv) which can be precisely dated 
comes into view aUfI affords a most valuable criterion for the Look-hand 
of this time. It is not a literary doculllcnt, but a petition of certain 
farmers addressetl to the prefect of Egypt, Gaius Tyrrhanius. alllI the 
tlate is ascertained to correspontl to either 13. or 10, or 7 B. c. The 

cript is not cursive, as might perhaps have Leen expected. Lut a care- 
fully formed set-hamI, nearly e1llml to the LN;t type uf buuk-hand: the 
petitioners h<1xing followe(l an excellent practice, which has prolJably 
ulJtained in all perio,h, of ci\'ilized human history, of \\ riting with 
extreme legibility when asking a fa\'our. 


I CL Kenyon, Pal. Gl.. HIp. ';G, ii, 



IX 


(mEEK LI'fEIL\.RY P
\l'YIU 



'_\CSIMILE Xo
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PETITIox.-Anol:"T 10 RC. 


-TOS' TOV T.LlTOLTOS' KaL TOV TOVTOV VLOV T.LCTOLTOS' TooV OT.- 
-pyooz' Kat EyÀYJJ1.T.TOpooV TLV(,)V LEpaTLKooZ' Eôacþoov TEÀO- 
_ -ôacþoov aLEt KaT ETOS' EtS' Àoyoz' 1: 00 Kat apy .L acþ Kat EV T!IL
 
-EXpL TOV Z:VV YEyOVOTH ôca ÔE TO J1.YJÔEV OcþELÀEW E..ECþO- 
-0J1.0V aÔOOCTLÔLKooV Kat aLEt aT.OCTTUTLKooTEpOV cþpOVOVZ:- 
__ J1.oov ET.1}pHaV LKaz:oos a..1}ÔLKYJJ1.U'OL ET.L TIJr Et OV ÔLK- 
-OEtaS' wa TVXooJ1.EV ooT.LS' yap Kat ooT.LS' OJ1.cþOTEfiOL T.ETOCT- 
-OL EOapCTI}CTaV ET.LÕOZ:TH KOpÕW TOOL ET.L'TTaTYJCT((Z'TL Tooz:- 
-cþaCTKOZ:íE!ò TOV T.aTEpa aVTwz' EK TOV (qt' J1.EOECTTaKEV- 
-KYJV KaTa/TTaVTH ÕE KaL aT.oÀOYYJCTaJ1.EVOL Ecþan}J1.EV 1'00- 
_ aCTOOOTH J1.1} Et 1jS' E"OL1jCTaZ:TO 1}J1.oov TE Kat TOV KOpÕOV T.- 
-z'OJ1.0VS' Too (YJV aVTOVS KWôVZ:EVCTaL (Jca TO J1.YJ CTVVECTTaK- 
-\/fav ÕE TOVToo ITVZ:ÀEÀL'ITOat T.I'W YJ ÕE T1}!ò HpKT1}S' YJJ1.US- 
-TaCTTaOEz:TOS' YEVECTOaL arT aVTOV f3pEL/Tool'a ov Kat- 


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12:! 


GREEK AXD LATIX PAL\EO( :K\PHY 


CHAp. 


No.7 


The writing of this document, again. has the characteristics of regu- 
larity and even spacing, the letters, as far as the nature of their formation 
will permit, heing fairly kept to one scale, so as not to rise above or !jink 
below the line of writing and at the Fame time to fill it. Thus at this 
stage of the formal hand we see, for example, the letters theta and o,nik1'on 
not suftèred to run large ur small, lJUt formec1 on the pattern of the 
epsilon and t;igIJUI, that is, occupying the line of writing with a full 
circle; and, again, the letters 1'ho anll upt>ilon not allowed to straggle 
below the line. In a word, the only letters passing the bounds are phi 
and p."i, which from their nature cannot be so easily restricted. 
The script of the petition is resembled so nearly by that of book iii 
of the Od!J.-sey in the British Museum Papyrus cclxxi, that there can be no 
hesitation in fi'{ing the date of the latter 1\1S. at the same perio,l as the 
petition, that is, at the end of the first century B. C., or at the very 
beginning of the first century of our era. 


No.8 


The writer of this 1\IS. was even more skilled than the writer of the 
petition, and may be regarded as an expert, capable of producing the 
best examples of the book-hand for the literary market. There is a Cer- 
tain amount of ornamental calligraphy in touching oft. with little finials 
or thickenings which indicate much practice and readiness with the pen. 
The letters are very accurately spaced and great endeavour is evident to 
make the lines of writing uniformly e,-en. It may also be noticed that 
the horizontal cross-bar of eL)l-ilon and theta is level and stands high in 
the hody of the respecti,-e letters. A comparison of the nlphabets of the 
two papyri, showing little ,-ariation, satisfies us of their pract.ically con- 
temporaneous e'{ecution. The general expression of the hands is one of 
roundness, pro,luce(l not only by the more exact formation of the letters 
which are based on the circle, ,-iz. ejJ.,ilrm, thein, mnikrOl/;, :-i[JlIla, phi, but 
also ny the increasing cursi,-eness of alpho, in which the left lower angle 
is freljUelÜly convertell into a curve, and of IU"lL The three-struke xi 
has now disappeared aIlll gn-es place to the cursive letter formed in 
one stroke of the pen. 


This studied type of writing was probal,ly practised, ordinarily, for 
literary purpuses, with little ,-ariation through the course of the first 
century A. D. \Y e lllay notice the fragments of a roll containing Pillliaric 
Lyric poetry in this style, found at OXYl'hynchus (0. P., no. 659, '-01. iv, 
pIs. iii, iv), which may be of the first half of the century: and also the MS. 
of Isocrates On the Peace (Brit. 1\1us., Pap. cxxxiii), the nrst portion uf 
which is in a hand of this kind but latcr in the century: a good hand, 



IX 


(;REEK L1TEHAR\ PAPYIU 


U3 


FAcsnULE Xo. 8 


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UREEK UTER_\.RY P\PYHI 


12;) 


but showing a certain slackness which IIwy lu> regarded a'i a mark of 
adnulce. 1 
Our next specimen is selectp.l from the great papyrus containing the 
tbrpp sl't'eches of Hyperi!les, against Demosthenes and for Lycophron and 
Euxenippus (Brit. )Ius., Papp. cyiii, CXy), and shows a section of tlH' text 
near the end of tIlt' thinl oration. Hy the light gaine<<l frolll more recent 
discoveries, this papyrus is now placed late in the first century of our 
era, rather thall ill the prece!ling century to w].ich it was formerly 
assigned. 2 


Xo. f) 
At the first glallce t]lI-' e)"" i:-. plpased b)- the eas)" flow of the writing 
and its general.gracefnlness. It is, indeed. in the l.t-'st :-.t)"le of the time. 
Comparing it with the writing of the (JdY$/'ey of perhaps hOUH> eight or 
nine decadeh earlier, one pl'rcei,-es some loss of the exact setting of that 
example and a more unstmlied ease: and yet, notwithstanding, there is 
no weakness in the hand, which runs an even anll wen !:>ustainell course 
from end to end of the papyrus. In structure the individual letters are 
not n'r)' different from thos., of the Ody.

ey, bnt hl1,ye rather 1II0re ea"y 
play in the !>trokes. W e 
ee the alj,!tlt \\ ith cunec 1, not angular. llow l}\1Ïte 
estahlishefl. The horizontal har of ejJ.-ilon and of tl/piCt is !:>et high ill the 
letter, as in the other 318. Of the letters which hall IJecome normally 
confined to the limits of the line of writillg. it is noticeal.]e that lJCt11 alone 
shows an ollstinate tcndency to out-top the rest. (At all times in the 
papyrus perioll that letter appears to have cansel] 1II0re or ]esfo, troul,le to 
the scribes; perhaps till' donl,]e how was an ineonvenience which induced 
impatience al1l1led to malformation am] exaggeration.) And particular 
aUPIÜion is to be drawn to n tendency to draw down the head of t'igIHu 
in a decided eUlTe, especially when the letter stam1s at the en,l of a 
line. This is only another instance of im-asion l.y a cnrsi,-e forl11. and 
indicates progress. 
An exeeption to the ruund-hand style is fonnd in the Harris Homer 
(Brit. 
Ius., Pap. cvii), which is now place,l in the first century A. D., 
instead of in the preceding century according to former opinion. 


Xo.lO 
The papyrus takes its name from the first owner. after it waS 
reclJvered in 18-19-30, )11'. A. C. Harris of .Alexandria; aIlll it eontains 
hook xviii of the Iliad. with certain imperfections. It i
 much discoloured 
am], for that reason, 1101'S not lend itself favoura!Jly to repro(lnction. 
The chief characteristics of the writing are its \ll'rightne!;!;, if anythiug 
rather inclinin
 to the left, anù the lightly touched and ùe]icate formation 
of the letters. Attention may in Pêuticular be Ilrawn to the narrow 


1 KelJ) un, Classical Texts, pI. Ì\. 


2 KCIl
 on. Pal. Gk. Pap. 87, Eö. 



126 


F ACSDIILE X O. 10 


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(a) 1 


I For the sake of cl. arne'
, till' ",unoctions and accents inoerted by It I..t('r hand are not 
noticed in this tran,cript. 



(:REEK LlTEHARY r.\PYIU 


127 


{'l)"ilOI! aUlI the flattened ()')legft: forms, differin
 frOlH the orthodo
 
book-hand characters, which haye aheady heen met with in the Bacchy- 
lide
. Like the latter 
IS.. and one or two others of 
umewhat similar 
type, the Harris Homer occupies a po
ition rather off the direct line. 

 ear the close of the first century a :\1 S. of 
reat interest comes before 
us, the' AOr;raíwv llo
unía of Aristutle (Brit, 11us., "Pa p. cxxxi), the palaeu- 
graphical value of which is chiefly due to the fact that it can be assigncd 
to a period within narrow limits. It is written on the back of some 
disused farm account-rolls of the year iH-ia, which, from their ephemeral 
nature, would prohably ha,-e ceased to he of any use and woultl hm-e 
been discar.ted as waste paper within a few years of this date. A decaole 
of years seems to be a fair allowance of time to ha,-e elap:-.ed he fore the 
papyrus was put to its secoml use; t\llll we may therefOl'e pretty safely 
place the writing of the Oonstitution within the first centúry, about A.D. 
ao. The text is in four hands, lutving heen apportioned to as many 
writers, who worked pre';Ulnably under pressure of time; anll unfor- 
tunately only one of them (the second) wrote a form of writing which, 
perhaps only Ly cuurtesy, can be called a IJook.han(l. 

o. 11 


It is wurth while to gi,-e a specimen of tins hand. for it it> instructiye 
to see the kind of writing which might be employcd to produce a book 
for pri,-ate use llY a copyist who could write the Look-hand, but who. in 
the circumstances. did not keep to the formal type which" ould ha\ e 
Leen required in a 11S. written for thc market. and Ili.l his work in 
a negligent style. forming his letters looscly and allowing his pen to 
lapse more or less into cursi,-e. This negligence shows itself esppcially 
in the fluctuating shapes of el)s,"lv,( and eta. mnging from the formal 
uncial to the cursive letters. aUlI in the occasional hurried looping of the 
first limh of lambda anll Illt. 
Another instance of a work written in the first or second century 
without any pretension to calligmphy, is the papyrus of the J[i Illes of 
Hdodas (Brit. :MU8-, Pap. cxxxv). But as the writing is not that of an 
expel t scrihe. and is, in fact, a rou
h and ready script, not connected 
with what may he called the orthodox Look-hand, it is enough to men- 
tiun it as prolJahly an example of the cheap, if not home-made, scholars' 
copies which appear to have hecome more common from this time forwarl1. 1 
A ,-ery favouraltle example of the orthodox: hand. carrying on its 
tradition. is found in the papyrus of the Iliad, xiii and xi,. (Brit. l\lus.. 
Pap. dccxxxii), which is likewise placed at the ('wi of the first or early 
in the beeullII century.2 written in the hest style, neatly and uniformly, 
with Ilelicate penmanship, 
I F.\c.imile i,sued IJY the Eriti"h Nusl'um, 1 89::!. See Ken
 on, Class. Tal>, '\nd Pal. (,T.. 
Pap. !H. 2 Ke'H on, Pal. (,/,. n",. !Ii'. 



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\.PYRI 


12!) 


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ILIAD XllI.-FIRST OR SE('OXD CE
TenY 
(TlJV ßaÀw 1jt p EXf TOÇOV Wçoov fK Õ apa TOÇOV 
m'HKpv Õta Xftpo,> fÀT}ÀaTo xaÀKEov fYXO,> 
alJl Ô fTapwv H'> E8vo,> fxa(ào KllIJ aÀHtvWV 
XfLpa 7oapaKpfp.aUa,> TO Ô HþfÀKETO /lftÀWOV fYXO,> 
Kat TO P.W EK XH,JO'> fPVUH' p.Eya8vfJ.0,> aYIJI'Wp 
aVTllv Ôf ÇVVEÔIIUEV Wurpo(f>wI ow'> awrWt 
_ 
U<þWÔOV:1j 1jZ' apa 01 8Epa7oWV EXE 7oOlfJ.Wt Àawv 
S 7'HUa
.ôpov Ô < 8v:,> fJ.H'EÀaov KvõaÀtfJ.OIO 
ovrauw OVÔf Õta7oPO ÔVV1jUaTO xaÀKOV EÀalTUat 
fUXETO yap uaw,> EVPV KaUKÀau81j Ô H'I KavÀWI 
EYXO'> 0 Ôf CÞPEUtV t}LUL XaPTJ Kat HÀr.HO Z'LK1}V 
aTpf1Ô1j'> KOt EpvuuafJ.fVO'> ÇI!þO'> apyvp01jÀOV 
aÀT E70I 'üEIUavÔPWL 0 Ô V70 au7olôo> HÀETO KaÀ1/Z' 
açfLV11z' fvxaÀKOV fÀall'Wt OfJ.!þt 70fÀEKKWt 
fJ.aKpWt WÇEUTWI afJ.a Ô aÀÀ1jÀWV E!þtKOVTO 
1jTOt 0 fJ.EV KOr'v80,> !þoÀOI! 11ÀauEv t707ooôaufL1/> 
aKpov V7fO Ào!þOV aVTOV 0 Ôf r.poawvra fJ.HW7oOZ' 
PEtZ'O,> V70Ep 7ovfJ.aT1/'> ÀaKE Ô ouna TW ÒE OL OITCTE) 
K 


118-1 



130 


(;REEK A"XD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


Xo.12 


The writing is very upright. with even some tendency to slope back- 
wards. Comparing it with that of the Od!J8
ey above and taking 
a general view of the two hands, the advance in the Iliad is perceptible 
in the compression of the writing and consequent loss of even spacing, 
so marked a characteristic of the older :\IS. 'l'his compression or close 
packing seems to be induced by the Lackward slope gi,.en to so many of 
the strokes, and the same reason may account for the 
cribe's tendency 
to make the cross-stroke in ulpha, epo:ilon, and theta oblique. The 
individual letters are generally restrained, and ewn archaistic in certain 
forms: e. g. ((lph(( reverts to the olel capital shape with cross-bar, and 
zeta not unfrequently shows the old style, with the oblique stroke meeting 
the lower horizontal in the middle. The
e peculiarities, howe,-er, Ulust 
be regarded only as affectations of the scribe; for we have to set against 
them such undoubted later forms as seen in m1
 and xi. 


Before entering on the second century, the period in which the book- 
hand in papyri may be said to decline from the exactness of the earlier 
examples, we may pause for a moment to com;Íder the situation. 
In the fourth century 13. C. we found a literary hand, not of the finest 
type indeed, but, though rough, still vigorous. Further discoveries may 
put us in possession of hetter written examples than the one which repre- 
sents that century in the Pm'l'ue of Timotheus; and we have little doubt 
that this will be so, for the refined style exhibited in the 1\188. of the 
third century must have covered some decades at least in course of 
developement and postulates a proportionate refinement in the older 
period. The style of the third century B. C. is free and, in a sense, natural; 
that is, the indi,-idual letter
 arc not cast into uniform moulds hut are 
allowed to keep to the relative proportions which they hall elm-elope!! 
in natural course. But in the second century B.C. the process of uniform 
moulding had commenced, and thence the direct line of developement of 
the book-hand produced, at the commencement of the Roman period of 
government in Egypt, a careful rouml-hand, in which, as far as possilJle, 
the several letters ranged in size of Lody, so as to fill with fair uniformity 
the line of writing. 'l'his style had become the characteristic hook-hand 
at the time of the ('hristian era, and appears to hm-e maintained itself 
fairly well for the next hunclred years. Other styles we have also seen 
indicated. 'l'he style of the Bacchylides Blay be, as has been suggested, 
an archaistic copying of the )ISS. of the third century B. c. The 
style of the Harris Homer. not so distinctive, we can only describe 
as a variety, prompted perhaps as a more facile hand and more 
quickly written. Both styles indicate independent reaction from "hat 



IX 


(mEEK LITER\R Y PAPYRI 


131 


we have termed the orthodox hook-hand of the time. In the second 
century of our era our material is consideral,ly increased. No doubt 
greater literary activity prevailed; and. with that activity, naturally 
there was a greater valiety of scripts. In general character we shall 
see the book-hand decline. The careful accuracy, which has heen 
noted as characteristic of the beginning of the Roman period. gives place 
to a more hurried and looser formation, except, of course, in those 
examples which were designedly produced as efforts of calligraphy; and 
we find styles of writing developed which are the outcome of the 
literary activity referred to, and which appear to have reacted on the regular 
book-hand. The collection of papyri from Oxyrhynchus in particular 
is most instructive in providing us with a number of handwritings of 
various styles, particularly of the second and third centuries, generally 
the writings of scholars, none of them conspicuous as specimens of 
calligraphy, and many of them inscribed on the verso of disused papyri. 
Such, for example, is no. 841 (vol. v. pIs. i-iii), Pindar's Paeans. written 
early in the second century on the verso of documents of the previous 
century; and, as well-written )188., may be cited the two copies of 
Plato's Plwedrus, no. 1017 (vol. vii. pI. vi) and no. 1016 (vol. vii, pI. v), 
assignee] respectively to the second or third. and the third, century. 
In this period a small style of hand seems to ha'
e come into favour, no 
doubt for convenience and speed in writing: such, for example, as 
no. 853 (vol. vi, pI. iv). a commentary on Thucydides. written on the 
hack of documents of the second century, in an upright and neat, but 
not calligraphic, hand; and again, no. 843 (vol. v, pI. vi), Plato's 
Sympo
ium, in a regular hand but of ordinary character. also of the 
end of the second century. Further, a mark of progress and haste is 
the increasing tendency to write in sloping letters, breaking away from 
the older tradition of the more leisurely upright hand. This style 
asserted itself in the second century. and in the course of the third cen- 
tury became a recognized form of literary hand, and. in a calligraphic 
cast, appears as a book-hand for :\ISS. produced for the market. Instances 
of this class of literary hand are no. 852 (vol. vi. pIs. ii, iii). the Hyp
ipyle 
of Euripides, in a small. rather fine writing, slightly sloping. of the second 
century; no. 84,2 (vol. v, pIs. iv. v), the Hcllenica, perhaps of Cratippus, 
written on the verso of dislIsed papyrus in a slllall sloping hand, rather 
restrained, of the second or third century; no. 3:
 (vol. i. pI. vÏl. the Lu1t's 
of Plato. in a fairly good hand of the same style, of the third century; 
and especially no. 223 (vol. ii. pI. i), the Iliad, book v, written excel- 
lently well, early in the third century, to which there will be occasion to 
refer below. Again. a good e'\:ample of a hand sloping rather backwards, 
which recalls the style of the Harris Homer, appears in a fragment of 
the KÓÀaf of )lenander (no. 409. vol. iii. pIs. ii. iii). of the second century; 
K2 



132 


(mEEK AXD LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


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IX 


GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 


133 


and another, of "omcwhat like character. in no. n ("01. i. pl. iii), Aristo- 
xenus on metre, of the early third century. 


\Ye now proceed on oUl' course. But it wiU be convenient. for the 
moment. to pao..;s o"er certain examples which will require separate treat- 
ment. as belonging to a llranch through which can be traced more clearly 
the connexion of the l J ook-hand of the papyri with the lJook-hand of 
the vellum cOflices. 
To illustrate the papyrus book-haml of the second century. in the 
direct line. we select a facsimile from the remarkably fine )18. contain- 
ing a commentary on the 1'Itel!etetu.
 of Plato. now in Bel'lin (Xel" Pal. 
Soc. 103). 


No. 13 


The writing. it will be seen. is of a good fluent style, by a well skilled 
ham!. easy in its action. There is a slight tendency to ornamental finish, 
11.S might be expected of so ready a penman as the scribe must ha,'e been. 
Comparing it with the earlier examples. e.g. the Udy:::sey (Facs. HI and 
the Iliad (Facs. 12), there is here evident a greater breadth in the 
formation. and a wi.Ier spacing. of the letters. It is this hreadth and 
increased freelÌom, as compared with the more precise regularity of the 
older examples. that gÍ\'e the impression of progress; for in the actual 
structure of the indi,'idulliletters there is ,'ery little ,'ariation. Indeed. 
the difficulty, in such an instance as the present one, of judging of the age 
of hook-hand papyri is "ery great; for the number of examples is com- 
pamti,'e]y limiteù. aUfI thcy have to be distributed over so large a space 
of time. that it is only when certain of them can be grouped within not 
too wide a period and can therefore illlliviclually give support to each 
other in the sCI}ucnce assigned to them, that we can be said to he standing 
on fairly finn grounll. Then the eye acf}uires a familiarity with. the 
character of the writing aUlI its subtle changes. and the palaeographer 
ùevelopes a kind of instinct for the exprcise of his judgement anel for the 
conclusions at which he arrives. But when the examples lie far apart 
in date, then we cannot speak without diffidence aUlI reserve, recognizing 
that further disco,'eries llIay largely modify present opinion. 


\Ve are in a better position in regard to the next example, of the thinl 
century. hook xviii uf the KE:l1TOí of Julius Africanus. found at Oxyrhynchus 
in 1sni (Xezc Pal. Soc. 10!). From internal e,-idence the work itself 
can hardly be earlier than the year 
;!5: and the verso of the papyrus 
contains a deed of the reign of the Emperor Tacitus. A. D. 
75-6. The 
date of the )IS. may, therefore. he placed approximately in the middle 
of the century. 



134 


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JULIUS AFRlCA
uS.-1hDDLE OF THIRD CENT('l{y 
(Ta () fÇ1j1: fLT ov
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fULV 
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. . ÀLal: Kam!TOOÀfW1j1: T1j1: 7õaÀatUnLV1j . I Kaz' /JVU1j T1j1: Kaptal: JlfXpt I Õf TOV 
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KfUTOI: 


t1j) 



UREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 


135 


:No. 14, 


Here again, there is little to choose between the actual structure of 
the letters of this example and of those of the l'lteaetf't'llS; hut in the 
execution of the writing there is a very palpaLle "falling oft: The writer 
of the )18. before us was no douht a professional scribe, hut not so expert 
as the writer of the earlier )18. The general character is rather com- 
monplace and lacks the di
tinction of the l'ltear>te f ,/(s. being inclined to 
heaviness in the down-strokes. These marks of deterioration, if we may 
venture to generalize on a slender hasis, seem to indicate a decline in the 
third century from the higher 
tandal"ll of earlier times. 


Reference has been made above to the sloping hook-hand which 
de,'eloped in the course of the second century and was Lrought to a 
calligraphic perfection in the third century. The growth of this style of 
writing was a natural consequence of the necessity for 'luicker produc- 
tion on the increasing literary demand!'; of the time; and it is to he 
remarked that exactly the same result followed in the period of ,-cHum 
)1
S. when the pressure of greater expedition prUllucecl a sloping hanll 
in succession to the early upright uncial. An elegant example is found 
in a fragment of the Sltephei'(l of Hennas. in Berlin; I and a well-Imown 
instance is the papyrus hook containing the Iliad, books ii-iv, in the 
British )luseum (Pap. cxxvi): both of the third century. Here we gi,'e 
a facsimile from the Oxyrhynchus papyru!-', no. 223 (vol. ii, pI. i), the 
Iliad, book v (now in the Bodleian Library), which has been mentioned 
above. The handwriting is so evidently that of an expert scribe that we 
might at once assume that the )18. had been executed for the market, 
had it not been inscribed on the nrso of an obsolete document of the 
year 186. Fortunately for the palaeographer. this circumstance prm-ides 
a terminus a quo, and the date of the )18. is accordingly placed early in 
the third century. 


Xo.15 
One of the leading characteristics of the sloping hand is the contrast 
of hea,-y and light strokes, the down-strokes very frequently beginning 
with a thickening and running off fine: ,-ery much what we notice in 
a modern sloping hand written with a pliant pointed nib, such as the 
point of a reed-pen might have been. Round curves give place to m-als, 
as seen in the narrow epsilon, theta, omik1'ull, aIllI t<igma and in the bmv 
of 'I-fw; and we notice a reversion of omikr01
 to the oM small form of 
the letter. 


Here we leave the direct line of de,'elopement of the book-hand OIl 
papyrus. .Arrived at the third century we are in touch with the period 


I Wilcken, Tafeln zlIr lilleren griech. Palaeogmphie, iii. 



136 


(mEEK AXD L.\TI
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IX 


(;REEK LITER_\.RY P_\.PYRI 


137 


when ,-elluJll was becoming the vehicle for the literature of Greece an.l 
Rome; tUld, although Greek literary works still continue.l fur some time 
to be produced in Egypt, the field widens and we no longer ha,'e to con- 
centrate our attention on the land of the :Nile. All the ancient \Yestern 
world comes under slll.ve
'; for the vellum codex. which now Legan 
to multiply, was not to perish from the effect of climate, as tlw papyrus 
roll had perished sa, e in the dry sanlls of Egypt. Imt wa,> to endure awl 
spread through the countries of the \Yest. 


But, before clo
ing this section of our work, there still remain certain 
examples which were reserved (p. 133) for special examination as illus- 
trating more immediately the growth of the book-hand of the early uncial 
coùices on vellum from the hook-hand of the pavyri. l\S we ha,-e already 
e'{plained. the strong material and smooth smface of prepared vellum 
were adapted to recei,'e a stronger style of writing, one in which tlt(' 

cl'ibe could gÍ\'e rein to his ski]] in calligraphy and could produce such 
examples of ornamental uncial "riting as are found in the early biblical 
codices. wherein so great an eítect of beauty is attained by the contrast 
of fine and heavy strokes in the structure of the letters. It is true that, 
in some of the later examples of the papyrus book-hand of the direct line 
of developement which are noted below (p. 141). there appears a tendency 
to write with a certain amount of that ornamental contrast of fine and 
heavy strokes; but papyrus was not a material to endure such treatment 
in any ,-ery great degree. amI the leading characteristic of writing on 
papyrus was essentially lightness of stroke. 
None of our earlier specimens .lown to the first century could l,e 
pointed to as the lineal ancestor of the vellum uncial hand, although no one 
would dispute that there is a relationship. The forms of indi,'iduallettel's 
may be very similar, hoth in the papyrus haml and in the vellum hand, anfl 
yet, if we were to place two such .liSS. as the Ell.renippus of Hyperides 
(Facs. 9) and the Codex Alexandrinus (Facs. 46) side by side, we should 
not venture to dprive the writing of the latter directly from that of the 
more ancient MS. But here a lI:ost valual,le document COmes to our assis- 
tance in the task of determining the parentage of the later uncial ham]. 
This is a papyrus (Brit. )Ius.. Pap. cxli: Cut. Gk. Pap. ii.181) containing a 
Jt'ed of sale of yineyards in the Arsinüite nome of the Fayûm, which bears 
the date of the se,'enth year of the Emperor Domitian, A. D. 88. The writ- 
ing is not in the cursin character that one looks for in legal documents, 
but is of a formal style, in which a likeness to the uncial of the early 
,-eHum )ISS, is at once most obvious. In the first century, then. there was 
in use a set form of writing from which that uncial hand was evidently 
derived by direct descent. And it may be couclulled with fair certainty 
that, eyen at that early period, this style of writing must ha,'e been in 



13H 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


FAC::HIIIILE 1'\0. 16 


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(-fVfPYfTtOt TOV apcHvOITOV vO/l-ov O/l-- I -TOV YVl.'llt OtoOoopa 1]paKÀnc,oV 
TOV- I -w!> fTOOV TpwKovTa er.Ta /l-Hnl /l-fÀtX-poot;- f -ar.o T1]!> "poYfypa/l-- 
I HV1 1!> 1W f pa!> f r.t]- I -[f;Àatool'ooV fV KaTotKtK11L Taçn T.fP:t
- I -TlI!> /l-fptOO!> 
apovpoov TptwV 1]paKOVÀ-t!>]- 
-OV TOV Kat uapa'Trtoovo,> TOV apH/l-tOoopOV I -1] /l-fÀtXPw!> /l-aKpor.poUwr.o!> 
fv8vpLV I -/l-fUWt V7rO TpLxa O/l-fV OLOV/l-O!> I -apXOVTO!> aVTw /l-1]TpL/\OV 11/l- tuov !> 
. . . I -poov U'Vfa 1]/l-tfTOV!> nTapTOV I -:OfK 
úoro 11/l-tfTOV!> HTapTOV 1] OUool' I 
-OtKOVO/l-tat!> f7rt Tot!> OVut TOOl') 



IX 


GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 


13g 


existence for It considerable period of time; for here we find it common 
enough to be employed by an ordinary clerk. 1 


Xo.16 


It is to be noticed that the writer of this document does not keep 
strictly to the formal uncial letters. As if more accustom ell to write 
a cursiye hand, he mingles certain cur,..ive letters in his text: side by side 
with the round epsilon, there stands in one or two places the cursÌ\
e. in 
which the cross-stroke is absorbed by the finishing eUr\'e;:! and, more 
frequently, the cursive 'IJ,).
ilon is employed as well as the regular uncial 
letter. Among the other letters, may he remarked ihe tendencJ'to make 
the main stroke of the alpha rather upright, which e\
entually leads to 
n distinctive form of the letter, as seen fully de\-eloped in the palimpsest 
)IS. of the Gospel of St. )latthew at Duhlin (Codex Z); in some of the 
titles of the Codex Alexalldriulls; and abo\
e all in the Coile\: Marcha- 
Ii anus of the Yatican 3-this being in fact the Coptic form of the letter. 
It is also remarkable that in one or two places the writer has em- 
ployed large letters at the beginning of the c1au:"cs into which he lJl"eaks 
up the text. This practice foreshadows the use of large initial letters 
which is a mark of advance ill the early yellum Greek codices. 
The Bankes Homer (Iliad, lJook \:xiv), from which our next facsimile 
is chosen, is one of the best presened papyri of the Iliad that have yet 
been found, being nearly 8 feet in length and containing sixteen 
columns of text; and the material being in good condition and the 
writing quite legible (Brit. )IU8., Pap. cxiv). It is of the second century. 



o. 17 


The writing of the rankes Homer lJl"ings us very closely to the style 
of the vellum uncials, the letters being carefully formed and exhibiting a 
contrast of heavy and light strokes in their structure, to a greater degree 
than is ordinarily found in papyri, The round letters are well formed 
on the basis of the circle; and in many instances main vertical strokes 
are ornamentally finished ofr with small hooks or cro
s-bars. One or two 
points of interest, apart from the actual handwriting. may be mentioned. 
The lines are marked off in hundreds llY numerical letters inserted in the 
margins; and the speeches of the ditterent persons are indicated by their 
names, and the narrative portions by a contracted form of the word 
'ITO(1)T1í
. 'Vith \
ery rare exceptions, corrections, accents, and breathings 


I'Ve have proof that uncial writing was used as the cOT'y-hand for writing lesson5 in 
schools, such copies being found on early waxed tablets. 
2 Accidentally omitted in the Tables of Alphabets. 
S Reproduced in facsimile, with a commental'y by A. Cel"iani, Rome, 1890. 



140 


FACSllIllLE No. 17 


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fKTOp fJ.l-OL Õf J.l-aÀLlTTU ÀfÀHVHaL aÀYfa Àvypa 
ov yap J.l-OL (JVIllTKWV ÀfXfWV fK XHpa,> opfça,> 
Ol'Õf TL J.l-OL H7rf'> 7Tt'KLVOV f7TO... OV Tf KH' aLH 
J.l-fpV1JJ.l-1JV rVKTa,> Tf KaL 1J
aTa õaKpv XfOVlTa 
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T1lfTLV Õ avO fKaß1J aõwov fÇ1JPXf yoow 
fKTOp fJ.l-OL 8vJ.l-w r.aVTWV 7TOÀV cþLÀTaTf r.aLõwv 
1J J.l-w P.OL (000.. 7Tfp fWV cþLÀO'> 1jfT(Ja thULlTL 
1J Õ apa lTfV K1jÕOfTO Kat W OavaTOW 7Tfp aLlTl] 
aÀÀuv,> J.l-W yap 7TatÕa... fpOV,> 7Toõa,> WKV'> aXLÀÀH',> 
7TEpValTX OV TW fÀf'lT' Kf T.fP1JV aÀo,> aTpVYHOW 
f'> IruJ.l-OV f'> T LJ.l-ßpOV Kat ÀIIJ.I-"Ol' aJ.l-LxOUÀOflTlTaV 
lTfV Õ fT.L fÇfÀHO VVXIIV Tava1JKH xaÀKW 
T.oÀÀa pVlTTa(ffTKfV fOV T.fpL lT1JJ.I- Hapow 
T.aTpOKÀOV TOV E7Tfcþl'H aVflTT1jlTW Õf J.l-lI' OVÕ 00'>) 



GREEK LITER\RY PAPYRI 


141 


amI other marks are IIY a later hand (omitted in the tran'icript of the 
facsimile). 
The Bankes Homer, approximating in its style so much nearer to the 
vellum uncial character than the on1inary papyrus hand. was apparently 
not altogether an unusual exception. For there are indications elsewhere 
that a heavier type of writing was occa<;ional among the later papyri. 
For e-x:ample, among the Oxyrhynchus papyri there is an interestillg' 

pecimell of this new type, 1/earing a still closer 
imilarity to the uncial 
codices, in no. 661 (vol. i\, pI. v), a fragment of Epodes, which is approxi- 
mately dated in the second half of the second century; awl again in no. 
8-!-! ('-01. v, pI. vii), the Palle!1yricu." of Isocrates, we find another instance 
of a rather heavy large uncial hand of the second to third century. 
The last )18. with which we ha\-e to deal in this section is the 
papyrus of the Iliad, book ii, now in the Bodleian Lihrary, which was 
found hy Professor Flinders Petrie. in 1888. at Ha\\ am, and is thence 
sometimes known as the Hawara Homer. This papyrus is of e-x:trellle 
interest. for it was the first of its type to be discowred, and its date was 
a matter of conjecture. Subse'll1ently two other fragmentary examplei> 
of the same large uncial hand were found, at Oxyrhynchus and at 
Tehtunis, both containing lines from the same book of the Iliad. The 
Oxyrhynchus papyrus (now Brit. )lus., Pap. 742) prO\-ides valual.le 
e\-idence for fixing the date of this type uf handwriting, since it has 011 its 
verso accounts written in a hand not later than the early part of the third 
century. The second century. then. maJT be accf'pted as the period of this 
fine hook-hand. l 


Xo.1H 


The large scale on which the "Titing of the Hawara Homer is 
executed suggests that we have before us a portion of a MS. which 
must have been unusually sumptuous in style. It is calculated that 
when complete the whole of this book of the II iud, thus written, would 
have occupied a roll of ahout 32 or 33 feet in length: in modern phrase 
the )lS. would have been an éditio/t de luxe. This impression is 
enforced by the style of the letters which, when carefully analyzed, 
appear to be essentiallJT ca1ligraphic and artificial. It will be obsen-ed 
that we have not here the contrast of light and heavy strokes which we 
have noticed in other examples as leading on to the style of the vellum 
uncials. On the contrarJT, in this instance, the letters are of the light- 
stroke character which was so suited to papyrus. But, in regard to scale, 
the Haw-am Homer shows a distinct connexion with the uncial codices: 
and particularly as a )18. of Homer its similarity in style to the 
.Ambrosian vellum Homer has been recognized. One is tempted to 
suggest that in producing choice copies of a work of such universal 
1 Ken)'on, PaZ. Gk. Pap. 101 ; Ne!!' PaT. 80e. 1
6. 



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 1:::1.tj 



GREEK LITERARY PAPYRI 


143 


popularity and veneration as the Iliad, a traditional style of fine writing 
grew up for the purpose: and that the same sentiment of doing honour 
by this means is to be recognized in the a.loption of the fine uncial hand 
for choice copies of the sacred text of Scripture. 
The student will perceive how ornamental the several letters in the 
Hawara Homer are rendered by adding delicate hooks or head-curves, or 
by finishing off the extremities with lightly applied thickenings or minute 
cro!<s-bars. This character of ornamentation may be traced in suniving 
examples as far back as the reign of Augustus, when such calligraphic 
treatment of the book-hand was probably suggested hy the tine style of 
lapidary inscriptions. Instances occur, among others, in the Berlin poetical 
fragment reproduced in Schu bart.'s Pu )J!Ji'i G mecae Beroli neil
es (pI. 11 b), 
which is placed within the first century B.C.; in the small fragments of 
Demo
thenes in Kenyon's Pttlueog1'''phy vi Giwk Pap!Jri (pI. xvi), of the 
latter part of the first century .\. D.; and, most cOll
picuously, ill the 
He:;iodic fragment, also given by Schuhart (pI. 19 a), of the early part of 
the second, if not of the end of the tirst, century A. D. I The last-nmned 
papyrus is a very beautiful example of calligraphy, the lettering being 
rather laterally compressed, and the whole resembling a finely sculptured 
inscription. 


In the accompanying Table of Alphabets of the Literary papyri 
the student will see the forms of the letters use I I in the several l\l
S. 
from which facsimiles ha"e Leen given alJove in illustration of the 
text, grouped in a leading sèries from the Timotheus of the fourth 
century B.C. to the Julius Africanus of the third century A. D.; followed 
l1Y the specimens of sloping writing and of the hands ha\.ing affinity to 
the uncials of the early vellum period. To these have been added, in 
their proper places, the alphahets of the three early papyri containing 
the Curse of Artemisia, the marriage contract of 311-310 B.C., and the 
Skolia of Lefore 280 B.C.; of the A ntiope of the third century B.C.; 
of the Herculanean Philodemus of the tirst century B.C'.; and of the 
Iliad ii-iv in the sloping hand of the third century A.D. In the 
case of the papyrus containing Aristotle's Constitution of At/tell"" it haq 
IJeen thought convenient to gi,.e the alphahets of all the four hand- 
writings of which the )15. is composed, although three of them (the 
first, third, and fourth) might, strictly, be excluded as being examples of 
cursive writing. 
When the Tal1le of Cursi,-e Alphabets in papyri comes under 
examination, there will be occasion to refer to the Literary Alphabets 
agam. 


I Firbt publibhed by "ïlamowitz-1I1011endortf in tbc Sitzlm
sberic1.t(; of the Bulin 
.AcadelllY, ] 900, p. S39. 



4
CENT.B.C.14T"CENT.B.C. 
 311-310 B.C)BEFORE280B.ci3 0 .CENT.B.C.i3 0 .CENT. B.C. 
B[FOR[ 160 B.C. 
. .... 
TtmotbN$, R>rsðe.jClIJ:!'!' 01 ArtemàiiJ.':.harri<l(Je COlJtract. i .sl<.o/ia. iP/ato, Phaedo. !urp'df's, Anltope 
O,a/ecticJlliwltse 

 AÀft.. AA AAÀA AAAA AAAAA AÀ.A p.... AAAA 
B5'
ó'
 ß 
 ß B ß B ßßß
 l3 [S ß B 8 
rr,... r rr r- rrr- rr rrr r r 
lA6b-
 DD 
ÌJD. Ll..ð..ð .óÓð ðb. Þ6..ð 
E" f: fC rfE c EEt t ff t [Fir f f f éééc- 
:t:. J:" I. -r :r I z: :z: r :::r -z: -::z:: 
MMH HH KHK KK H I
 H J-iH,H HMK 
0000 0 eÐÐÐ Q é) e Ð 0 (;) eSa &e 
f ( r J ) )fJ(J ( r ( ) f { ( \ , r ) ( ) 
/< K I
 r: K 'f-}- Ji r)<f- r- 
 f K 1< fC K)CK 
^^^ ^ AJ\À^ A^-/'- ^ ,... ^I\.^ ^/\A 
MMfV\ r'\ M 11 11M }ViM MM M r-'\ M. 1'-1... M,M. 
N f'J 'N"N NJ'I ;JJ'fj-{ "'NT'" NÑ}-J' "N N" }J" JV NNN 
--J __ --- 
- - 
 -=- - - - :-- ,;-. - 
 
-= 

-:- 
- -- --- - - - - -
- 
- - 
00 0 0 00(Jo o 0 0 c; 00 0 
0 0 
rtrr nfìl' Ti It ;-r. f\M r-. y----. IT )l,TlJL 
PfP P pfpp reep p r r f p f PI 
L
t 
 c.. (.. 
 ( (((LL .[ (c C c C <. <"cccc CCCC I 
TTyT I 
TTíY T-r TT'-r TT 'II 1))1 
rilT y-y Iril y-yy YYI yy yyy
 
+4>44> +++t + eft(> :r 4> ++ + 4'cþt><f 
XX X xX )( ;xx. xx 
t'Y t t t ft 
..,. yo... """) 
v..l-) W u.JW 
'^- '"^- ../l. ./\..-A..J\ ./\. """ (,..., tA...- LA- fA..) IA.. W W 
-"'- -^- V'- 


GREEK LITERARY ALPHABETS (NOJ) 



GREEK LITERARY ALPHABETS CN?2) 



"DCENT B.C': 1 ST CENT B.c.1Is
 CENT .B.e. 1 sT CENT.B.G. i ABOUTIO B.C ABOUT AQ I.i r'T CENT 
voerJ(feS.Jt
f"'"'ferd, Fl;,lodemus. ! l-!.?troclorIlS. Bacclfy/ldes; Petlrion. Odysse.r liï :tiyperidfS,fl/Xenipp,s 
\ A AI\;\. AAA AAD...A þ.. ",- 0 L>- A ò.. À?\ ò. À cÀ ó- è)., Ò\. v\ 
) 13 ß ß ßtSß ß 'ß öß6J3i ß ß B B B ß 8 B ß.fi 
rrrr rr rr rr-'I rrr r r r rr 


 àà DÓL::. D:.Ab. bbðÒ .666- ð6

 
D.Ò 
-; e:é t: e-E:-éE E: 6 E::; f t Ete-e-- eéet; e e e-t- e:e:e- 
z..Zz.z z:z:
 z:. ::z: z ZZ
2: ZÃ2:7. ZcZ 
-iHHH HHlín H 1i 11 HHHH Hrrrf Hf1h HM 
eeee e8ø ð
 8ße eGe ðð ufJfT 
I I I } I I I I 1 \ ) I \ } ! 

 1< t< 1<: K. "K Ie KKK Kkk KKK K.K.K K J(" 
^'^^^ ^i'..Ì' ÀÀÌ' >-"')-...)0...1'- ;\ À'^.J\ ^^.A"^ )\ 't-- 
"'\ ï'I M 1"\ MN\M.. MH.. NMf"1 MMM MJJ...JJ ^^- ÅA. 
'JNN NN
 NN"j'1 NNr-! N'NN NNN ]\.1 N 

":::"

 --- - 

 z

 3.3:J:5. 
,;L 
-.........,.,......
 
1....2-. - -- 
J 00 000 ooe:) 0 0 0 000 00 0 
lïnF'1Tl 71rtn nnTC" nnh TTJlJl. nn17 TI n n 
:Pftr pppp r p f f e f J()"e r e l? e Fep 
::ccc eec (CC c- crerl' GCC( CCCC CCC'C' 
ITTTT 7TT TTì TT-r IT}) T' TT 
I '( y,Y\I I YY'1 yyyy y,ìì yyyy ,YrY yyy 
I::
f 
cj> rpèp f<Þtt-.p pcpp rp
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XXX .xX 
x.:x- XX.:x xx X 
I 
I
tt tt t ++t ttt- t +-1- 
I L-J 
 1 
! IJWw
 W t.0lA.> W woJ l..J '--> '--> WWW wu)().) UJwLù 
1184 J. 



GREEK LITERARY ALPHABETS (N
3) 


1 ST CENT --- ABOUT A.D. 90 :lsTORl"tENTi 2 ND CENT 
....:Jrrts Homer r- Aristotle> COllst Atlwn.s. 
: l/Iadxl/l,KÍv. :ComrnonThffle(E 
ÀÀÀÀ. b-.à-t/- Ò--^- tÂo.- A A. J.- vl AAAf\ t>-tÀò..ð- 
ß8ß6 6 t g l{ tS13R 21 ß ß ß ß B t) ß 
rrr r r.Y' rr r rr r r í r r 
2:.Db ò.L::. b2:::.ò bè- .ð
 b.ð ð6D.. 
.. ...... ... .. f )'L If\. e--
ê- ý'- ð'-' \!" E:ée:te é é (- ç 
l r- r L- (- ".... Y'- '('- 
::z.z. Z 7. :z;z.. 2 2Z.Z. L1;Z Z :;z.. 
HHH H YT 
 J) hrtllh. h f\ J Hrrh IL H 11 11 I-c h 
e-ö-ð &f)f} e.ft e-l9- e!f!)- eee ee- 
l ) ) l \ ) I l 1{ I J 1/ } 
KK UK 
1:CK tA.V\}^- K-
 KKK\.< t< J< K 
^'^^ 1'>..Ì' À '^ fÀ. Af\ ^ Ì' ^1'-Ì' ^ )....'>-... 
^^ A,L }J... M f--U J.-l M^\M f-\/1'L fA. ^^-;v.. 
M.M.. f-""- Æ.J... A 
NNNN NNf'frt Nó\JN' NN NNrv NNN N
N 

;(<..
 
 
 
61.
 
 
'7 J.. .J.. 2- 3.,:L2 
o 0 00 o 0 0 ð 0 o Q 00 
T\ IT 7T (\Y\(\ flJL1t nn" 11. n )'ì h. IlTlIT n T7Tl 
J f f re r r r r F ( f ( f P )? e p p f' 
eeL l '(' ("\ c- cec" c-C0 CC'C-C' (cC""C' ccccc 
TTT Tyr TTT TYo rTT TTTT TT, 
yy'(y Lf. l{ Y. V Y1 1 '( 
 v yv I YYVy Y Yy" 
tit+ 1 
 + +t
 cþ c( 
r4 
t <PCÞ 
xxx ./-r ;xX )< ;><- x x xxx 
t T +tt r
 t -r rt ti-- 
Gut-,) w c..u- úJúJW W L..v W LJ wlù\0 WWL0 



GREEK LITERARY ALPHABETS (N
4) 


3""CENT ! 3 R "CENT, : 3""CENT : AD. 88 : 2"D CENT 2 """CENT 
Jill sAfrtcanu$ : /ltadv :, Iliad it -IV ; Deed of.sa/e_ :Ban/res Homer. Hawara Homer 


ó.. ð.. ð.- ð-..... A c:A.. A A. þ., Þ. 


BBß ßB8 8 


rí I, r 
óð b-.Aß 
 
.E.. f E- G- é- f f (- E- é- 


2. :::z.. 'h 2:. z Z 


HHH HH H 
e -ft fr-{}- e f:) 
J' I;! J 


KKI
 J<
 K 


^"^'''- ^-l'-/'- Â ^ 
..Å.Å. -A.-L Jv1 1-1 H M H 
NNN NNAf N 



z c..- - <- 
ì L.-I-...,t.. 
 -2- .l- 


00 OoOø 


r-cnn nn 


fe ftll 


CCc.cc t[;l'
c 
T T T TT T 
YyVY Y Y(r 
cþ cþ
 cþ -Ij>.tp4> 
xx )<-X 
+ f 


,L.;?.... 


o 


F7 


/ 


(" 


T 


y 
f 


.><. x. 


f 


d-- tl d.. 
12.& 


r r 
DD 
ê-E- f E- 


H )( }l 
fje- 
1 , 
k " 
^^ 
MMM 
N N'N 

 
00 
nnn 
frf 
c c c-r 
IT 
Y'( 'L 
cþ 
X>< 
Y 


AÞ.'þ, 
"ß l
 
r 
È::. 
 
Eee 
< 2:. 
1-1 
AG 
1 1 1 
,<;;. 1( 
^^- 
.Á..l .A..l. 
N N 


"3. 


00 


TTì\ 
ppp 
CC 
TTT 
yyy 

 þ 


'XX' 
yT 


A)...ÀA 
13 
rr 
2-ll 
E 
 E 
Z2Z 


1-1HH 
eef) 
1 J J 
KKK 
/\I\^ 
>>1). 
NNN 


- 
......... 
L .L .L 
00 
nn 
p p .P P 
CCCC 
TTT 
yyy 

<þcþ 
xxX 
t 


WWt.u v..;....Jt--J vv
(A) W W www (}JWGU 



CHAPTER X 


GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY (contin'lled) 


Cursive Script in Pa.pyri. 


'VE now leave the Book-hand and turn to the examination of Greek 
Cursive writing in papyri. But in this section, as well as in others in 
which cm'sh-e handwriting is dealt with, we must endeavour not to 
exceed the Jimits imposed by the primary objeèt of the present work. 
That object is especially, though not exclusively, to guide to a knowledge 
of the literary hands, the book - hawls. in Greek and Latin )188.; and our 
treatment of cursi,-e scripts Ulust not take too wide a range, llut Ulust 
in the first instance be such as to illustrate the developement of literary 
scripts. In a secondary degree the general developement of official cm'sh-e 
hands falls within our scope: yet much must be passed over which would 
have to he considered were we making a special study of the cursive 
hands for their own sake. Such fuBer study be!ongs to t.he province of 
Diplomatic, a large and important branch of Palaeography which demands 
independent treatment, Further, with regard to this present section, 
the papyrus collections of documents, as already noted, range over the 
whole field of cursive and include all kinds of handwritings of pri,-ate 
persons, "riting indifferently their best or their worst, as well as official 
and legal papers drawn up in more formal scripts. \Vhen we come to 
examine those cursive styles of the middle ages and later which concern . 
our subject, we shall not be embarrassed in the same way, for the private 
correspondence and papers of individuals of those times, where they have 
survived, are regarded as lying outside the limits of our field. 'Ve may, 
then, follow this later precedent in our treatment of the papyrus cursive 
documents, and, leaving minute investigation to papyrologists, lay before 
the student a series of specimens selected chiefly from the more official 
and trained clerical types uf this handwriting, whence, it is hoped, he will 
get a fairly clear idea of its general developement. 
It has already been stated that no specimens of Greek cursive writing 
of the fourth century B.C. have hitherto been discovered. It is true that 
two non-literary documents of that time are known and have already 
been referred to (pp. 107, lOR), ,'iz. the so-called Curse of Artemisia and 
a marriage contract of 311-310 B. c.; but neither of them is written in a 
cursive script. \Ve must await further discoveries to put us in possession 
of examples of the cursive writing of that remote period. 



GREEK CURSIYE PAPYRI 


149 


Of cursive writing of the third century B. c. there is now a,-ailable 
a wry fair quantity. To the collection gathered by Professor Petrie at 
Gurob, in 1889-90, ha,-e been added the fragments recowred at Tebtunis, 
and from cartonnage mummy-cases at Hibeh.in 1902-3, by )f essrs. Grenfell 
and Hunt, and the "pecimens from Elephantine, now at Berlin. Thus we 
ha,'e material for the study of Greek cursi,-e writing as far back as 
the early decades of the century: but of this material the Gurob series 
prO\-ides the most representative 
pecimens. In addition, it may be 
worth noting that a few scattered pieces had already for many years 
been stored in the various museums of Europe; but the antiquity of some 
of them had not been recognized, and they were thought to belong to the 
period of the Roman occupation. At Leyden there is a paEFus (Pap. Q), 
containing a receipt of the twenty-sixth year of Ptolem)" Philadelphus, 
260 B.C. At Berlin, Paris, and London there are three wooden tablets 
inscribed with deeds relating to a loan of the thirtieth and thirty-first 
years of the same king, about 254 B.C. Among the papyri of the British 
)Iuseum, three, formerly ascriLed to a later date, are now more correctly 
placed in the third century, viz. a petition for redress of grievances 
(Pap. cvi) of the twent;r-fifth year, apparently, of Ptolemy Euergetes I, 
223 B. c.; and two others (I and Ii A) without dates. The Paris collection 
also contains a long money account for public works (Tot. et E.d1'. xviii. 
2, pI. xliv) of the same century. A facsimile of a letter of introduction, 
e,-idently of this time, is giwn 11)" Passalacqua. I Egger describes a 
papyrus at Athens; 2 and various Greek endorsements and dockets on 
Demotic papyri are noticed by Revillout. 3 05traka or potsherds also have 
been found with inscriptions of this period. 
Of cursi,-e writing of the second centur)' B. c. we have material in the 
collection from the Serapeum at :Memphis, now presen-ed in London, 
Paris, Le) den, etc. (see above, p. 94); other specimens are to be found 
among the Petrie, Amherst, Tebtunis, Gebelên, and other more recently 
discO\-ered collections. Of the first century B. C. comparatively little has 
;ret been found, the later middle period of the century in particular 
being still unrepresented. 
For the first four centuries of our era there is a fairly continuous 
serie3 of documents. On the other hand, the fifth century is almost a 
blank, Yer
r few papyri of that time having been recovered. In the sixth 
century, however, the supply revi,'es; and again of the seventh centur
' 
there is a large series amilable, particularl
r of the first half of the 
century. Cursi,-e writing of the early years of the eighth century is 


I Catalogue Raisonni des Antiquités decourer.es en Égypte, Paris, 18
G. Abo de,cribed in 
Sotices et Extmits des MSS. xviii. 399. 
I Journal des Sat"ants, 18.3, pp. 30, 97. 
s Chrestomathie Dhnûtique, 1880, pp. 241, 2..; Renle É"gypf. ii. 114. 



150 


J t {' 
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r- r 
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2 f
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.t-l 

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f 

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- 
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. '.. --:........L <' )' 

. 

 
-. 
: 'ft.
t'f1.
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" . 
 
t' F 
 

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.... -Ç , r 
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.... 'Þ . .t t . 
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(:REEK (TBSIYE P.APYIU 


151 


chiefly iHustrated l,y the more recently acquired ('ollectiun of documents 
from .Aphroditopolis. which extend to alJout the year í2:!.] 
Grech. cursi,'c writing-, as foulHl in papyri, has l'een g-rouped uOller 
three phases, correspolHling to the three politieal fit hninistrations which 
succeeded one another after HiP fall of the nati,-c Egyptian empire. The 
Ptolemies held the government from 323 to 30 B. (:. Frum the time of 
the conquest hy Augustus down to the reorgani7ation of the empire hy 
Diocletian at the close of the third century, the ROlllan
 werc in power. 
From thence to the <<late of the Arah conquest, .\. D. 640- 3, Egypt was 
annexed to the Ea-,tem Di,"ision of the Roman empire. \\ïth each change 
of government there was a l'orresponding change in the gcneral character 
of the Greek cursive script; obviouslJ" to l'e attributed to the influence of the 
official handwritings of the time. 
\ change of gon'mment was naturally 
accompanied hya change of officials. awl a change of officiab hy a change 
in the style of production of official c]ocument
. It must also not he for- 
gotten that Greek was the official language emploJ-ed during all three 
periods, so that we have the advantnge of following- the de,"elopement of 
one alphahet through the consecuti'"e centurips. although changes in !;tJ-le 
were periodically eftectell. It is abo to l'e home in mind that the Arah 
conquest in 6.t0-3 did not llrillg to an al1rupt cl05e the use of the Greek 
language in Egypt. It had. by that time, been employ cd there for 
centuries, and a!> a spoken language it was pvi,lpntIy widespread through 
the countrJ'. Therefore its displacement under the Arab administration 
was grallual; allll thc Aphrodito collection p1'O,'e8 it!> survival, at all 
events for official amI husiness purpose
. for another hUllllred year::>. 
The characteristics uf the cur
ivc writing of the three perio,ls, the 
Ptolemaic, the Roman, and the f:yzantine, will be observell in lletail as 
the examples selected as illustrations are passeù in rc,-iew. But. if we 
were called on to describe hrietly and ill general terms the di
tinctive 
characteri"tic of eaeh, we "oul, I detine that of the Ptolemaic hand as 
rigi,l strength with natural facility; that of the Roman, as roundnes
 
with fluency; that of the BJ"zantine, as artiticiality with e...:aggeration. 


Our first example of Greek cursi,"e writing is from the Gurub collectiun 
(Pet1'ie Pupyri. ii. xxxviii b), a letter from Horos to Harmais. both 
officials, respecting the sale of oil, clah'cl in the fifth ycar (the sym1 1 01 L = 
hov
) of Ptolemy Euerg-etcs = ;!4'
 B. c. (BodI. Libr, Cr. class. C. 21 (P)). 
Xo.19 


The writer of this clocument must have I J een an e
pert penman of 
unusual avility whose hamlwriting woukl do credit to any age. Awl 
yet he "as nothing more than a local official of no particular importancc. 
1 Described in Uk. Papy/Ï itl fhe Blifi.<h jII 1 5elliJ!, i\". 19Hi. 



1::>2 


FACSDIILE Xo. 20 


-'to..)' _ 
 
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j;1( -," Hi- 1_ 
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PETITIO
.-223 B.C. 
(ßaCTtÀH 7i'ToÀEJJ.[atwt] I XatpEW apEv . .... I 7i'MEJJ.WiJO'i Tpt7i'TOÀta'i I JJ.tu80cþopov 
EpETpta'i aÒtlKOVJJ.at V7i'O KEcþaÀWt.o'i I uTa8JJ.oòoTWV OVTO'i I yap JJ.ov V7i'O JJ.ou- 
XtW1'O'i I KEcþaÀwv OVÒO'O'i 7i' ot IOVJJ.EVOV 
 V7i' EJJ.OV] 7i'pO'i I aVTOV . . . . . . . . . I TOV 
KE L 7i'avvt (' Kat I Et'i TOV . . . [T]07i'O
l'
 Ta TE I UKEV1J JJ.01J EÇEfJPt'ÝEV H'i I T1JV 
OÒOV Kat aVTOV I JJ.E TV7i'TWV E:çE(JaÀ'À' EV I EJJ.OV ÒE: OVK E:KxWpOVVITO'i aÀÀ E:7i'WapTVpol 
JJ.EVOV TOV'i 7i'apOVTa'i I Kat uvvòpaJJ.OVTWV I 7i'ÀEW1'WV Kat : E '7i'tnlJJ.WVTWV aVTwt 
OVTW'i I a7i'1JÀÀaY1J EYW ÒE: I Ta UKEV1J Ta a7i'optCÞo'ITa JJ.OV Et'i T1lV 0001' I EtU1J- 
VEYKa OE:oJJ.at I OVV uov f:1aUtÀEV 7i'pO'i Ta) 



t
REEK CTRSIYE PAPYRI 


U3 


The general aspect of the writing 
u;!;!ests the suspension of the letters 
from a horizontal line : an effect produced 1.y the horizontal :strokes and 
links being kept on the saUle level, and so forming a string sufficiently 
connect ell to convey the idea of continuity. Among the letters are to be 
obsenec1 the looped al/,lt((: the circular delta. the angle') of which are 
altogether merged in the cun-e; the link attached to the ptlt (a feature 
of long-lasting persistence); the lUiIl
da with secoIlllleg horizontal; the 
tlat IIlU and pi, each one often reduced to a com-ex curve; the stilted nu; 
and the dipped uml:ya. Such a perfect hand, written evidently with the 
greatest facility, must have a long history l.ehind it ; and we await with 
certainty the ,liscovery of a fully developed cursive haIlllwritin
 of the 
fourth century in which" e shall find its parent. 
The ne...:t facsimile exhil.it-- a handwriting of a totally different 
character. It is taken from a petition for redress of injuries recei ved 
from a soldier naUled Kl'phalon, in the twenty-fifth year of (apparently) 
Ptolemy Euergetes, :!28 B.C. (Brit. )Iu:,;., .Pap. c\'i; Cat. m... Pal)' i. 60, 
pI. 35). 



o. 
o 
This is an example of a very cursive style which, with an its irregular 
appearance. must have been wi.lely used by expert writers. as well a5 by 
or,linary persons. It will lIe 
een that it ha... none of tlw calligraphic 
play with the pen whieh marked the previous example. The document 
must have been written with great rapidity. perhaps as a draft. and pre- 
sumahly by an experienced clerk. It is one of the papyri mcntioned 
above (p. 149). which. until recently. ha\'e not heen recognized as 
belonging to so early a period as the third century B. c, The same 
style is found in documents among the Petrie and Hil'eh collections. 
Distinctive forms of letters are the wedge-shapell alplt(t, a peculiarly 
small form of beta, as well as the ordinary letter; the convex 1ïHt aIllI 
pi: the stilted Il'lt; tent with the horizontal only on the left of the 
vertical, and nut ex.tending to the right; aIllI the clippcd omega. 
'Ye return to an official type in the next example, a receipt issued 
II} Hermokles. son of Saranoupenios. collector of taxes in Thebes, for 
payment of a tax on land l,y Thoteus. son of Psemminis. and another. in 
the thirteenth year of Ptolemy Philopator = 210-209 B.f'. (Brit. )lus., 
Demot. Pap. 10463: Pul. ;)uc. ii. 14-3). 


x o. :! 1 
In this 5pecimen the llescent from the style of the letter of 242 B.C. 
(Facs. 19) i" Yery apparpnt; hut the calligmphic regularity of that 
example is here abandoned. Among the characteristic letters will be 
observed the wedge-shaped alpha, the rounderl delta, the com'ex forms of 
mu and pi. awl the clippe.l omega. 



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156 


GREEK T 
A
D L\TIK PAL\.EOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


F.\CSD[JLE No. 23 


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PETITION.-162 B.C. 
(UVl'fUT7]:Ta UOt TOV 1fapt(;oVTa /Lot T1]V TPOIþ'/'l'] 
VfWTfPOV /Lov aoÛ,lþov 1fpaY/LaTEvuo/LEVOV Ta' 
Ta ] 
UV Of WI' 1f p O
 TO 8 0 L 
UOV OULW
 LaKfL/LEVO
 Ka
t OV ßOVÀo] 
/LEVO
 1fapaß1]I'at n TWV fV TWt tfpWt fT.1]YYf[À/L EVWV ] 
a1ffUTfLÀa
 XP1J/Lanua
 /Lfl'VtOft fXUV V1f[oypalþ1J v ] 
f1fLUKf'Ýa/LfVOV Ta Ka01 K' ] 0 
] LOVTa a1fO OVvat fe" O[L
 YU'OtTO UOL] 
/Ll] /L O OVOV flþ O,t
 fL /LfVfLV aÀÀa Kat f1ft /LU(Ol{ a 1f p oa Y fLV J ' 
TOV f /LfVVLOO V 1 
l , V7T()YfypalþOTO
 TOt
 ypa/L/LaTf: V:Tt f1ft] 
UKf'Ýa/Lfl'O
 aVfVfYKHV [Kat TO 
VTWV aVfV 1]VOXOTWV] 
K001/KfLV OtOouOat oua Kat 1]/LU
 7i'pof<I'fp O /L f8 [a] 
o /LfVVL01J
 1faÀLV qHJULV fTot Uf OfLV aVfVf[X 81Jvat:> 




 


GREEK CL'"RSIYE PAPYRI 


157 


With the next facsimile we shall pass out of the third century, and 
it will he Eeen that the distinctive shallow writing- of that period forth- 
with ceases. 
This specimen is a section from one of the Serapeum documents: 
a petition to the strate
us of )lemphis from Harmais, a recluse and 
mendicant, for redress of a fraud hy which he had suffhed; 163 B.C. 
(Brit. 
lus,. Pap. xxiv; Cat. Gl.:. Pap. i. 31, pI. 18). 


Xo.22 
The Serapeum papyri include several petitions. a class of documents 
which, as already noticed. are naturally more carefully written so as to 
be read without trouble by the person whose f<wour is solicited. Hence 
the present example is in only a half-cursive style: the writing very 
handsome, bold. firm. and strong; the letters carefully funned. without 
superfluous linking. eta, pi, amI tUlt heing those which chiefly lend them- 
seh-es to that process. 
\ tendency to run into more cursi\'e forms at 
the ends of lines is noticeable; in which position the facsimile shuws the 
long eta amI the wedge-shape,l alpha. 
In contrast with the heavy hand. a light delicate script is also found 
among the Serapeum documents. Here is given a section from another 
petition, from Ptolemy. son of Glaucias. the .ì\lacedonian recluse already 
mentioned (p. 95) as the cLampiun of the cause of the twin girl attendants 
in the temple; of the year 162 B.C. (Brit. )lus., Pap. xxi; Cat. G/.:. Pap. 
i. 12; Pal. Sue. i. 1). 


No. 23 
Besides being more delicate in execution than that of the previous 
example. this style of writing also contains more thoroughly cursive 
elements, and hence shows greater variety in the shapes of the letters. 
For example, in the case of eta, llappa, nu. pi, 'up::,ilon, we find variations 
ranging from the formal to the (Iuite cursive forms. This will be better 
understood when we come to review the changes undergone hy the several 
letters of the alphabet in their progress from the earliest to the latest 
examples of cursive papyri. 
The next facsimile comes from a deed of sale by Patous, son of 
Phagonis, a Persian. to Panobchunis, son of Totoes, and his wife 
Kobaëtesis, of land in Pathyris; 123 B.C. (Brit. )Ius., Pap. 879 (i); Cat. 
G1.:. Pap. iii. 5, pI. 4). 


Xo.24 
In this example we recognize the same t
rpe of writing as in the two 
preceding deeds, but with some loss of regularity and preciseness, as 
might be expected with the advance of time. But there is no mistaking 
the style of the second century. Indi\-idual letters show little general 



138 


ti 
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tllf f
 
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GREEK CTRSIYE PAPYRI 


159 


FACSI'lILE 
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SALE OF L 
A
D.-101 B.C. 
(ßaCTLAfVOVTWV P A 
fcþ tfpfWV Kat aut tUU1]<; KAforraTpa<; Bfa<; fVfPYfnõo<;- 
tfpUWV Kat KaV1]cþOpov TW _ I B I fTOV<; ts" TOV Kat ty 
VOP.OV v l1ßatÕO<; fcþ 1] p aKAUÕ 
OV a}opa- 
a'iaÕOTO Bap.ov 
Vt<; 7iaTOVTO<; Õwr.o).,ln<; w<; L I 
TptX a fJ.fTa Kv[PtOV'- 1 w<; LA - OVA1] P.HWñWt fY Õf{:tw - 
J f P.ffTOV fJ.fAtXPOO 
' V V..O 
U7i"O Y'l
 ffJ.cþOpOV aÕtatpfTOV fV TWt ñ e- 
 TfTavov fJ. aK p07i"pOUWñOV- I P.fpO<; 
j30ppa cþaTpfov<; fJ.1]-T P O<;'- I 
 AA .a ,VptT1]tj-1 YHTOVH VOTOV Y 1 1 t.-lw ß 
A ß ' J V a 1]<; apav a fJ OUKWV 
t 0<; apap. 1 I To <; YlJ11 Ot uv wutv . , p <; fJ.t
<; 1]<; YUTOVf<; t'OTOV UA1]V-w<;]- 1 
TfTavo<; YfLTOVf
 ñaVTOe'EV] - I L 
p.aKp07i"pOUW7i"o<;- I KaTa T1]V Wl'1 v ea l w<; fJ. fJ.fUO<; fJ.fAtXPW<; 
I P.OVVt<; 1] añoõop.EV'111v 
õEta[To}--) 



160 


FACSl:\IILE Ko. 26 


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MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT.-15-5 B.c. 
(ßpL(;m. /Ll]Õ EyßaÀÀfLv /L1]Õ aÀÀ7]v YVVaLKa 
E7rELfTaYELV 11 EKTWELV Tl]V cþEpVl]V CTVV 1]/LLO 
ÀLa T1]!i 7rpa
EW!i YLVO/LEV7]!i EK TE aVTOV 
ÒLO
IVUWV K(aL) EK TWV V7rapXO
'TWV (WTW 7raVTWV 
Ka(Ja7rEp EK ÕLK1]!i K( aL) T7]V ÕE LCTLÕwpaV /Ll]TE a7rO 
KOLTOV /L7]TE a<þl]/LEPOV YEWEU(JaL a7i"O 77]') 
ÕLOI'VULOV OLKW!i aVEV 77]!i ÕWVVULOV YVW/Ll]<; 
/L1]ÕE cþ6fLpfLV TOV OLKUV /L1]ÕE aÀ>-,w aVÕpL 
UVVEWaL 7] K(aL) aVT/]V TOVTWV TL ÕW7rpa
a/LE 
V'lV KpL6fLuav uTEpECT6aL T7]<; cþEP
'7]<; (JEU(JaL ÕE 
aVTOV<; K( aL) T1]V Ecþ LEp06vTWV 7rEpL TOV ya/Lov 
CTvvypacþ7]V EV 7]/LEpaL<; XP7]/Lan(;OVCTaL<; 7rU'TE 
acþ 7]<; av aÀÀ1]ÀOL<; 7rpOEL7i"WCTLV Ka(J 7]" Evypacþl]UE 
TaL 7] TE cþEP
'I] K(m) TaÀÀa Ta EV E6fL OVTa K(aL) 
Ta 7rEPL T7]!i OTiOHpOV TWV ya/LOl'VTWV TfÀev 
T1]<; W
 av E7rL TOV KatpOV KOLVW<; KpLel]L) 



GREEK CL"RSIYE PAPYRI 


161 


disposition to change from established forms. except perhaps in the case 
of alpha, m:u, and u]Jl)ilon, which occasionally betray a tendency to 
break into CUlTes. 
Continuation of the delicate style of writing of the petition of 
162 B.C. at a later date is found in a deed of sale, executed at Diopolis 
Parva in the last year of Cleopatra III and her son Ptolemy Alexander, 
conveying land in the Pathyrite nome; 101 B.C. (Brit. )lus.. Pap. 882 ; 
Cat. Gl.... Pap. iii. 13, pI. 7). 


No. 25 


This ùocument brings us to the close of the second century: and yet 
there is evident but little failure from the firm and steady hand of sixty 
years earlier. It will, however, be observed how very cursively many of 
the words are written, individual letters almost losing their identity in 
the closely linked strokes of which those words are composed. But, 
if the letters are analysed. it will be seen that old forms are still 
generally maintained; and that only in certain of them. as alpha, dAta, 
'fIlU, pi, tau, 'upsilon, is laxity apparent. 
We here lea,.e the Ptolemaic period. for lack of adequate material 
debars us from more than superficial knowledge of Greek cursive 
writing in the first century B.C. But it is hoped that the specimens 
which ha\'e been submitted may suffice to convey to the student 
a fairly correct idea of the character of the Ptolemaic hand. the 
general attributes of which we ha"e defined as naturalness and vigour. 
The Ptolemaic is, indeed, a marked style. generally upright and rigid, 
long resisting that inevitable tendency to pliancy which, as we learn 
from other phases of handwriting. sooner or later invades and weakens 
any form of writing, howe\'er well-sustained it may remain through 
a lengthened course of perfection. 


We have to pass almost to the end of the first century B.C. before 
presenting our next facsimile, which stands at the head of the series with 
which it is proposed to illustrate the Greek cursive handwriting of 
Egypt under the Roman administration. We enter on the period when 
the pliancy referred to has taken possession. The contrast of this speci- 
men with those which have preceded it is so self-evident that no words 
are needed to emphasize it. It is a portion of a marriage settlement of 
a certain Isidora, wedded to Dionysius, a citizen of Alexandria, at some 
date between 15 and 5 B.C. (Berlin )lus., Pap. 66 R; Xeu: Pal. Soc. 176). 


Xo.26 
The writing is unusually small and cursive, and at first sight it 
appears intricate owing to its pliant character and the prevalence of 
II.. ,r 



162 


GREEK AND LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


F ACSIl\l1LE No. 27 



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LEASE OF .\ 
IILL.-A.D. 17 


(fVOLKWV aI'LEV: 7raUlj!ì rV]7rfpefU[f
oo!ì I aKwðvvM ðf O/-lVÀ:M] KaL TO fZ'OLKWV I 
7rUZ" TM] Kwðvz'ov KaL /-lfTa TOV Xpovov I a7r r OKa ]TaUT1]UaTooL 0 /-lUV1]!ì TOV /-lvÀOV I 
VYUjL KaL aULJ:1]L OLot' KaL 7rapfLÀ1]cþfl' I 07rOV [fav] UVVTaUUljL 0 LULðoo{JM fV 01 
tvpvyx oov 7r[0 ]ÀfL 1] T1]V fUTa/-lfZ'1]I' I TOVTOV T[ L ]/-llj
V] apyvpwv ðpaX/-lu!ì fKaTOV I 
fKaUTOV Õf /-l:1]
Z!O!ì OV fav /-l11 a7rOðooL I TO fVOLKWV [/-l'fe 1]/-lLOÀW!ì T1]!ì 7rpaltEoo!ì 
rO
VU1]!ì [T]ooL LULðoo{JooL fK Tf TOV \/-lE/-l!UeW/-lEVOV Ka[L] fK TooV vrrap) 



x 


GREEK CeRSIYE PAPYRI 


163 


ligatures. The document may he a lawyer's copy: amI the \\'l"iting 
may he classed a" a priyate, as distinguished frum an official, hand, hut 
at the same time that of an expert writer, such as a lawyer or law,rer's 
clerk would be. As such, the specimen lies rather outside the direct 
line, and might have been left unnoticed but for the dearth of dated 
e'\:amples of this period. However, it has its educational value, in that 
it illustratcs an extremely fluent style in businc:,s documents. 
The following facsimile e'\:hibits a hand of a more usual type. It is 
from part of a lease, at Oxyrhynchus, of a mil] by a certain Isidorus to 
Heracleius, son of Soterichus, a Persian; .-\. D. 17 (Brit. 
Ius.. Pap. 795 ; 
Cat. G/
. Pap. iii. pI. 18; Ox. Pap. 278). 


Ko.27 


.A large upright cursive writing of pronounced Roman t,rpe; the 
letters growing loose in construction, with tendency to cm'yes and 
a round-hand formation. The increasing size of the omikron (not 
universal, but frequent), contrasting with the diminutiye letter pre\"alent 
in the Ptolemaic period, may be noticed as a mark of the calligraphic 
effort which now a'3serted itself to make the bod,}' of the letters of 
a uniform size. 
Ad\yancing another half-century we meet with a \"ery neatly written 
document, which sets before us with admirable clearness the perfect 
round-hand to \\ hich the writing of the Roman period had now attained. 
It is a sale of a plot of land by one )Iysthes to Tesenuphis, in the reign 
of Vespasian; A. D. 69-79 (Brit. Mus., Pap. cxl; Celt. Glr. Pap. ii. 180, 
pl. 21; Pal. Soc. ii. 144). 


Ko.28 


This is an excellent instance of the 
mall cursive hand of a trained 
scribe. The run of the writing is so even and sustained that, while the 
writer varies the shapes of his letters to meet the requirements of com- 
bination in the different words, there is no hesitation and the pen mo\"es 
on, line after line, without a fault. 
The next facsimile comes from a document of a similar class of 
writing, on a larger scale, and of about the same time: the farm 
accounts of a bailiff named Didymus, son of Aspasius, employed by 
Epimachus, Bon of Polydeuces, the owner of an estate in the nome of 
Hermopolis, in the eleventh year of Yespasian! A. D. 78-9 (Brit. 
Ius., 
Pap. cxxxi; C(lt. Gil. Pap. i. 166, pI. 108). 

o. 29 


This may be regarded as an example of a good general business hand, 
written by a man skilled in accounts and using his pen with expedition 
)[ :l 



164 


GREEK AXD LATl
 P.\LAEO<:RAPHY 


FAf'SDIILE No. 28 


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SALE OF L.\.
D.-A. D. 69-79 


(-TOV aVToKpaTopo<; KatCTapo<; OVEIT1TaCTWZ'OV ITEßaCTTov Il1]Z'O<; I -1]paKÀELÔOV 
IlEptôo<; TOV apCTtvOELTOV VOIlOV OlloÀoYH I -10<; 00., L v cþaKo<; IlrJÀoot ÔEÇtoot 
TECTEVOVcþEL I -oot IltKpoot XHpO<; aptCTTEpa<; IlETa KVPtoV TOV EaVT1]<; vwv I -VÀoot 
IltKpoo:t] XELpo<; aptCTTEpa<; rrr E ]7ipaKEvat aVT1}t I 
aJ1To TOV vvv E1Tt TOV a1TaVTa 
XPO
'OV TO V1TOPXOV aVToot I -V IlEptÔO<; TptTOV IlEpO<; VELÀOV T07iOV m'OtKOôOllrJ I 
-TOV TOV a1ToôollEVOV /lVCT(JOV Kat TooV aÔEÀcþoov OtKW I -
. OtKW I\at E1Tt Tt f.l.EPO<; 
KOtv1]t HCTOÒO<; Kat EÇOÔO<; I -TECTEZ':OV})Jtoç TOV EP:tEoo:" otK(a] Kat CTTOT01]T) 



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R\ILIFF'S ACL'Ol'STS.-A. D. ;'8-9 


ETOV> u'õEKaTov a1.70KpaTopM KaLUapO
 
OVEUToauwvov uEßauTov flrJI'O
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wv ÀrJflflL 
ß E7TLflaXo U
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s= f7UJ1.0Xo olJ.OLWç aÀÀa
 
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X m'I)l-. 
flLU Ð OVO Ka(huTwVT o EToL" U
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flEe a
 EUX LÔ TrJV ÀOL1T'T}V) 



166 


GREEK AXD LATIX P ALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


in a legible style, round, flexible, and not ungraceful. It is of the type 
which is met with in official documents of the time, and which was prob- 
ably employed very widely throughout the country by trained clerks. 
This papyrus is one of a set of rolls famous as having on the verso the 
unique copy of Aristotle's COltstit'/Jtion of Athf'W3 written in four ditferent 
hands. A specimen of one of these hands has alrcady been gi\'cn among 
the facsimiles from literary papyri (Facs. 11). A specimen of another 
hand. cursi\'ely written, is here submitted. 


No. 30 


'fhi!:> specimen of a pri\'atc hand, cramped amI inelegant, is quite 
different in general appcarance from the legible writing of the bailitf's 
accounts on the recto side of the papyrus. AmI yet the forms of the 
letters employed in both writings are the samc, proving that the Con- 
stitldion was transcribed not many years after the accounts. The 
interest aroused by the recovery of this long-lost work of a great writer 
justifies us in placing the facsimile before the student, although the style 
of handwriting lies outside the direct line of developement of the trained 
clcrical cursivc to which our rcsearches are mainly restricted. 


Of the second ccntury the two following facsimiles illustrate t.he 
growing laxity of the cursive handwriting. The first is taken from 
a deed of sale of an ass, sold in Heraclcia, in the division of Themistes, 
by Dioskoros, son of Castor, to one Stotoetis, of the village of Socnopaei- 
nesus, in the fifth year of Antoninus Pius = A.D.142 (Brit. :!'IIus., Pap.ccciii; 
Cat. Gk. Pap. ii. 193. pI. 51; Pal. Soc. ii. 184). 


:N o. 31 


This is a very cursive document, and COnsP(lUently the more cursi\"e 
forms of letters which have been gradually growing out of the hurriedly 
written normal shapes (such as 'u-shaped beta and kctppa, and n-shaped 
pi) prevail. But, notwitlu;tanding its cursiveness, the writing is legible 
and the distinctive forms of the severallettcrs are easily followed. 
The next example is not so cursive, being a fairly well written 
document of the upright type. It represents a section of a very inter- 
esting papyrus: a diploma of membership of an athletic cluh which 
flourished under the patronage of successive emperors. The section is 
part of the recitation of a lettpr from the Emperor Claudius. exprcssing 
satisfaction at the games performed, in his honour, by the club for the 
kings of Commagene amI Pontus. The diploma is of A. D. 19-1 (Brit. 

Ius., Pap. 1178; Cat. G/.:. Pap. iii. 214, pJ. 41). 



x 


(;REEK GCRSIVE PAPYRI 


167 


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168 


GREEK 
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D LATIX P
\..LAEOURAPHí 


CHAP 


FAC
DIILE Xo. 31 


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SALE OF A
 AS
.-A.D. 142 


(ETOV!O 7õEp..ToTOV aVToKpaTopo!O KatUapo
 I TtTOV atÀwv aôptavov Ul'TWVtVOV I uEßa- 
UTOV EVUEßOV!O W1VO!O KatUapEWV I is'" flEUOP1j t., EV 1jpaKÀELa T1j!O 8E!JLtUTOV 
p..EptÔO!O TOV apUtVOEITOV I VOP.OV op..oÀoyEL ÔWUKOpO!O KaulTOpO!O TOO 1)paKÀELÔOV 
a7õO ap..cþolôov X1)VOßOUKtWV 7õpOTWV W!O L À1) I OVÀ1) VToEp p..1jÀOV aptuTEpOV (]"TOTOI 
1jTEL WpOV TOV TEUEVOVcþEW!O aToO I KWp..1)!O UOKVOToaWV V1jUOV W!O L K I OVÀ1j p..H07õW 
p..(UW 7õE7õpaKE!Vat aVTW TOV Op..OÀOYOVVTa TOV) 



" 


GREEK LTRSIYE PAPYRI 


169 


FAC
DIILE ::'\0. 32 


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ÐIPLO)!.\.-A. D. 194 


(-aVTOV Xpm'ov a7ro/)olhtu[t]v 1l0t /)vuw I -HTE f.. fllOV yatW WvÀtoo a
'noxoo I 
-WvÀtW ToOÀflloot't TOO 7rOVTOV av/)paat I --,,7ra
U)] U7rOV/)}] Kat cþtÀav(Jpoomu 
XP}]UaW I -
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7rpO<; aVTOV<; fVxaptUna<; I -TTJV TopO<; fllavTov Il fV fVVOtat' 7rf I -fyvooptUa 
llaÀÀov 1] f(JaVlluCTa Ot TO, t<;] I -t'ot }]CTaV /)WYEV}]<; ,..tKKaÀOV Ul'TWXfV<; I -V<; 
YfVOllfVO<; ov fYoo Kat T1]<; PoollatooV I --wv afwv 1]Y'ì CTa ll1]V HI'at CTaV/)OYfV71 [ <;] I 

 a 
VTWXfV<; fppooCT(Jf) 



170 


GREEK .ASn LA TIX P .ALAEOGRAPHY 


No. 32 


It may be a
$umed that the writer of this document was the secretary 
of the club. Being more formal than the preeelling example, the letters 
are less cursive and follow the older patterns. But the general looseness 
of the structure of the writing is ob,'ious and marks the tendency of the 
handwritings of the period. 


To illustrate the cursive of the third century three examples are 
produced. The first two, written in the third llecade, are of a fine and 
unusual type of the well-traine(l clerical haw1. They are. in fact, formed 
upon the mOllel of the calligraphic writing whieh was practised at this 
time in the chancery of the Prefect of Egypt, as it appears in a papyrus, 
now in Berlin. containing an official notification from the prefect to 
a strategus of the completion of a com'ict's term of punishment and his 
consequent ,lischarge; A.D. 209. 1 
The first facsimile is from an official return l,y representatives of the 
fi,Te tribes of the priests of Socnopaei-ne:ms for purl'UhCS of taxation, 
in the fourth year of Elagabalus, associating with him Severus Alex
 
ander = A. D. 221 (Brit. l\Ius., Pap. cccliii; Cot. Gk. Pap. ii. 112, pI. 84; 
Pal. Soc. ii. 186). 


No. 33 


The writing is of a particularly careful and formal character; the 
letters upright and in many instances stilted, while others are written on 
a reduced scale and placed high in the line of writing. This stilting 
and variety in the scale of the letters are characteristic of the chancery 
hand, as displayed in the document referred to above. 
The second is taken from a deed of sale of a share in a house in the 
westem quarter of the fort at Hermopolis: A. D. 226-7 (Brit. )lus., 
Pap. 1158; Cat. Gk. Pop. iii. 151, pI. 55). 
"So. 34 


If anything, this example, while written in the same style, is even 
more fluent than the preceding one: amI the delicate touch is admirable. 
Both examples show that, while the cursi,'e of the Roman perioll had 
been growing in looseness of structure, it was still possible to obtain 
a calligraphic perfection even in ordinary documents. This, however, 
would not affect the general law of change in the shapes of the letters, 
as will be shown presently when the cursi,Te alphabet at different 
periods is reviewed. 


I See the Sitzungsberichte of the Berlin Academy, 1910, p. 710, in which a facsimile 
of this interesting document is given. Cf. also Brit. Mus. Pap. cccxlv, of A.D. 193, and 
Pi')'. 1164, of A. D. :!12-Cat. Gk. Pap. ii, pI. 94; iii, pI. 47. 



FACSDIILE K o. 33 


171 


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TAXATIOX RETURX.-A.D. 221 
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UT_OTU1)TfW!) /.I.1jTPO!) 8mjfTfW!) KUt wpOV 
Up7rU I -PO!) TavECþpE/.I./.I.fW!) KUt U,OT01)TfW!) I -TO!) TWV ÿ ifpEWV Õ cþVÀ1j!) KUt 
UTOT01) I -TO!) fl.1)TPM UTOT01jTfW!) Kat 7rUKVlTEW!) I -/.I.1jTPO!) TUup7ruya81j!) TWV 
ÕVO iEpEWV I -TE ifpfWV T.EVTUcþVÀW!) UOKVO[7rUWV 8:E011 I -T.LaUO!) 8EOV 
/.I.EytUTOV KUt LfP,OV XUptT1)UWV I -,tUt-ÕO!) VE(þOPUf]OV!) KUt TWV UV[VVUW]V 8EWV I 
-[ UOK V07rUWV 11)UOV KUTEXW ptUU/.I.EV YP ]Ucþ1jV I -[Top OKELfl.EVOV iEpOV TOV 
U:fUTWTO!) 135 TWI' I -
U]Vp1jÀWV UVTWVU'OV fit,': UEßOVS"] EVTVXOV!) KUt I -:UÀfÇUV- 
õpo 
v KUtUUPO!) UEßUUTW
V] 
[õ
5f/.l.EUOp1) À-.) 



172 


(mEEK AX]> LATIX PALA.EonR\.PHY 


CH.\.P. 


F ACSIlIrILE K o. 34 


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173 


F ACSnUU: X o. 35 


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:\[nxnRl ACCOr:
TS.-A. D. 295 


(avp1jÀw!> CTWT1jP CTapa7rLWI'O!> ßOVÀ(EVT1j!>) napELÀ1jcþa I W!> npOKELTaL aVfYljÀw!> 
CTCiJT11P rra606paKo!> I ßOVÀ(WT1j!>) r.apELÀ1jcþa avp1jÀw!> rrvpo!> cþLÀalJEÀcþov I 
ßOVÀ(EVT1j!>) ToapELÀ1jcþa avp1]Àw!> CTapaToLWV CTapaToLWVO!> I ßOVÀ(EVT1j!>) r.apELÀ1jcþa 
TOL!> V7ro Evßapw npE7rOCTLTOV ÀL(TpaL) 
T1j!> lJE cþpovlJ.apw!> ErrTLV avnypa(cþov) I TWV t'7rO u'ßapLV 7rpE7rOCTLTOV CTapfL aT1 j\ 
E7rLfLEÀ1jT1] o (fVpvYXLTOV) ECTXOV r.apa CTOV KOcþWOV!> IlJEKa lJvo EK ÀLTpWV 
TECTapaKOl'Ta) 



174 


UREEK AX)) L.\TIN PALAEOURAPHY 


CHAP. 


The last example of the third century comes from some official 
accounts of supplies to the troops; A. D. 295 (Brit. 
Ius., Pap. 74R . 
Ord. Gk. Pup. iii, pI. 63). 


No. 35 


This is a good fluent hand of the official type. The character is 
still Roman, the date of the document almost coincilling with that of 
Diocletian's redistriLution of the empire. 
Here, then, we come to the end of the second period of Greek 
cursi'-e writing, as fouwl in the papyri of Egypt. Casting our eyes 
again over the series of facsimiles with which we have attempted to 
illustrate the changes through ,yhich that handwriting passed, it is not 
difficult to appreciate how great those changps have been, starting from 
the stiff unLemling script of the early Ptolemies awl ending in the 
flexible and fluent Homan script of the close of the third century. 


In the Byzantine period the succession of facsimiles is less abundant: 
we have to he content to select such examples as arc typical and instruc- 
tive for our immediate pm"pose, and they are not numerous. But they 
will suffice to give a general idea of the leading characteristics of the 
Byzantine type of hand. We pass from the rounll and flexible writing 
of the Roman period, and find a script of an exaggeratell and artificial 
character, hut of the greatest interest as developing those long-limbed 
forms of letters from which was to be evoh-ed the minuscule book- 
hand of the midI lie ages. 
The first example is most typical: a class of writing which appeal'S 
to have been a common one at the time. It is part of a letter from 
Flavius Macarius, chief officer of finance, to Flavius Abinnaeus,' prae- 
fectus castrorum' of Dionysias, informing him that Flavius Felicissimus, 
the' dux', has authorized him to requisition the services of soldiers to 
assist in levying imperial revenues; ahout A. D. 350 (Brit. :Mus., Pap. 
ccxxxiv; Pal. Soc. ii. 188). 


No. 36 


An untidy, straggling hand; the letter:,; varying in shape and size; 
and the lines of writing wavering from the true horizontal level. AmI 
yet the general large scale and thc uprightness and lateral compression 
of the letters lend to the writing a certain appearance of regularity. 
Xotice should be taken of the tall delta, shaped like a modern Roman d, 
and of the tendency in ?Il'l
 to drop the first limb vertically below the 
line, as marking a step in the evolution of minuscule forms. 
The scarcity of papyri of the fifth century has already heen noticed. 
The following facsimile is but a rough example; yet it carries on the 
tradition of the Byzantine hand in the particulars notell aho,-e. The 



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176 


UREEK A"XD LATI
 PALAEOURAPHY 


CHAP. 


papyrus is a portion of a receipt from Aurelius Alypius, of the village 
of Kerkethoeris in the Fayûll1, to Aurelia Enkia, daughter of Pekysis, 
in the eleventh indiction year, in the consulship of Flavius Cyrus 
= A. D. 441 (Berlin, P. 7452; Xell: Pal. Soc. 23 a). 



o. 37 
Again an exaggerated upright style of writing; with a certain 
strength, notwithstanding. Extra\Tagant forms of letters are con- 
spicuous, as in epsilon and I','igm't with oblique head-strokes, and large 
thet(t and lwppa. The d-shaped clelt, ( amI the incipient minuscule nVH 
also appear. 


The same upright style continued to prevail in the sixth century, 
of which we give two examples, one from the middle, the other from 
the end, of the century. The first is an acknowledgement from Aurelius 
Kepheras, son of Isaac, to Flavius 
\.pion, (J"TpaT1JÀáT11
 and 1Táyapxo
 of 
Arsinoë and Theodosiopolis in the Fayûm, of the acceptance of a lease 
of certain rooms in the street Psappallius in Arsinoë, in the fourth 
indiction year after the consulship of Flavius Basilius = A. D. 5:>6 (Berlin, 
P. 2558; Xe'll' Pal. Soc. 23 b). 


Xo.38 


This is an irregular haml of the same upright type of the Byzantine 
period. During the century elapsed since the date of the preceding 
example, further progress has been made in the evolution of minuscule 
forms. In addition to the d-shape(l delta and the fL-shaped '/'rW, here 
is present also the h-shaped eta. The exaggeration of other letters is 
also characteristic. The date-clause written at the top of the deed, in 
a straggling sloping cursive, in its general aspect recalls the contem- 
porary Latin cursive writing as seen in the Ravenlla deeds. Such 
a resemhlance wuuld naturally lJe expecte(l. 
The example of the close of the sixth century is from a contract for 
lease of a farm from Phoehammoll, 'tabularius' of Arsinoë, to Aurelius 
Juhn and Aurelius Castous, farmers; A. D. 595 (Brit. l\Ius., Pap. cxiii. 
4; Cat. Gl
. Pap. i. 208; Pal. Soc. ii. 124). 


No. 39 


The writing of this deed is of a good, regular, upright type, executed 
with expert facility. The very great advance in the formation of 
minuscule letters here exhibited is very striking: alpha, delta, eta, theta, 
Icappa, ?nU, .â, may he especially cited as almost fully developed letters 
of the minuscule alphabet. The thin sloping cursive of the date-clause 
again recalls the Latin cursive of the time. 



),. 


GREEK CCHSIYE PAPYRI 


177 


FAcsnnLE 1'0. 37 


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RECEIPT.-A. D. 441 
. fVÕfKaT1}S; I LvðLKnwvo
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( vr-ana tþÀ. K1l P ov TOV Uf-L7TP I KE8w 1} pEOL s;] a1'p1jÀLa fVKLa 
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ÀLOS; aÀv7TLOs; I VLOS; vEtþfpa fTt,.,.,.,.ax 
8vyaT1}p 7TEKVfTLOV XEp(fU') oll.oÀoyw ffT) 


115f 



 



178 


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AGREElIlENT FOR LEASE.-A. D. 556 
( + p
TU T1/V V1Tanav cþÀ. paCTLÀL01J I TOV Àap.1Tp(OTaTOV) 1TaVVt to: HÀ(Et) Õ U(ÕL- 
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VÀat3EuTaTov 
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aVEwy/-l. EV lI HÇ I Àtßa EV TW at8ptCd KEÀÀtOV 
V aV
Cdylp.EVOV Hi> ßoppa Kat EV TW 
õwp.aTt KaIÀvßl}i> aV
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180 


GREEK A
D LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


To illustrate the writing of the early part of the seventh century 
a facsimile is given from a lease of land at Thynis near Hermopolis, the 
parties to which are Christians bearing Jewish names; A. D. 633 (Brit. 
:Mus., Pap. 1012; Cat. G/
. Pap. iii. 265, pI. 95). 
1\0.40 


This example of the still prevailing upright cursive type, although 
roughly written, carries forward the developement of the minuscule 
alphabet; there being in this instance less linking and connexion 
between the letters than is usual in cursive writing, their individual 
formation can be more clearly traced. It will he seen that most of 
them are in a shape which with a little more calligraphic finish would 
bring them very close to the literary minuscule; and little more than 
half a century sufficed to span the narrow space now dividing the two 
classes of handwriting, as will appear from the next facsimile. 
This is taken from a roll of accounts of the pay and allowances of 
the governor (crVIA-ßovÀos-) of Egypt under the Arab administration and 
his subordinates, including 'í/1Æt'l.cãli (freed-men), attendants, and slaves 
(among the papyri from the ancient Aphroditopolis, found in 1901); 
the date lying between A. D. 700 and 705 (Brit. Mus., Pap. 1448; Cat. 
G/
. Pap. iv. 359; Xe'l.v Pal. Soc. 152). 
No. 41 


This document written, there can be no doubt, in the best form of 
the official hand of the time is of the highest palaeographical value. 
It is also interesting as one of a group of papyri illustrating the 
continuance of the official use of the Greek language in Egypt for the 
better part of a century after the date of the Arab conquest of the 
country. The minuscule hand is here complete; and this example, being 
written with such calligraphic effect, demonstrates most clearly the 
connexion between the cursive writing of the papyri and the literary 
minuscule of the vellum codices. 
'1'0 bring this section to a close, a reduced facsimile is given of a 
portion of a fragmentary papyrus, the text of which seems to be a public 
notice respecting certain fugitives; probably of the first half of the 
eighth century (Brit. l\[ us., Pap. xxxii; Cat. Gk. Pap. i. 230; Jom'n. 
Hellenic St'l.tdies, xxviii). 


1\0.42 


This extremely handsome official writing, it will be seen, is of the 
same type as the foregoing example from the Aphrodito collection, but 
written on a lal:ger scale and with boMer sweeps of the pen. It is the 
only specimen of its kind in the British :ì\Iuseum collections. Any 



x 


(;REEK CTRSn"E P
\.PYRl 


]81 


F.\C
DnLE :No. 40 


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TU'OV "WV I mwvïwv aVYOVITTWV aVTOKpa'TOpwv' I Km Il t ytlTTWV tVtpynwv I aov
 
HKOITTOV TpLTOV ewe I ÒtKaT1J tßòOIl1J
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Vtw TOV llal'apLTOV XPWTOÒWP'ov' I a7'fO T1J
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Toav)..ov tK Il1JTpO
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) 



182 


FACSIMILE No. 41 



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PUBLIC ACCOUXTS.-.\. D. 7UO-5 


(Kopa(ITLOt<;) TOV avrov OVITt r.apa òaw ;rat(òo<;) TOV aVT(oV) 
Yfwpytw fVVOVKW (Kat) natp(ot<;) r.all.lI.tK(apWt<;) TOV avr(ov) 
avò(pa)r.(OÒot<;) TOV ITVP.ßovlI.ov ar.o vtypa(<;) OVITt H(
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ITfll.1jP. ITtKfaITT1j<; p.avlI.f(t) Op.P.OV aITfp. (Kat) natp(ot<;) 
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p.ova8tr. par.T1j p.avlI.f(L) op.p.oValTfp. (Kat) Kopa(lTtw) a (Kat) r.all.tK(aptw) a OVT(t) 
r.apa avr(ov) 
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r.ull.tK(aptw) a TOV ITvp./JOV(lI.ov) on(t) ..apa ITacþovav p.avll.f(w<;) TOV avr(ov)) 



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184 


GREEK AND LAT1N PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


documents written on thi::; scale would probably ha\
e been more liable 
to destruction, whether voluntary or accidental, than those of ordinar;r 
dimensions. Hence it i" to be feared that few specimens of this large 
11and will ever be recovered. 
Of the same type of writing. lmt of later date, is the fragmentary 
papyrus in the Archives Nationales, Paris, inscribed with an imperial 
letter addressed. it is now thought, hy an Emperor of the East to Louis 
Ie Oébonnaire, between 824 and 839; but formerly attributed to the 
year 756. 1 


In the accompanying Table of Alphabets the stuùent will follow 
the course of developement and change in the several letters of Greek 
Cursive writing; and, in the first place, he will learn to appreciate 
the ùanger of assuming that a particular form of a letter helongs to 
a fixed or limited period. The not infrelluent Rurvival or recurrence of 
old forms warns us to proceed with caution, especially as there are still 
existing many gaps in the chronological sequence of our material. On 
the other hand, the hirth and early growth of particular forms can be 
usually traceù, and the use of anyone such form may assist us in 
placing an anterior limit to the date of the ùocument in which it is 
found. Thus, the occurrence of the c-shaped ep.
ilon (C:-) might confirm 
an opinion that the document was not earlier than the first century B. C. ; 
but, at the same time, the occurrence of the old normal form would be 
no criterion of age, as that form keeps reappearing in all times. So, 
too, the down-curved sigma grows up in the first century; yet the old 
normal form continued in common use for centuries later. The character 
of the writing, however, llistinctly changes with the lapse of time; 
and, though particular letters may be archaic in shape, the true age 
of the text, judged by its general appearance, can usually be fixed with 
fair accuracy. The natural tendency to slackness and flourishing as 
time advances is Rufficiently apparent to the eye as it passes along the 
lines of letters in the Table; still more 80 if it passes over a series of 
documents, in which the juxtaposition of the letters and the links which 
connect them are so many aids to forming a judgement. 
Yiewed as representative of three periods, Ptolemaic, Roman, and 
Byzantine, the series of letters are fairly distinguishable and capable of 
being grouped. Those of the Ptolemaic perioù stand quite apart in 
their simpler forms from those of the Roman perioù; and this distinc- 
tion is made more striking by the paucity of papyri to represent the 
first century B. c. The letters of the Homan perioù blend more gradually 
into those of the Byzantine period; but taken in their entirety the 


1 'Vattenbach, Script. Graec. Specim. xiv, xv; H. Omont ill Revue Archéologi'lue, xix 
(1892), 38,.. See above. p. 21;. 



x 


GREEK CCRSIYE ALPHABETS 


lR5 


flourished alphabets of the late centuries afford a sufficient contrast to 
the less untrmnmelled letters of the Roman period. 
Certain letters are seen to change in form in a comparatively slight 
degree during the eleven hundred years covered by the Tahle; some are 
letters which are not very frequently used, others are such as do not 
very readily connect with following letters. And yet how far the ten(lency 
of a cursive" riter to link together his letters could affect even those 
which would not naturally lend themselves to the process is seen in 
even some of the earliest forms. For example, the occasional horizontal 
position of the last limb of alplta or lam
da was due to its connexion 
with a following letter, the junction being effected in the upper level 
of the line of writing; and the opening of the lower right-hand angle 
of delta and the lifting of the right-hand stroke into a In ore or less 
elevated position was owing to the same cause. To the same tendency 
are due the artificial links which appear attached so early to such letterl'! 
as eta, mu, nu, pi, and, in a less degree, kajJjJn and chi; amI in the case 
of talt this linking may have decided the ulterior shape of the letter 
(as a cursive), having the cross-bar extending also to the right of the 
vertical (as in its normal form) instead of being kept only to the left 
as seen in the earliest ex:amples in the Tahle. 
How soon certain letters in their most cursive forms might become 
so alike that they might be mistaken for each other is illustrated by 
the pretty close resemblance he tween the early convex curved forms of 
mlt and pi ; and, again, there is very little difference between the 
early gamnut and the lamtJda with horizontal final stroke. Such 
similarities naturally increased as the letters, in course of time, assumed 
more flexible shapes. The l'-shaped cursive beta and the v-shaped 
cursive kappa. are nearly identical; and the u-shaped forms of the same 
two letters are very similar. Xll and pi likewise bear a close resem- 
blance to each other in more than one of their forms; and the )I-shaped 
tau and the long gamma and the long upsilon are not unlike. 


We will examine the course of the alphabetical changes in detail :-- 
ALPHA.-The capital form of alpha written quickly falls naturally 
into the uncial shape, in which the cross-bar becomes an obliqlie stroke 
starting from the base of the first limb: from the first there was a 
natural effort to round off the lower left-hand angle, ultimately leading 
to much variety of form. To throwaway the final limb anù leave the 
letter as a mere acute angle or wedge was, even in the earliest stages, 
a natural step for the quick writer to take; and perhaps there is no 
better example to prove the very great age of cursive Greek writing 
than this form of the letter, which is found in general use in the thinl 
century B. c. and was also employeù, though apparently less commonly, 



186 


GREEK AKD LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


in the following centur;y. Quite early, too, the letter developed other 
forms which became common in the following centuries, particularly 
the angular J'. The round letter looped at the top became a favourite 
from the third century onwards; and from the fifth century the open 
u-shaped letter is frequent and is often written on a small scale high in 
the line, in combination. 
BETA.-The history of beta is the histor;y of a struggle between 
a capital form and a cursive form, although it is somewhat difficult to 
understand why, when once the latter had become established, the older 
shape, which nearly always appears as a rather clumsy and ungainly 
letter, should not have been discontinued. In the third and second 
centuries B. c., by the side of the normal capital, a small cursive letter 
appears, either somewhat in the shape of the letter n, produced by 
slurring the bowR and leaving the base open, or in a cognate form 
with the base closed and usually drawn to a point. Then, in the first 
century B. c., by reversed action of formation, another shape also appears, 
something like the letter v; and this hy the addition of a link becomes the 
u-shaped letter, which eventually was to be the most generaHy employed 
form and was to lead on to the similar minuscule letter of the vellum 
book-hand. But it must not be forgotten that the normal capital form 
was also employed throughout the pagyrus period, growing' more and 
more ill-formed and straggling from the third century onwards. 
GAMMA.- It is remarkable that this letter retained its right-angled 
normal capital shape and was employed without an alternative for so 
many centuries. It was not until the first century that it began to 
show a cursive tendency hy arching the horizontal; and it seems that 
it was only in the fifth century that the long y had fullyestaLlished 
itself, and even then only to be accompanied to the end by the normal 
form, though in a diminishing degree. 
DELTA.-Although the normal triangular form of this letter was 
a lasting one, there was, from the first, a constant endeavour to round 
off the angles, a process which influenced the more cursive forms. There 
was also the tendency, already noticed, to open the lower angle on the 
right and to lift the right-hand stroke in orùer to link it to the following 
letter. Even among the earliest examples also is seen the incipient 
growth of the right-hand stroke above the apex, which, e,-er increasing 
in length, produces in the Byzantine period the exaggerated form of the 
letter resembling a Roman d and the other cognate forms with long 
oblique stroke, single or bent double; whence was evolved the minuscule 
of the vellum book-hand. 
Epf:ILo:Y.-That this letter, more frequently used than any other in 
the Greek alphabet, should have been liable to many changes was only 
to be expected. The most radical alteration of its shape, from the 



x 


GREEK CL'RSIYE ALPHABETS 


187 


normal semicircle with the croRs-bar to the broken c in which the cross- 
bar survives only as a link-strok{', is seen along with other cursive 
forms in the first century B. C.; and from this date the cur!':ive forms 
gradually prevailed over the normal letter, which however was never 
extinguished. 
ZET.\.-The normal I-letter lasted throughout the papyrus period. 
From the first century B. C. a more cursive form, rounding the two 
angles and resembling a roughly written numeral 2, was also employed 
down at least to the fourth century; from that date the I began to 
develope a tail, and in the later centuries the tailed letter prevailed. 
ET.\.-From the first this letter has the form of a truncated Homan h, 
provided more or less with a horizontal link attached to the shoulùer, 
which lasted in a fairly primitive shape down to the second century .\. D. 
In the second century B. c. we find also instances of the same general 
form with the vertical produced below the line. The ':1-shaped cursive 
letter, in which the first limb and the horizontal of the normal capital 
are slurred and become a shallow concave curve which is attached to 
the final descending stroke usually turned in at the base, is found in an 
incipient stage even in the second, and in a fairly developed form before 
the close of the first, century B.C.; and it is not uncommon in the first and 
second centuries A. D., and survived into the third century. From the 
first century the truncated h with a loop at the shoulder, which had 
been growing up in the preceding century and which can be traced even 
in the second century B.C., pre\'ails. In the fourth century there is a later 
developement like a complete Roman h, with the vertical at full length ; 
from which the similar minuscule book-hand letter \\ as moulded. In the 
Byzantine period the letter often appears in the shape of a Roman n. 
THET.\.-The normal e is found at all periods in the papyri. Even 
in the third century B. c. there are also instances of the loopeù letter, which 
became common in the first century B. c.: and the two forms then run 
together to the end. In size, the letter is sUlall in the early centuries; 
in the first century it tends to range with other letter:;; in the later 
centuries it is sometimes exaggerated. 
IOT.\..-There is little mriety in this letter, such as there is being 
chiefly due to the length of the stem. In the early centuries this is 
never inordinate; but from the fourth century it tenùs to exaggeration. 
In the third and second centuries B. c. the letter is frequently thickened 
or clubbed or hooked at the head, on the right, as well as on the left; 
later, any such clubbing or hooking, when it occurs, is on the left siùe. 
K.\Pp.\.-This letter follows very much the course of beta, the normal 
form being an awkward letter to write neatlJ' but, like the other, 
persisting to the end, and struggling in the Byzantine period. In the 
early centuries it is often proviùeù with a link from the top of the 



188 


GREEK AND LATI
 P
.\LAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


upper oLlique limb. As early as the second century B. c. the u-shaped 
cursi ve appears and becomes common by the first century A. D.. continuing 
onwards through the succeeding centuries. In the second century it 
often takes the form of a v. Both these forms resemble like develope- 
ments of the cursive beta; but the u-shaped kaPI)[t is usually distin- 
guished from the u-shaped beta by a slight lengthening of the first 
limb. This lengthening tends to increase until, by the sixth century, 
there is produced a tall letter, somewhat resembling a Roman h. 
L_uIBD.\.-This letter is subject to little change. In the third 
century B.C., like other letters at that period, it is often written in a very 
wide angle, almost approaching a conve-x: curve; but thenceforward it 
is usually in normal shape and restrained, but always showing a growing 
tendency to thrust the second limb above the apex. In the fourth 
century it is inclined to run large; and by the &ixth century it grows 
into a straggling letter, produced below the line and ending in a sweeping 
stroke. From the sixth century also dates the form having the first 
stroke rlescending helow the line, from which the vellum minuscule is 
deri ved. 
l\lv.-The normal capital shape of this letter is, in the third cen- 
tury B. C., made wide amI shallow, the central angle being almost flattened; 
in a still more cursive form it is represented by a convex curve very 
similar to the like form of pi. In the next century it becomes less 
shallow and recovers more of its angular formation. In this early 
period linking by means of a horizontal stroke attached to the right 
shoulder is not uncommon. From the first century B.C. onwards the 
normal form obtains, hut as time proceeds there is a growing tendency 
to deepen the central angle into a curve and to lengthen the first limb, 
so that by the fifth century the form fL is fairly established. In the 
later centuries an ugly sprawling cursive form of the capital is also 
employed. 

c-The normal capital form of nu survives throughout the papyrus 
period, gradually, however, receding hefore the advance of more cursive 
forms. It is subject to linking, by means of a horizontal sti'oke attached 
to the right limb, down to the second centUl"J> at least. The form of 
the letter, common in the thinI century B.('., which throws the last limh 
high above the line of writing, survives chiefly as a final letter, and can 
be traced, subject to variations, down to the end. In it we see the origin 
of the minuscule of the vellum book-hand. The cursive form of the 
letter, constructed by drawing the middle stroke almost in a horizontal, 
or waved horizontal, line from the top of the left vertical to the top of 
the right vertical and connecting therewith in a small loop (resemLling 
one cursive form of pi), is foumI as early as the first century B. c. and 
becomes common down to the fourth century. A still more cursive 




 


OREEK CCRSIVE ALPH.\.BETS 


180 


developement, fashioned like a Roman n. abo dates back to the first 
century, amI is in frequent use in the B;yzantine pf'riofl, 
Xr.-The three-stroke letter, made, with rare exceptions. by three 
separate strokes of the pen, is the normal form from the third to the first 
century B.C. At the same time there is existent, though less frequently 
employed, a cognate three-stroke form made continuously without lifting 
the pen; amI this form is found recurring at later dates in the less- 
cursively written papyri. But in the course of the fir'st century B.C. and 
down to the third century A.D. the ordinary form takes the shape of a 
long-tailed z, the tail usually ending in a curve to the right. From the 
fourth century onwards this tailed letter becomes straggling and exag- 
gerated, and in certain phases runs perilously near in appearance to the 
long-tailed zeta. 
O:\IIKRO
.-Little need be said regarding this letter. It is normally 
small in the early periods; hut from the first century A. D. onwards it 
is subject occasionally to enlargement. When written very cursi,'ely it 
sometimes takes the form of a loop. 
Pl.-The nurmal capital form of this letter is employed throughout 
the papyrus period, but more constantly in the earlier centuries, when the 
archaic type sometimes appears, having the second vertical shortened, and 
when the letter is frequently provided with a horizolltallink attached to 
the right shoulder. In the third century B.C. the letter also takes a wide 
and shallow formation; a cursive form resemLling a wide n also appears, 
as well as a further developement in shape of a convex curve, similar to 
the like form of mu. From the second century B.C. onwards the n-form, 
and a variety of the same (resembling a modern Ruman w), created 
by adding an up-stroke link, are constant. The letter formed like an 
omega, w, surmounted by a horizontal stroke, appears in the eighth 
century; and afterwards as a minuscule in the vellum period. 
RHo.-This letter is subject to no particular changes. The stem is 
normally straight, but occasionally curved. The bow is usually small ; 
but in the late centuries it tends sometimes to enlargement. 
SrG:\rA.-The normal uncial letter, C, and the same with a flattened 
head are constant throughout the papyrus period. During the first 
century, and in the second and third centuries in particular, the head of the 
C is often drawn downwards, especially as a final letter. A cursive form, 
Y. is not uncommon from the first century onwards. The round minuscule 
(]" has its prototype in a cursive form in which the curve is continued 
almost to a complete circle, and then finishes in a horizontal link-stroke 
CF; this can be traced back to the first century B.C. and reappedI's at 
intervals, becoming common in the eighth century, when it also assumes 
the exact minu
cule shape. 
TA'C.-By the more normal construction of this letter the left portion 



190 


GREEK A
D LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY 


of the cross-bar and the vertical are written, by one action of the pen, as 
a right angle, and the right half of the cross-har is added separately, 
serving also as a link. In the third and, to some extent, in the second 
centuries B.C. the cursive form, without extension of the cross-bar on the 
right, is common. The above normal form led on to the letter with the 
cross-bar madc in one stroke (in fact the old capital revived), but it also 
led to the )1- and v-shaped cursives, the elementary forms of which can 
be traced back to the earliest times, and which came into common use 
from the first century B. c. In the later Byzantine period the long 
g I mma-form is much exaggerated. 
rPslLoN.-Besides the normal Y, which was persistent, this letter 
also took, from the first, the form of a concave curve ending in a vertical 
main-stroke, but from the beginning showing tendency to curve the 
main-stroke upwards to the right and hence soon developing the form 'e" 
which persisted. In acltlition, other cursive forms grew up, as Y and V. 
In the Byzantine period the usual tendency to exaggerate is restrained 
in regard to this letter, which is then, On the contrary, fre(luently 
written on a smaH scale, sometimes as a mere curve ahove the line. 
PIlL-There are two forms of this letter: the one, in which the 
circle and the vertical are distinct; the other, in which they are combined. 
In a variety of the first, found in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, the 
circle takes the shape of a chain-link 0). In the early period the circle is 
normally small; from the first century its size varies; in the Byzantine 
period it tends to exaggeration. In the case of the combined form, in the 
earlier periods the vertical falls on the right, outside the circle; in the 
Byzantine period, it traverses it. 
CIIl.-This letter remained almost unchanged in formation; only 
varying occasionally in size. In the early period it was sometimes fur- 
nished with a horizontal link attached to the top of the right-hand limb. 
P
I.-Thi8, too, the most rarely used letter of the alphabet, shows 
little variety. In the earlier period, the transverse bar is usually hent in 
a curve or in a v-shape; occasionally it is straight. From the first 
century the straight bar is prevalent. 
OJllEGA.-Although the uncial w was already developed, the common 
cursive form of the letter, in the third century B. c., was in an incom- 
plete stage, in which the transition from the capital .n can be but faintly 
traced. It is generally shallow, anù is frequently clipped, that is, 
the second bow is not completed ann has the appearance of having been 
cut short. This clipped letter was practically ùiscontinued in the fol- 
lowing centuries, although occasional instances occur. The normal w 
also appears at times with the addition of a linking curve, like the 
linking curve in our modern cursive 'n'. 



GREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS (NOI) 


3 RD CENT. B.C 


2 ND CENï: B.C. 



 I- fA. 0... r--.. r- 
 r- v ,. y- j/' ú ò- ().. A ò.. b.. U- v / b- cr- Ý" 
'7f)!Jf7[3Bßß ß íJ D ßnf)11 ßBß (\ 75 rSJ3bb n nv () p. 
r r r,- ,.- r r- r)" \c- c- Irrr 1\// r 


l).. 
 .c::- .tC>- -0> 0... (\ c...\ c5'.. 0- 5 ú\. ð... 6--. 1 
 0-. {/ t:>-.. ú
 l/'- D... 
t 
 f- t:; t;- E- E; (- f (-e E t:" (;- (J f: E:- E:- 0- e- e E t & G- é t- t: 
.2- Z -;J:. 
 ;Z 2. 722 7 Z 2.. L 2: z T:(;; Z 

 <2' À 
I '^ 
 A f\ IT n- h- r-c f-cf-ç 
 '^' Y\ h: 
 n:- r= h I
 I, tv 'VJ 
I e ð e- (} Ð &- 8 0 e é & éJ e ð () (j-e e ð ð e (Å- -e- 
If1 1 1rrrrr 51 f)rrrlJl '\)[)î]Jlrf))\\)1J 
k. K F g-j< JC 
 J<: JL U JL k 
 u- }L 'Jc f:- K)- u.. K- k k 
^ /""'. ^ ^- r-.-................. Å ")--... ï'-- A. ^ 1\ Ì'-... 
 >--.. t- I Ì\ A.. 



 T' M r---"\ 
 /".... Yì Y\ Y'-. M- N Y'- M" K- f'/\ I'/"""- K K ÌI: 



 
?,-.J N N 
.-J .r-'r
 r,sJ, N N" N ".J
 
 r'1'1 r[ 
- - 
r-..J___ --_
--......, - --- -::::..--"- 
7
::;.s"z,"" '> 

 -:.... ;. 
 -=... -=- ;::::.. ....=- 
 À....:... ;... -=- ..=... - ...:-. ;:... ,-.....
Å..
<

. 


OÚQllfJ"UCOOOÜU u-
 


ooOU0') 0 0 oOt) 0 u 


h TT i\:" " r r-t- IT ",,-.. 'Y"\ "'" yo- h.J.. n rT nr n- TV V\ !'Vî VÝ 


ffff'JJ[rpFf'JfPrrl'rpp rrrfrrfJ'yrPlfr 


( C (' f.,- t ( C- L L t...- C c- C <.. c c- c c- C C c- ç c- 'C" eeL \..- \...- Y 



 L ? 7 7 ,- ,- L- T T 'ì ., 'Y") .- -,- '( - ( 7 )
 -rT y 



)l.}' X (C J< ?\ 7'\ 1< ?< X 7< 
't t t t t l' t T f- + 


'( 'r (ì' III r-c- 
- \. CC v V Y '( l 
 '(' '( l 'í '{ l "r ì v t y y 
f f i 1 t f t f cf -} (1) j) f j) 4- 9 f t t t 9 J cf 1- t J j) f f 
 r 
;x. 1< "j- 
?' ;C ;><. x 
t ti--t-tri-ttft 


c./"' c..- C/1 
 LA.... (..A.J '-- (;./"". c..r W w Lr if tù W u- u.-<- lA.\.. v- v- 
 V 



GREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS (N 0 2) 


I C T B C 1 ST CENT ':)NO CE NT 
ST EN. . _ L 
A 0.- A lÅ CÀ ^ J- J v' t^ ð.. 0... v... IÁ ð- J- ..rJl'.,/' tÂ. a.. tÀ.. 0.. ð.... ð-- 
 1/'- J- 'I 


13(( DDD2JßV}.L ßßßvltU1J(lVv- ßt.ßt2J.J--tDÞ7J.
n 


r r r c:-rr r rrr-r'Îry 
D. C ù ð Ò è:. (:;;- è- 6 ð i). è;- 1> 


r-rrrrryrrr 
Òòð(:::ì:::--
è>.Ò- 



 
 (..'- E=- e- c- r- Ý' <"=- (:- 
 (.L V- 
 S-- 6<- e- Y2- C:- (L('"' yv &- y-- v^ ý'- ð- 



 X 2. :z.. 2 2 2 2.. :Zd< Ã 6 <<(., G Z 2 z:z :z...z.:z 
 2 Ù 2 
I\. h tv h - k. 1-r to{ J" h f\.-I'f 
 lA k. 
 
 J '1 k. J{ re. tf. rí yY Iv ':f J 
 
e Ð e e e- 8- óL 9- 8 e- e 8- 8- $. -..9- (). e -6-f) ð- {)- tJ- 3--9- 
IJ'\)I IL')JJ1'll {lJ/111J1zl}Jd 
1< K I'" ,
 u k ú.. LA.. K k &. h. u U. k v--I/' K r fA. å 2A-1ZlJ.. V- Z}- 
^ ^ ^ ^ }. "'t- ^ 
 Ì\ J\ }....T-)- >-- ^ À}. ^}\ )'- j\ ì\ "ì' 


M f'-'\ r--. M f-./\.. r-A- f'-'\. 7'vt f'\ /'-^....u.. /'^ 7V\ 
 .JJ.... fA- 1-A.- t-^- 
N N' It' 111{ t( rr rvr' N rt yt T( rr Ii 11. 1'1 'h.. tv N rt 1\ rt re 1\ n ,.., 



Z - Z= À 
ð

 
b


tìtl 


2.\..
h
; 


ú 0 0 \) 


o U 'Q 000 0 U 11.. 0- ...;) o
 0 0 0 
 0 R.. 


1\ nìf)'"Y7L w\'\tl.\r, TCTt.Y\ \1'\ V\ w n11n T\. nil. J7)/\ w n 1t 
j')J'lP/ff(]'F re3í1ff.lt
Zì FeffEf1è?7( 


\:" C C C' 0- C (.-.::: Y c- \:""c- C' V'" Y' V"'\ ("I 'î ')) c c C" Y\f'''''''' y-..y "1 "J: 
ITYT ,ryv T Yr:rTvt""Yv TTTÿ-TY <VV1 
lYL'GY
CCtV Y'Vtt"(("Gtrt'-'
 YIVYl{
 1:'1'-" 
t t r t t t t r cp t + r t , cf4 c\ 
 ,-r 1 <P Þ t <? J] 4 
 Jl{ 
 
x.x ^)C ^ ?<)<- }1< X 
 7- )l-;>C ì' x )( X )L.J<-X X)<)C
 
f- t +- + t-i- ÿ ++-rt+ rt-tY-T t t-J- 


w w w.. U>.- u.. "'- W LU (..{)- u- W w.. w Gù W c.u...- tAJo.- v.... u...... W 



GREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS fN 0 3) 


3
DCENT. 4 Tt1 CENT. 5 TH CENT. 
All 302 -359. AD.44/-498. 

Að..ò-J'-a-l9.ú-ð-v- ò... (À. rt ð-IJ- ð V- V- V- jA ð....åtA.lA.u.JcJ 
ßiö ß BAu L{J{ 
 )3 ß ß 
 t3LZóðUu ßBLÁ-LLll 
rrrrrv-rr Î rrl-rrry'ý rrVÝY- 
è) è>.. D. l:::- 
 ;::-. 
 ð. ð ð 
 
 (;-d cl d J v1 D-
a.dd
 
L t t- 0- ("- 
 -(L- r-.r- J ç é é é- <- c:- 

-("l'/ E: 
 
 -C- t\.A..! 
2. z:z z,.2. 
 2 (., 
 :2.. X z'Z

z, 6 
:c 
í rt If h I-tj-{ h ì '-j t{ hhK.,/LZvhb Ii H.. K }-(.h 
 h 
J
-eB e &8- $- fJ e e -{} f)- --3- -9- lJfJ-e-e- 
J 1111l1) lz 1] 11 I1t Jl ll1Jt17lJ llJ)lll 
l K K"" }( h Z-t LllA. k 'k K..h 2A k v- tA- L,(

I(r-

 
1\ ]\. Ì\}\ 1'}\ Ì\ AJ\ ^^À.Ì\.
l\j' ^ ÀJ' Jl1\.)'- 
M AA. I""- M...u.. jJ- J.A. -^^- p.....-u... AA.. t^- M.MI--^-
 
N f\J t,n-l rr 1\ rt yt h N N N rCri l-ln)J I
NpfLJhYlh 



2 t
t
\ 
1\.\


t/2z \
 
Q Q ú 0 \J \J"'" \J' 
 ð-"\:) OOOol9-8-lrO 000 if' 
)TIT Tr 11 Jl. 11 n n TrT[ rr w Y\ n (\1') TtTITCYðwY-r 
f,fff?1(.ffè't fCr.rftlrC'ò etrrrell 
(C [G C Üú Y) Y"' !))) çc- C C- (' V trY-I} I) (' 'C cc-C c- C' C 
TTT'TrTr TT T cry-Y r V TTTYV-Yv 
Y YY l'Y rð'v'-' y y 1'"' 'V V 1"v -../ V'V Y 
y yJ-..J 
<ftttt ft

0 <þ 
tp

 i 
 4)qS

% 
j<7';JC)Cy:.xx X
;X:XXX-./-- )<)<x)< 
tt++ t-tttt+t t+ 
(J)- w lLl. tU- w w.. Lv ww-w.-uUw...W wwwUJ 


]1'LI 


o 



GREEK CURSIVE ALPHABETS f/V.o4J 


6 Tr 'CENT. 


7 Tt1 CENT. 
A.D.601-640. 


8 TH CENT. A.D. 
A.D.70/-7IB. 824. 83 


o...ð..., u.... {L V- ð- ù-- u. '( U- ò... ð... tr a, ð-CÆ- t<. t> c;t 0... d. ci d U- gL .9 

 B ß l
 g 4.l( l). B is b,3 () u.<lJA,. LL U. LL 
 
rryryrrr 
rry
vyy ,y,y,vý r 
Ò
Q
ðJcf

 ð
Ä


1
 



 
 
E: & {y- t- C
 
ê 
 (:- t &
 \("
 Lr"'t. t- è" 
ó-d 
-!ß $ 
.z
:z.,.z.z'z.,- :z.Z22)Z2,-\:L )5J)j)
 
 
hhn
Lt
Åk hkk-hht\nn IAk
n
{'h (i 
{} er fY e- f)- 

 ð {} 8- t9--3- --!).. -tT t} g.. 8- j.. 
 ðS 
ilj l lJlt{-cl1t }l11111Jl 'ì1]7
JI
t L 
 
I" K k ù. k fA 
 
 K LA k h k K i.. -k k U- b- f- fk 
 
f'.. I\. 
 
 
V 
 À lL'v'- f- 
 YL 
 TLlLÀ)'\.li- 
M AA 1-^- 
 J-t, JJ- Nt 1-L J-t fA- 
 0-j-t. ,No. i--.l. )jC. fV'- 
 J:l t1- 
 
1\1 
 
 kJ n 'h 11 11 N rv yJ 'V\. 'Y\. 11. 1\1 IV h h 11 9-1 h J..... JU (\.. I 

i?

í33n 

5sÒz, 3
)
136c5 
oOâlfo-õUu Oo(5'1)UU OoOOOOOOC 
l\T[1[ W W '<< 'W"" T[ TC U w Yt YJ () 7lJ 1iJ -u:TC w Y\, n "W 
Prfrerrp
 rFrìrpPflP trrtteiT 
ft 
c('C'C"CO-'t
< C<:
-ý'voo-v- C-üCo-
()o6'6õô 
TrT YO-frvv' TLlf'Lyrrv-v 'LTT y(r--YTT 
Y'J\,V)"""v v - f[ yyyvv v.J 1.J Ov 1) '"V V ,--,r-J ulf 
cf<p

t4-H
 <Þ#
Jft 4;cßt
# f; f 
XJ-.ÂX y-X? XX YY F x-r-?C-fG?G2f 7\ 
'Y ttttttt ti'tt- i: +ff'tt it- 
w t..J UJ- fA.}- 1<<.. L<<.. vJ W W uJ- u) W W W tv Lv OJ co 



GREEK ALPHABET
 IX PAPYRI 


195 


Having now had before us the TalJles of the Literary and of the 
Cursive Alphahets of Greek p.apyri, we may attempt to compare them 
awl endeavour to ascertain to what degree the literary hanll was, in the 
course of time, modified I,y the current writing. 
If we run our eyes along the lines of the Literary Alphal.ets, it is 
at once apparent how little change the majority of the letters uwlerwent 
in their structural forms. nenerally the features of the parent capitals 
remained prominent from beginning to end; and resistance to the aggres- 
sion of the looser, cursi\Oe forllls was successful. But the career of a 
certain number was less constant, and in their varieties ,,'e find our 
opportunity.l 
The literary AlpllU, at first mOllelled directly on the capital, anù then 
adopting the simpler uncial shape, was in IJoth of these forms an angular 
letter. It was not till the Roman period, practically in the first century 
of our era, that the lower angle was rounded off and that this new 
modification took its position as a literary letter. But in cUl'sive alpha- 
IJets rounded forms of the letter appear in constant use e\'en in the thinl 
century B. C. Hence it seems that some two centuries anù a half elapsed 
before the cursive penetrated the literary ranks in respect to this letter. 
The literary EJJ,-ilun in nearly the whole course of its career was the 
round uncial. Bet in tbe third century D.C. we see it wan ring between 
that form and the older sl)uare capital; and the latter form appears tû 
have been constant. or nearly so, in the fourth century B.C. On the 
other hand, the early cursive letter, as far hack as we can reach, may he 
said to be uniformly of the uncial type (an occasional slight square ness, 
as we think. being accidental and not representati\Oe of the square 
capital). Cursin writing of the fourth century B.C. will probably show 
the epsilon enn then in the uncial form. 
The literary Zeta down to the second century B.C. was an archaic 
letter. built up with three separate strokes. Only in the course of that 
century does it appear to have assullled the simpler and more easily 
written Z-form of three continuous strokes. But the latter form was in 
full use in cursive alphalJets of the third century B.C.; and we may 
forecast its existence also in cursive writing of the preceding century. 
The literary Eta follows more or less the model of the parent capital 
down to the second century B.C. In the following century a letter of 
looser structure shows itself, which became common from the first 
century A.D.: a truncated h with loop at the shoulder. This form 
appears as a cursin letter in the first, and to some extent even in the 


1 The four columns of letters in the Table of Litel":lry Alphabets, representing the 
four hands employed in the papyrus of the Constitution of Athens, of nbout A.D. 90, must be 
-disregarded in this scrutin
', all being more or le;,s cursive. 
o '! 



196 


UREEK AXD LATI
 PALAEOUR.\.PHY 


CHAP. 


second, century B.C. In this instance the influence of the cursive on the 
literary hand was operative after a comparatively short interval. 
In the literary Mu the model of the parent capital was followed 
pretty consistently down to the first century, from which period the central 
angle tends to take the form of a deep curve. In the cursive letter we 
have a similar developement at the same period. 
The literary X.i retains the old form compoaed of three separate 
strokes (occasionally modified in two strokes) down to the period of the 
first century B. c. After that date the letter formed by one action, 
without lifting the pen, comes into general use in literary papyri. In 
cursive alphaùets we find the latter form employed in the first and 
second, and even, rarely, in the third, century B. C. It seems then the 
lapse of two centuries at least was needed for the cursive letter to be 
established in the literary hand. 
The literary SiglllCt appears in the fourth century B.C. in two forms; 
viz. the older fuur-stroke capital, and the round (-shaped uncial which 
suLsequently prevailed. The older form had already dropped out of 
cursive alphabets of the thinl century B.C., and at that time it had 
proùaLly ceased to be employed cursively for a consideraLle period. 
The practice of drawing downwards the head of the (-letter seems to 
have come into ,'ogue from the first ceutury, in both literary and 
cursive hands. 
The literary [
jJl3ilon (if we except those examples of the fourth century 
B.C. which are not of the purely literary type, and in which the letter 
8hows cursive elenlents) appears to have been consistently of the normal 
capital type down to the first century, when more cursive forms began to 
encroach. But those forms are already conspicuous in cursive alphabets 
in the third century B.C. This letter, then, affords a further instance of 
the conservatism of the literary hand and of the resistance of which it 
was capable against the inroads of the cursive. 
The literary Onwgo which, after entering on the third century B. c. 
and subsetlUently, adopted the uncial form, still retained, in the fourth 
century B. C., recognizable traces of the features of the parent capital ll. 
In the earliest cursive alphabets, in which the clipped letter predomi- 
nates, these traces have uearly ,'anished. 'When once the uncial W had 
lleen evolved, it prevailed in both the literary and cursive hands with 
little variation. An exceptional variety is the shallow letter used in 
the Hacehylides and in the Harris Homer; which is also found in literary 
papyri of the third century. 


In the course uf the above remarks it will have been observed that 
se,'eral of the admissions of cursive forms into the literary script are 
practically contemporaneous with the assumption of the administration 



x 


(;HEEK \LPIL\BET:-; 1:\ P_\PYRI 


197 


of Egypt by the Romans. Thi!': is not surprising; for the ratlical changes 
effectetl in the general character of both the literary aUfI the cursi,'e 
hands at the time of that political event han already been demonstrated; 
amI the general stimulus "ould be accountal,le for the acceleratetl 
adoption, into the literary ranks, of forms which, under more normal 
conditions, might 11an hatl to wait for a longer periotl lJcfore gaining 
admission. In the ahsence of such adventitious influences, it would seem 
that the normal inter\ ai i'et\\ ten the rise of a cm'sin form and its 
ultimate ref'ognition as a literary letter might extend to about a couple 
of centuries. 



CHAPTER XI 


GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY (cuntinued) 


The Uncial Book-hand in Vellum Codices 


TUE chapter in which thc developcment of the Literary hand or Book- 
hand in papyri has heen described will have prepared the student for 
the further examination of literary Greek writing at the period when, 
about the fourth century, the vellum codex had established itself as the 
recognized vehicle for the <liR
emination of literature by supprseding the 
ancient vehicle, the papyrus roll. 
In that chapter certain papyri were referred to, the writing of which 
bear
, in a greater or less degree, direct relation to the uncial writing in 
carly vellum codices, which it is now proposed to discuss. First there 
was a deed (Facs. 16) of A.D. 88, written in characters which demonstrate 
the existence, as early as the firRt century, of a style of hand which 
was the forerunncr of the vellum uncial script. A nearer approach to 
the calligraphic style, distingui
hed by a contrast of light and heavy 
strokes, of the vellum period, was exhibited in the Bankes Homer 
(Facs. Ii) of the second century. But there are more than one point 
of contact between the two classes of writing; and there was also cited 
another important l\IS., the Hawara Homer (Facs. HI), also of the 
second century, which brings us to the very fruntier :-;epamting the two 
kingùoms of papyrus and of vellum, resemhling as it does in the scale 
and structure of its letters, not in the calligraphic quality just mentioned, 
the famous vellum fragments of the II lad known as the Am broRian 
Homer. As the close resem1Jlance lJetween the two }ISS. has affected 
fonner opinions as to the period to which the A.mbrosian Homer is to 
be assigned, and has, in fact,raiscd the lattcr to pre-eminence ao;; possibly 
the oldest extant vellum l\lS. written in formal uncials, I it stands first in 
our series for illustration of this section of our work. 
The Am brosian Homer has enjoyed greater celcbrity for the illustra- 
tions with which it was adorned than for its script. In fact, in its 
prescnt state. the 
lS. is represented only by some fifty fragments con- 
taining pictures cut, for their own sake, from the original volume, so that 
the portiuns of the text that have surviwù are only those which happened 
to be upon the reverse sides of the illustrations so barbarously abstracted. 


1 Here we do not take account of the few stray vellum leaves of earlier dates which 
l.ave been more recently disco,oered ,see p. 80 and which belong to a different order of 
h.md writing. 



GREEK rSCIAL CODICES 


19!) 


This valuable relic, so interesting us an example of ancient art as "ell 
as of early uncial writing on vellum, was in its present condition when 
it was added to the Amlllw;Ïan Li1rary of )lilan, along with the other 
collections of Vincenzio Pinelli, 1y Canlinal Federico Bonomeo in 160R 



o. 43 
The )[S. has hitherto lleen generally ascribed to the fifth century, 
amI the ditference of the style of the writing from that of the typical 
uncial writing of the time was thought to indicate inferiority in age. 
nut the discO\-ery of the Hawara Humer and other papyms fragments 
of the Iliad of the second centur,} written in a character so evidently of 
the style of the Ambrosian Homer caused the question of the period 
of the latter lIS. to be reconsidered, and the probability of its earlier 
date was at once suggestet1. 1 The erlitors of the facsimile edition of the 
MS.2 claim the third century to be the true period of its execution; 
find this claim is now generally allowed. If the writing is compared 
,,-ith that of the Hawara MS. (Facs. 18), the likeness between the 
two is very striking: the Hawara text is more delicately inscribed, as 
is fitting, on the more fragile material, papyrus; the Ambrosian text is 
rather heavier, as the stronger material, vellum, permits; but the general 
style and stmcture of the letters bring the two )lSS. into one group, 
and it seems that the difference of a century between them may be as 
much as it is needful to allow. Certain I,}" the third century is an early 
period in which to find a vellum codex, such as the Ambrosian Homer, 
handsomely written and decorated-a period when a papyrus roll might 
rather have been expected. But it may be urged that vellum was 
undou1tedly the better material to receive the illuf'tratiye paintings, and 
that, as the paintings must from the first have been the chief ol
ect of 
consideration, vellum was on that account employed. 
Passing now to the consideration of the more typical examples of the 
early vellum uncial cudices, in the first place what attracts the eye most 
of all is the great beauty and firmuess of the characters. The general 
result of the progress of any form of writing through a number of 
centuries is dccadence and not improvement. But in the case of the 
uncial writing of the early codices there is improvement and not 
decadence. This is to be attributed to the change of material, the firm 
and smooth surface of vellum giving the scribe greater scope for dis- 
playing his skill as a calligrapher. In other "Words, there appears to 
ha,-e been a period of renaissance with the general introduction of 
,oellum as the ordinary writing material. 
The earliest e
amples of vellum uncial Greek )IS
., which have 


I Kenyon, Palaeogr. Gk. PaPllri, 121. 
2 Homel"Î lliadis pic/ae FI"agmenla Ambrosialla, u1. A. 
1. Ceriani and A. Ratti, 1905. 



200 


GREEK AXD LATH\" PALAEO(mAPHY 


sunind practically entire, are the three great codices of the Bihle: the 
Codex Yaticanus, the Codex Sinaiticus, and the Codex Ale....an(lrinus. 
The famous CoclPx Yaticanus has been in the Vatican Lihrary 
certainly since the fifteenth ccntury. It is to all appearance the most 
ancient and may be ascribed to the fourth century. It is written in 
triple columns, without enlarged initiallptters to mark paragraphs or even 
the beginning'> of the several IJooks. 'l'he writing in its original state 
was Leautifully regular and delicatc; hut, unfortunately, the whole of 
the text has been touched over, in darker ink, by a hand of perhaps the 
tenth or eleventh century, only letters or \Voras rejected as superfluous 
or incorrect heing allowed to remain intact. 


No. 44 
The accents and marks of punctuation are added, probalJly by the 
hand that retouched the writing. 
The entire text appears to have heen the work of a single scribe, who 
must have been a marvellous workman. As wiJI be seen, the lettering is 
on a smaller scale than that of the other two great coùices, and the 
writing is of a lighter touch. Although not identical in regard to the 
forms of the several letters, there is much in the general aspect of the 
Codex Vaticanus that recalls the papyrus commentary on the Theaetet1t8 
(Facs. 13) of the second century, which is much of the same scale; 
and one is accordingly tempted to think that the text or texts which the 
scribe of this codex usea as his prototype may have been papyrus rolls 
very much of the character of the T1lCaetetu8, and that he adapted his 
style to the excellent older patterns which lay before him. 
The Codex Sinaiticus, Tischendorfs great ùiscovery in the monastery 
of St. Catherine of :Mount Sinai, is generally regarded as sonwwhat 
younger than the Yatican 1\IS. It can hardly be, in any case, earlier 
than the year 340; for the EuseLian sections or divisions of the text are 
indicated in the margins of the Gospels by a contemporary hand. Their 
author Eusehius died in that ycar. 'l'he pcriod of the MS. llIay be the 
latter part of the fourth century. 


Ko.45 


The text is written in four columns to a page, the open book thus 
presenting eight columns in se<p1Cnce, alllI, as has Leen suggested. recalling 
the line of columns on a papyrus roll. Like the Vatican MS., it is devoid 
of enlarged letters; but the initial letter of a line IJeginning a sentence is 
usuaIJy placed slightly in the margin, as will Le seen in the facsimile. 
The chief charact.eristic of the letters is squareness, the width being 
generally equal to the height. The shapes are simple, and horiwntal 
strokes are fine. 



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[1 John v. 13-21] 
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208 


GREEK AND LATI
 PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


\Yith the Codex Alexandrinus there is a deciderl advance; hut 
the MS. is probably not later than the first half of the fifth century. 
There can he little doulJt of the country of its origin being Egypt, for, 
besides the fact of its having belonged to the Patriarchal Chamher of 
Alexandria, it also contains in its titles certain forms of the letters 
((lpht
 and ?nu which are distinctly Egyptian. It was sent as a present 
to King Charles the First by Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople and 
previously Patriarch of Alexandria, who carried away the :MS. from the 
latter city on his promotion. 


Xo.46 


The text, which is written in douhle columns, has enlarged letters to 
mark the heginnings of paragraphs; the enlarged letter standing in the 
margin at the beginning of the first full line, whether that be the first line 
of the paragraph, or whether the paragraph begin in the course of the 
preceding line after a blank space (see the last line of the Facsimile). 
The writing of the Codex Alexandrinus is more carefully finished 
than that of the Codex Sinaiticus. The letters are rather wide; hori- 
zontal strokes are \
ery fine; and there is a general teJl(lency to thicken or 
clul) the extremities of certain letters, as [j((1wna, twn, epl3Ílon, awl sigl/la. 
Other uncial .MSS. which have been ascribe(l to the fifth century and 
a little later are: the palimpsest 1\1S. of the BilJle, known as the Codex 
Ephraemi, at Paris (ed. Tischellllorf, 1845); the Codex Sarravianus of part 
of the Old Testament, whose extant leaves are divided between Leyden, 
Paris, and St. })etersburg; the Genesis of the Cottonian LilJrary, once, 
probably, one of the most beautifully illustrated M88. of it::; period, lmt 
now reduced by fire to blackened and defaced fragments (Oat. Anc. 
JISS. i, pI. 8); and the Dio Cassius of the Yatican. 1 


Pncial writing of the sixth century shows an ad\
ance on the delicate 
style of the fifth century in the comparatively heavy forms of its letters. 
Horizontal strokes are lengthened, and are generally finished ofl' with 
heavy points or finials. The Dioscorides of Vienna (Pal. Suc. i. 177; 
antI complete facsimile), written carly in the century for Juliana Anicia 
(died A.D. 527-8), daughter of :Flavius Aniciu:> Olybrius, Emperor of the 
"Test in 472, is a most valuable M
. for the palaeographer, as it is the 
earliest example of uncial writing on vellum to which an approximate 
date can be given. 


I Thl' Codex Sarravianus and the Dio Cassius have Loth been recently published in 
complete facsimile, 1897 and 1908. A full list of the principal Greek uncial codices is 
given in the third edition of 'Vattenbach's An/eitltJlY zur griech. Palaeographie, 1895. See also 
Omont, Fac-simi/és des plus anciens lJfanuscrits Grecs de la Bib!. SatioJlale, 1892, for specimens 
of many of the IIISS. quoted in this chapter. 




I 


GREEK "CXCIAL CODICES 


2UU 



o. 47 
It is also of great interest for the history of art, as, in addition to the 
coloured drawings of plants, reptiles, insects, etc., which illustrate the 
text, it contains six full-page designs, one of them being the portrait of 
the imperial Juliana herself. 
This is a specimen of careful writing, suitable to a sumptuous book 
prepared for a lady of high rank. The letters exhibit a contrast of 
heavy amI fine strokes; the curve of both ep;>ilun and .
igma is thickened 
at both extremities; the base of delta extends right and left and has 
heavy dots at the ends; the cross-strokes of pi and tau are treated in 
the same way. In the second line will be noticed an instance, in the 
word ßpapß1j'>, of the use of the apostrophe to separate two consonants, 
a common practice in this 
S. 
Other 1I1SS. of this period are: the palimpsest Homer in the British 
)Iuseum (Cat. Anc. 1JISS. i, pI. 9; Pal. Soc. ii. 3), generally named, after 
its editor, the Cureton Homer, and the palimpsest fragments of St. Luke's 
Gospel (Cat. Anc. NSS., pI. 10), which together with the Homer were 
reused by a later Syrian scribe; the fragments of the Pauline Epistles 
at )lount Athos (complete facsimile, ed. K. Lake, 190:5), some leaves of 
which are in Paris and some in )Ioscow (Silvestre, pIs. 63, 64; Si.tbas, 
pI. A); the Gospels (N) written on purple vellum in silver and gold. 
leaves of which are in Londun (Cotton .MS., Titus C. xv), Rome, Yienna, 
and Patmos, the place of its origin, and the larger portion of which 
was recovered in 1896 and is now in St. Petersburg; the fragments 
of the Eusebian Canons, written on gilt vellum amI sumptuously 
ornamented, in the British Museum (C((t. Anc. .flISS. i, pI. 11); the 
Yienna Genesis, with illustrations of very great interest (Pal. Soc. i. 1 i8); 
the Rossano Gospels, written in silver on purple vellum and also having 
a remarkalJle series of illustrations (eel. GelJhardt and Harnack, 1880); 
a portion of St. )Iatthew's Gospel, in gold on purple vellum, also with 
miniatures, from Sinope, now in Paris (ed. H. Omont, 1901): the Gospels, 
in silver on purple vellum, from Berat in Albania (Cod. (Þ, ed. Batiffol, 
1886); the Dublin palimpsest fragments of St. )latthew's Gospel and 
of Isaiah (ed. T. K Abbott, Par PalÙlljNSlm'lt?n Dublin.), the hand- 
writing of the Gospel having the Egyptian forms of alpha and 71Ht 
strongly marked; and the Freer )18. of Deuteronomy and Joshua, also 
from Egypt (....Yew Pal. Soc. 20:.!). There are also two bilingual Graeco- 
Latin 
ISS. which are assigned to the sixth century, viz. the Codex Bezae 
of the Gospels and Acts at Cambridge (Pal. Soc. i. 14, 15), and the Codex 
Claromontanus of the Pauline Epistles at Paris (Pal. Soc. i. 63,64). But 
these were almost certainly written in France or, at all events, in \Vestern 
Europe, and rather belong to the domain of Latin palaeography, as the 
Greek letters are to some extent modelled on the Latin forms. The 


lIS< 


p 



210 



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GREEK UKCIAL CODICES 


211 


Greek portions of the great Laurentian codex of the Pandects at Florence 
should also be noticed as of this period. 


The decadence of the round uncial hand in the successive centuries 
may be seen in the second Yienna Dioscorides (Pal. Soc. ii. 45), which is 
thought to be of the early part of the sevcnth centurJT, amI in the Yatican 
l\lS. of Pope Gregory's Dialogues (Pal. Soc. ii. 81), which was written, 
probably at Rome, in the JTear 800. But in these later centuries Greek 
uncial 
ISS. were more usually written in another stJ'le. 
Soon after the J'ear 600, a variety of the round uncial came into 
ordinarJ' use-a change similar to that which has been noticed as taking 
place in the writing of the third century on papyrus. The circular letters 
epsiloll, theta, omikron, 
i[Jmn become o\'al, and the letters generally are 
laterally compressed and narrow in proportion to t.heir height. The 
writing slopes to the right, and accentuation begins to be applied 
systematically.l At first the character of the writing was light and 
elegant, but as time went on it gradually bccame heavier amI more 
artificial. A few scattered Greek notes are found written in this st;yle in 
Syriac 
ISS. which bear actual datcs in the seventh centurJ'; and there 
are a few palimpsest fragments of Euclid and of Gospel Lectionaries among 
the Syriac )ISS. of the British :Museum, of the se\-enth and eighth 
centuries; but there is no entire )IS. in sloping uncials bearing a date 
earlier than the ninth centm"JT. 
As an early specimen we select a few lines from the fac&imile (Watten- 
bach, &ript. GI'. Specim., tab. 8) of the fragment of a mathematical 
treatise from BoblJio, now in the Ambrosian Library at )lilan, which is 
assigned to the seventh century. 


1\ o. 4
 


It will he ::;een that in this )IS., intended for students' use and deal- 
ing with a secular subject, abbreviations are fa.irly numerous. 
Passing on to the middle of the ninth centurJ, we have a )1:-). with a 
date: a P
alter of the year 862, belonging to Bishop Uspemky (Watten- 
bach, Saipt. Gr. Specim., tab. 10). 


I Quite recentlv, in 1907, an early example of sloping uncial writing 011 ,eHum, 
a copy of the Go
pels, said to have been found at Ak11Il1Ïm in Eg) pt, wa
 acquired by 
Mr. C. L. Freer. Its discovery may open a new chapter in the history of uncial writing 
in vellum codices, if it is followed by the finding of other 
IS
. of the same period 
and character. A facsimile of a page appears in New Pal. Soc. 201, the date of the 
:MS. being given as not later than the fifth century j and the style of the writing is 
compared with that of the Book of Enoch, found at Akhmim in 1::'86, now in Cairo 
(facs. in M<moiles tù la Mission Anhéologique Franfaise au Caire, ix (IS9
 . pt. 3" and "ith 
that of the :lIagical Pap) rU8 ,110. 46) in the British :Museum. 
p2 



212 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


FACSDIILE X o. 48 


In4énAH CI ANTI-1N".l.HCIN EI<:AA eCl) y
 -;
 
A.lf rTA IcØ"Äf A.êY X f(VoJ crT
 r T"yr-r O f7 D N/ 
TO/
f 1(A.)../(f-nA..\ IN HTc.AJ(.AJ c/
41 f-'7"'7.)"" 
.Äf/)T-"TOIOY 7"Ton f.:'"n^HCI"Nr.'ÑfTA. ITO 
v .'. , , 
r !(I'î-.AAAC- P 1 NICOl?" nc y N"'M
Nr y lcoG, 
Mß4./'WJ,.} fyXf-pW CC.AA M ßÄ/'I"MOI Mf--rE- 
Wf''z;C M f<:ð. I
rCAÆt-Tt'wf'C}tO NA NB C Y^O 
M (-8 ATon D "-1M Hífe f- NT" cb..flTD y/
MH.Åt' 
j.,cl'pc n oy NT"'y'/<:fl M ß"'/,rÀYf
&ï'LUC w( 
ANIJ.u 0 I^ cT
.\ N ð ð^)<: H crA NTljJp0r70YfJr" 
t\J'--ITIIÇ{ I AÁ f-N HcTH7 0 1 Aj'TH.Ä/A.':'.\ IV -re c 
CA/
H"J'CÅH^C yAH-r H C4. I 'T/A CyT74.,I'X"Y _ 
(1-1 ce rN 
 r.:," N 
(.AF I f7ð.N'T O f ex H MÞ...T 
C-rfp 
6JY k{- I AJtOV I'.A.Ä/WC ArcN fo B AP () r fJ, 
.:;:TOYKiNrp....'TOY ß Af OYCHWA/(H ",""",c.Àt: 


J\l.\.THEM.\TICAI, TnEATIsE.-SEYE
TH CENTliRY 
(7f(apa)ÛI.1]uLaV T1]V Xpl]UW 
K /lfUOV IJ.fV I mpfTat acþoõpa fVXfpoo
 T.(fpt) y(ap) 
TOVT(OV) T07fOV (fUTW) I TO K(fVTpOV) fK Õ aKp(ov) 7fuÀw 1]TToo OO
 Kat f(7ft) T(ooV) 
(vy(oo!.) I Õf K(at) T(ooV) TOLOVT(ooV)...-O 7õ(upa)ÛI.1]UWV yWfTat TO I y(ap) Kpf/laUTOV 
ïUOpp07fOVVT(oov) /lw T(ooV) V(7rO)KfLllJ.(fVooV) papoov fVXfpoo
 f(m)ll.O/lßaVOIJ.(fV)Ot 
/lfTf!oopt(O/l(fV) Kat lJ.(f)T(a) TO /lfTfooptui: ov av ßOVÀO
/lfea T07rOV /ll] TfefVTO
 
Õf TOV K(WTfJOV) /l1]Õf I ïUOPP07rOVVT(ooV) T(ooV) V(1i"O)KfL/l(fVooV) ßap(oov) ÕVUXfPoo
 
OO
 I avo/low
 T(1])
 aVeOÀK1]
 T(ooV) aVTLpp01i"OVVT(ooV) I m'TLKfL/lfV1]
 T1] TOWVn] 
ÕW 7õ(lVTO
 I OÀK1] 7õpOÒ1]ÀOV Õ1] T1]
 atTLa
 ii7TapxoI!IU1]
 fVyvooaTov 00, ÕfL 7fal'TO
 
UX1]/laT( 0,) I UTfpfOV KfL/l( fV)VV pUÕtoo
 uyov TO papo
 fK I T( OV) TOV KfVTp( 01) 
TOV ßapov
 11 ooÀK1] 7õoo
 Õf) 




I 


GREEK rXCIAL CODICES 


213 


F_\.c
 DIlLE IS" o. 49 


7l! 1

"<
yr"fY'< i'
/<!V"r}-:. 
/. NI-Jr_ :;;; , ø
 X..,
 .'-H.Á-VH 
r,IAI' - 
Ô N' 
 "
A'--7'Nf!.r
t
 rI-Y 
x: '-1"'AJ"Y-.
Y/<U7 PI 
^H/
"^,,,,r. 
- - -..... 
F '<,:!I'''')A'n2i.t"

 rø 
f,,,71t./IAA.J
yp z 
r -___ 
pI 1 Id>f AM f"iA.3'v.;.,Ar7i..o 
___ r^,I,IY'Y7.H
. 
F ,L
ì!!-
 I AJÁrA
r
 "-IJf
 

\1 ANA-/!)l FT7H,,,/!--;;-,,J 
_"'y!í?ì1l' :--- -... -6 a- 
t: nV.!tvt Ai" 


/< A/ø\.!
#y 
[ ,-"/øHr-HÇA#'/
'þ/
/Â. 
" 7T<<:J'NIA-IHA.M,irffH 
îTAA1
ØY. T^-i-frA., 


PSALTER.-A. D. 862 


(ElCTáKOVCTOV K(VpL)
 õLKaWuúlv 1 ]!i' 7õp6CTXH T
 õníiCTH /lov. 
'EVWTLCTaL T
V 71"(JOCTWlx1ív /LOV) OVK' Èv XElIÀ
CTL ÕOÀ{OLS' 
'EK 7rPOCTW1fOV CTOV, Tð I KpL/lá /LOV ifiMoL' 
0 , ',1, 8 ' ,,,' I ' 8 ' 
L o'/' aÀ/lOL /lov, Lu
TW CTav 
v UT"I)Ta!i'O 
' E 
' , I ", , ',If I ' . 
OOKL/laCTas TlJV Kap ULav /lOV, 
1f
CTKE't'W VVKTOS 
'E7õVPWCTás /l
o Kaì oVX 'l)úlp
8'1) Èv 
/loì àÕLK{a o 
g o .. '" ' \ ' '
 ) 
1fW!i' av /Ll] l\.al\.'I)CT'I) TO CTTO/la /lOV. Ta 
pya 



214 


GREEK 
ND LATIK PALAEOGRAPHY 


No. 49 


In this specimen progress is seen in the extreme contrast of heavy 
and light strokes; and the general aspect of the writing is one of excessive 
artificiality. This heavy class of Greek writing has received the name 
of 'Slavonic', having been accepted as a pattern for the alphabets of 
Eastern Europe. 
The same style continues still later. Of the middle of the tenth 
century is the only extant uncial :\1S. of the Greek X ew Testament (with 
one possible exception) which has a precise date. This is a copy of the 
Gospels of A. D. 949, in the Vatican Library (:MS. Graec. 354; .J..Ye1Æ' Pal. 
Soc. 105). 


No. 50 
Other :\18::-;. of this character are: a small volume of hymns in the 
British :Museum, Add. :MS. 26113. of the eighth or ninth century (Cat. 
Allc. JlSS. i. 14; Pal. Soc. ii. 4); a copy of Gregory of Kazianzus, 
written between 867 and 886 (Silvestre, pI. 71); a Dionysius Areopagita 
at Florence, also of the ninth century (Vitelli and Paoli. Fllc.'<im. 
Paleogl'., tav. 17); a Lectionary in the Harleian collection, of the end 
of the ninth or lJeginning of the tenth century (Cat. Ãnc. NSS. i.17); and 
the Bodleian Genesis (Gk. :Misc. 312), of the tenth century (Pal. Soc. 
ii. 26; cf. Xe'U' Pal. Soc. 3). 
But b)T this time uncial writing had passed out of ordinary use, and 
only survived, as a rule, for church-books, in which the large character 
was convenient for reading in puhlic. In this capacity it underwent 
another change, the letters reverting from the sloping position to the 
upright position of the early uncial, and again, after a period, becoming 
rounder. This was evidently a mere calligraphic modification, the style 
being better suited for handsome service-books. Of this character are 
the Bodleian Gospels (Gk. Misc. 313) of the tenth century (Pal. Soc. ii. 
7); the Laurentian Evangeliarium of the tenth century (Vitelli and 
Paoli, Facsim. Paleogr., tav. 7); the Zouche Evangeliarium, of 980 
(Pal. Soc. i. 154); and the Harleian Evangeliarium (no. 5598), of the 
year 995 (Pal. Soc. i. 26, 27), from which a few lines are here given. 


No. 51 


As a late instance of uncial writing, a page from a J\l
. of St. John 
Chrysostom, which is ascribed to the eleventh century, will he founù in 
Yitelli and Paoli, F(lc
i'ììl. Paleogr., tav. 28. It appears to have lingered 
on till about the midllle of the twelfth century. 
There are also a certain number of MHS. in which uncial writing 
appears to have been used for distinction, or contrast. Thus, in a )IS. at 
Florence of A. D. 886-911, containing Fasti Consu)ares and other matter 



< 'd '.. .... ( 
_. ..." 
- !::. . 
;- 
_ ".- z:..... .
 r.- 
_ 
, _ ... .::: ..... 

 2." , 
 ,1114 
..... _ _ 
 <. w.. . 

 
--- 
.... 
:-- - 
 ..- ,.-' 
- ... 
c-_ p ...._ 
;. 
 s:.c:,r. ...., - t.., 
.:r. .0 
..... 2.,.- a 
 - - G 
 
 . a 
oJ ..:;. >-... v 
 ë:..-=.::;: 
 
 
 -;: c. 
C1 __ -< t:.. _ ,.... -. 2. .... 
 
. = 
 r:: ..... -- ;,-. 4f:. .;;r- ;>-._... L - 
>- 
 CI >-. ::: 
 

... .... 
 
 .:- '2. ;; 
o 
 Ie:> 
 f' --- . 
f - 
 - ..;' 
c.-- '- _ ::. .z.. - ..c: 
,-"... ... #4. - 
 

 ;II! -:: _ 
 .. ""'!. ... 
 r ... 
 ...../ 100" 
.... 
 <It: J!. _ r..r:: :- C -- 0 -:: 'y-'" 
:; _'L. :r'
 
 
 
 
 :?-
 
.C> 
z:::::t &..J 

 
 
 ....... ........
 ....... 
__J __ 
 S 
 I 
 
 


 
 
,
-< ::."$\- 
.... .... __ _/ '\oW .......... "'-- < ...;. 
::- "-.....t.. ..:.. -, -<' · 
 '- ""'- '\ 
"- 
 
 /...c. till/! 
 
 
 
 
::!" __..,,- 
 I ,.; -c:....., - 
 
.-
' .... -- - --
 
 

 -.;. 
 .. - 
 - \; ..... 
r" V J
 '-La 
j 
 -- -- 
 
__ .,. 
 
 
 
 
"< .J < 

 :r-. - \ -' Y ::- 
 ---- 

___
 - _4- '-' 
< 
 
 

.:;: :: 
::: \ 
 

 __ 
 IC) -I'
 
 - 
 
- 
 - :s -- -f\
 -- 
,
-- -..,_.... 
I 
 _ ::;, 
 t1I'!.. / .:.. 1 '-. -" ........ C\ 
__ " .c. 
...,Þ -... . 

 
 
 .
\
 
 
 <


 
.
 - -- -- 
 
 
 -- 
,
.... ,... / --
 =- < 
..
 



 

 
:;- 


fer! [4- 
:.. 
 . '- 
 i... ";):è'- '---:::: '\ 
--- "" 
:_...--'\ . 

 
po. -- 
 \.A.o. 
 -- -.. 
 
- 
 -- ...."",.- 
 - 
...... 
 ..... c.:... 1\ 
 f -< 
 :: :::- 

_ 1(-- I 
 .-;.. 

...... '-L. . C6 .... ;;. "-a.... .... '-'.. c.. 
,,
 
 / ":" '\ 
.. 
 r"\.c c-... 
 
 

--

--- - 

 
 
 
:... =- _ -t..\-- 

 - c.-..
 
 -- --
- 
 
__ __..,..c....
 
... - 
 
 --- ,=:'" 
-- 
I
 
 J 
,
CiIo 
 
 þo... 
_ /
 
 '- ., c:b 
 

 
t=- .1, ,",:",,1 
 N' &- 
.::: = 
 

l
 :.. 
 c-
 'S 


 
..t!. J 
 
... 
 øJ1!. 
 J 
 < 
::;.. 
'-.a- '- 
''-- 
 -- - '- 
 

 '-_ 
_ _ c-. ..e. I r 
- I .;;#þ - :;. 
. 

 

 Þ- 
It :,..
'- t 
 


215 


_ ,..... 
 tI 
.
 2. 
 ..
 

 .-.
 ....,
 ... 
,-... t$ 
 (;) t:.;) ... Q,. 1:1 

..;:. ::a.

"&.:1 

)( þ 
'-".... ::a. ..., (_..:
 t:I "'I:"'-:>"'ö '.... 
b 
 ..
.!: 
 (Cool 
 !;.S- .;-::a. 
 . 
-ob..
"".....5-""""4:"'c.."'" (::I 
. z: t:I 
 
 ... ..
.
.g -< 
 
 
..!; 
(;) 
:s(;) \I.I"'
 t..Q.,... ..
..6tS:".. t:I 


 
 

 t [i..
..
 eo.:' 

 
'" t:::..t:I Ö ;; t:I c.o. ... c,,
 
 
'--'" 
-< b b.ö"d b";:";: 
"5"5..t;: 


't:j 
" 


'U 
 
 

 '" b 
_ 
 
 
 'd 
:u 3 0 ö ö 

 
 '", '"" " - 
 ,
 ,
 -
 
b

:




 
-. 
 fj 
 
 
 ;:.. r::$ FlU 
..., r.:> " :::>.. '" 0 '3 0 + . 
<: '"" ::>'
 X '"" b '" 
I ;:> + to '" c:::.. ,
 s::- (
 r---. 
Cjc" s'),\U
"'õ
5 
,,; ,
 
 
 i:: 3 " to 
 b 
..:I t:....:3....j::) -
 -< 
 ...
 
 

 .
 ï: 
 
:ã 
 
 
 .; 
72 
C 
C 


00 
ê:
 
o .. 
.. !; 

 
'" 
.. 


>.. 0 c" r@ 
 
(3 \U c....
 . ..\1.1 :::.....
 
I-...
 t: 
 (

 \U I:j c" 
;::.b<
c"c
E
o 
.z g, . 's::-.!:;.'" ,,
 
 
,
 to '" b ö 0 '" -< a- 
\U 0 j::) <:c ..
 cs;:- 
<o,
:::>..3 ",-< '" b 
 
'" 
 '3 ::!... :; b '3 0'0 
'0 
\Uc::...-

"" 
S ,.:. '0 v..n -
 
 to 
 
d"''""
t "'" 
\U c.. \U"'\U t:; ::L 
b .:
 :.c: b ::!....... '5'
 
I
I
I
 



216 GREEK AXD LATIN PALAEOGRAPHY "HAP 


FACSDIILE 1'\0. 51 


-- 
MIHAtl{fl+ÐA 
 
,? " 
rfNtlTAITINI 
- 
/' - J ...... 
ANW )!(
T'Hlr' 
6ATA · ((AI"AA. " 
, 
"t
i"j



7 
" 
XIA<þf U:rAft!' 
, ""I('"TAf""f 
-4......... _ / 
. A
f.nITj\fr"n<} 
'
+f I f :
"TU-. 
TIn A"WUtHf
 
: 1(A.tfÀUrfHnTAI 


EVAXGELIARIL"lII.-A. D. 995 
(/lw ÒOKft + fà(v) I YWY]Tat TtV
 I àt(8pwr.)w- fKaTÒt' r.póIßaTa' Kaì 7TÀalv?}8
 
v fÇ 
àVTC
(V} I ÒVX
 àrþâ.. Tà fVflv?}KOVTa fvvi:a' id Ta ÕP?} 7TO!pfV8fÌs' (I/Tfí: I TÒ 
7TÀaVW/lfVo(I') I Kal fàv ylv?}TUt) 




I 


GREEK CXCL\L CODICES 


217 


arranged in tabulated form. the entries are made in a beautifully neat 
upright uncial (Vitelli and Paoli. Fuct,im. Paleogl'., ta\". 13,25, 31); 80 
also in the Florentine Dionysills Areopagita of the ninth century, referred 
to _ above, while the text is in large slanting uncials, the commentary is 
in smaller upright uncials; and we have the Yatican P:::aIter with catena 
(Cod. Pal. Gr. 44-). of the year t'
)7, and the similar Bodleian Psalter 
(Gk. ::\Iisc. 5), of about the year !);)O (see below, Facs. ;)!)), in hoth of 
which the text of the Psalms is written in upright uncials, while the 
commentary is in minuscules (]\ew Pal. Soc. 12B; Pal. Soc. ii. 5). The 
use, too, of small uncial writing for marginal commentaries and notes in 
minuscule MS8. if> not uncommon during the earlier centuries after the 
establishment of the smaller style of writing as a hook-hand. 



CHAPTER XII 


GREEK PALAEOGRAPHY (contil/ued) 


The Minuscule Book-hand in the Middle Ages 
IT was shown in Chapter X, on Cursi,"e Writing in Papyri, that in the 
more formal clerical hands of the later Byzantine period the shapes of 
the alphabetical letters had been gradually tending towards those with 
which we are familiar in the vellum minuscule 1\188. of the middle ages, 
and that by the IJeginning of the eighth century the identity was prac- 
tically complete. It only required the minuscule clerical handwriting of 
the papyri of that age to he moulded to a calligraphic measure of exact- 
ness and symmetry, for the accomplishment of which the smooth and 
firm surface of well-prepared vellum was admirably suited. and the new 
minuscule book-hand at once came into existence. Its appearance as a 
fully-equipped literary form of writing of great heauty somewhat abruptl,y 
in the course of the ninth century could not be satisfactorily explained 
before the material for the history of the developement of Greek writing 
on papyrus hall been foum!. That it was the off.<.;pring of the minuscule 
hand developl-'fl in the papyri is now a matter of common knowledge; 
and its progress from the point where we left the parent hauflwriting 
will be described in this chapter. 


But first we have to notice a very interesting, though small, group of 
)ISS. on vellum which present the new hook-hand in an early stage when 
the parent cursive had already heen moulded to calligraphic symmetry, 
lJUt while its sloping style was still followed. The existence of these 
examples seems to show that a reformed style of the papyrus hand was 
at least in partial u
e on vellmH for literary purp0ses in the inten"al of 
the eighth and early ninth centuries before the appearance of the fully 
formed upright literary minuscule which is the subject of this chapter. 
A facsimile from one of these .ì\lSS., which is ascribed to the eighth 
century, is giycn 1y Garclthausen, Bei17'Üge :;u,' G'J'iech. Palaco[J1Ylpltic, 
1877; and another from a liturgical roll at l\lount Sinai, of the ninth 
century, accompanies a paper l)j" the same writer, DI:r/h-cncel:> P1'Uvl nciales 
de la Minut;c'lÛe G1'et'que, in .1lIélan[Jcl:> G1,(tua
, 1884. A third 1\IS., 
containing a collection of theological works, is in the Vatican Library 
(Colonna 1\18. 3!J), and is probably of the eighth century (Pal. Soc. ii. 
126). A facsimile from it is here given. 



THE GREEK )llX"CSCL"LE BOOK-HA:\D 219 


F_\.CSDIILE Xo. 52 


/ 



s 


l' 



 
#- 


. 


PIC'" 
I 
-'.. 


p- 
v . 


 
t1t:'" 



 


. -- 


.... 


" 


. 


Jo 


--.:; 
Å r." 
· .
: .,./
; 1., 


.. 
, 


" 
, . 
/ " 
. . 
. 



 . '" 


- 


- 
.. 


THEOLOGICAL 'VORKS.-EwHTH CE
Tl;RY 


(TfJ.tVOJ.tÙ I)
" I) Tl)t aKnCTTwt ( Kat) ITm'at/)twt (Kat) Ó1J.tOOVCTtWt Tpta/)t J.tfTaYfVfCTTf- 
pa
 TWO
 I) I KTtCT11Ç 
 fTfPOOVITWV cþVCTfW
 f7i"ftlTayop.f
t'l)
 (Kat) T01' 7i"fpt TI)
 f1'a1'- 
8pWñ1)CTfW
 T(O)v K(VptO)V I ÀOY01' a/)taCTTpocþ01' CTW(OP.fV" (Kat) np.08fo
 I /)f ó 
fÀOVpO
 ó T

 aÀI)8ftaç iX8pò
 OVTW
 I i1' Tl)t ypacþftCTl)t 7i"ap aVToû fñtlTTOÀl)t 
..p(o
) I ÀfovTa T01' ßaCTtÀw /)ta TOV ITfÀf1'naptOv I /)top.l)/)ov
 fcþl)" Tpta/)a yap 
oL/)a TfÀfta1' I ÓP.OOVCTt01' Tl)t /)oçl)t (Kat) T
t at/)tOTI)Tt OV/)fV I fQVT

 T.Àf01' 
 
fÀUTT01' fXOVITUV" TOVTO I yap (Kat) fñt T

 t'tKafwV OL p.aKaptot 7i"(aTf)pf
) 



220 


GREEK AXD L.\..TIX P
\..LAEUURAPHY 


CHAP. 


No. 52 


The writing slopes after the manner of a current hm.ld, and J"et is 
formed with exact precision; and. if the letters are analysed and com- 
pared with those of thc cursivc papyri of the beginning of the eighth 
century, they will be seen to be practically identical. A little more 
moulding is nearly all that is needed to convert thcm into the letters of 
the typical minuscule book-band, exclusi\Te of one or two alternative 
cursive forms, such as the n-shaped nn, which were not adopted. 


Greek )Iinuscule 1\188. of the middle ages hlwe been divided into 
classes, as a convenient method of marking periods in a stJ'le of writing 
which, being used for the language of a limited area. and being subject 
to no exterior influence, underwent, like all isolated branches of wrhing, 
only a gradual change. These classes are :-(1) codices vetnE-tit'simi, the 
most ancient :M88. of the ninth century and to the middle of the tenth 
century; (2) codices 
'etusti, those which range from the middle of the 
tenth century to tbe middle of the tbirtecnth century; (3) rod ices recen- 
tiores, from the middle of the thirteenth century to the middle of the 
:fifteenth century; (4) codices novelli, all )18S. of later date. 
There are still many hundreds of dated Greek )188. in existence, in 
the different lihraries of Europe, written before the year 1500. Of these 
almost all are written in minuscules. Of the ninth century there are 
four and twenty; of the tenth century there are one hundred and :fifteen; 
of the eleventh centurJ', the number rises to more than two hundred; 
of the twelfth century there are nearly as many. In the later centuries, 
of course, they become more numerous. 1 There is no lack of facsimiles, 
the number of which increases year by year. 2 
Before examining in detail the progress of this literary hand through 
the different periods or classes which have been enumerated, a f.ew pre- 
liminary remarks lUay be allowed. 


The student will experience some difficulty in learning to distinguish 
the different ages of the ul1flated 1\188.; for the minuscule book-hand 
was decidedly conservative, and particularly so in the earlier centuries. 
The degeneration of writing from the earliest models of the ninth and 
tenth centuries to the hurric(l styles of the :fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries is apparent enough if we turn over a consecutive series of ::\188. 
or facsimiles. But this degeneration only became rapid, and, so to say, 
acquired its full impetus, in the later centuries. And certain classes, 
especially sacred and liturgical 1\188., which custom had retained for 


J I am indebted to the kindness of Professor Gardthausen for these pal.ticular
. 
2 See a chronological list of facsimiles of dated Greek MSS., from 800 to 1593, in 
Omont's Faesimilés des Manuse.-iis G.-ees d<ltés de la Bibliothèque Nationale, 1891. 




II 


THE GREEK )lI
eSGCLE B()()K.HASD 


221 


special uses, were less tolerant of change, antI sened in some measure to 
retard the disuse of the formal hands of older times. It will be seen, 
when our series of facsimiles is before the student, how stereotyped the 
writing of such examples may become, and how, for example, century 
after century, copies of the Gospels continue to be written on one 
pattern. 
In the papyrus cursive writing there was never an entire suppression 
of the original capital forms. It was, therefore, only to be expected that, 
however rigorously such capital forms might be excluded from the body 
of the text \Hitten in the set literary minuscule hand in its first stage of 
exactness, they would afterwards by degrees creep in and show them- 
selves side by side with their purely minuscule equivalents in literary 
works, just as they did in the ordinary cursive writings of the period. 
This, in fact, happened; and the presence, in the body of the text, of 
capital forms in lesser or greater numbers affords some criterion of tho 
age of a MS. 
In the earlier centuries breathings and accents are applied in a style 
in keeping with the exact writing of the text; the breathings are, as a 
rule, rectangular and the accents are short. Afterwards, the former 
being more rapidly written become curved; and the latter are dashed on 
with a bolder stroke. Their last stage is when they even blend with the 
letters which they mark. 


The writing of the period of the codices 'cet'ltsti8I-i1JÛ, of the ninth 
century and to the middle of the tenth century, so far as is shown by 
surviving examples, is very pure and exact. The letters are Illost sym- 
metrically formed; they are compact and upright, amI have even a 
tendency to lean back to the left. Breathings are rectangular, in keeping 
with the careful and deliberate formation of the letters. In a word, the 
style being practically a new one for literary purposes, the scribes wrote 
it in their best form and kept strictly to the approved pattern. 
The earliest dated example of this class is the copy of the Gospels 
belonging to Bishop Lspensky, written in the year 835. A facsimile, 
hut not very satisfactory, appears in Gardthausen's Beiträge and in 
"-attenbach and von Yelsen's E:re1J1l)W C()dicum, Gntec01'um, tab. l. 
Next comes the Oxford Euclid (D'OlTille )IS. x. 1), which belonged to 
Arethas of Patras, afterwards Archbishop of Caesaria in Cappadocia, and 
was written in A.D. 888 (Pal. tioc. i. 65). 
Ko.53 


The hreadth of the letters will be noticed, as well as a certain square- 
ness in the general character and the slight inclination to the left. Exact 
finish is best seen in such letters as a and ò, the final stroke of the former, 



2 ')'} 


 


CREEK AKD LATIX P ALAEOGRAPHY 


when unconnected, being brought up to the top of the line, and the 
down-stroke of the latter being drawn down to the base. The set 
forms into which the cursiYe ß, I}, and K are cast should also be noted. 
The ornamental effect of the writing is added to by the slight turn or 
hook in which down-strokes terminate. Certain of these characteristics 
remain in the minuscule writing of succeeding centuries: others wear off 
and are lost as time advances. 
Of the same type of writing is the famous l\l
. of Plato's Dialogues, 
also in the Bodleian Lil J rary (Clarke 1\18. 39), written for Arethas of 
Patras in A.D. 896 (Pal. Soc. i. 81). 


Ko.54 


The writing is more flowing- and rounder than that of the Euclid; but 
both 1\188. are of the finest character, and are t,ypical instances of the 
perfection attained by a new class of handwriting in the freshness of its 
youth. Oxford is fortunate in possessing two of the few extant dated 
1\188. of the ninth century. 
As an example of the early type of the Gospels in minuscules a 1\18. in 
the British )Iuseum (Alld. )18.11300) is selected_ Unfortunately it is not 
dated, hut it can hardly be later than the first years of the tenth century. 
The number of CTTíXOL are noted at the end of each Gospel (Gat. .Anc. 
JJSS. i. 23). 


No. 55 


The writing is of the most perfect execution; the care bestowed upon 
the production of the 8criptures at all periods being very conspicuous in 
the Greek minuscule 1\188. of the middle ages. It will be seen, from the 
later examples that will be submitted, how conservative is the type of 
writing of sacred hooks. For this reason there must be alwa.)Ts some 
hesitation in attempting to fix the exact date of a 1\18. such as the present 
one, as it may not be quite so old as it appears to be. 
The next facsimile is from one of the most beautiful minuscule Greek 
1\188. of the time, a volume of the works of Lucian, Harley 
18. 5694, in 
the British l\[ useum. It was written by the same hand as the 1\18. of 
St. Clement of Alexandria at Paris (Omont, Facsimilétl, 2), which was 
also executed for Arethas of Patms, in A.D. 914. Another 118. by the 
same hand is the Plato of the Vatican, Gr. I (Cavalieri and Lietzmann, 
Spec. Goettl. Gnlec. Vat. 9). The MS. before us may, therefore, be dated 
about the year 915. 


1\0.56 


The sustained precIsIOn of the writing of this volume, carried on 
faultlessly page after page, attests the nwrn]]ous dexterit.)T of the scribe. 



FACSDnr.E 
o. 53 



23 


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tu( 
 

 
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 d.f. f,l;'- If r 

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cr \rur- 
o
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tJ l..&r OM 

o
. (q-oUO"'Ò-11T'OUo-;-OYOUcr- 
.


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u H Ø-fd.J 
cr. 


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11 



 
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( ) . , 
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Té;JV ABr 0111 ;" TflLl'o
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TIL1}(J1íUOVTat . K(m) TÚW1Tat 71 Hr òtXa VñO TOV OMN 
f'ñt'ñlòov KaTa TO N' K(at) 71 a'ñO TOV if apa Ká(JfTú
 
f'ñt TO ABr f"LñfÒOV òtXa TIL71(J
ufTm tmo TOV 
OIlIN f'ñt'ñlòov' òw Ta aVTa ò
 K(at) 
 à'ño TOV e Ká 
(JfT05 f'ñt TO 
 f7õL7õfÒOV òtXa TlL11(JlíufTat V'ñO 
TOV ::ETT f7õt'ñfÒOV' K
at) fLUtV 'tuat át añO TWV iiã 
Ká(JfTOt È'ñt TO. ABr :6E"Z f7lL'ñfÒa . 'tuat apa K( at) át 
.. ,... __-., - - I 
a'ñO TWV OIlIN ::ET1" Tptywvwv f'ñt TO. ABr .a.EZ Ka 
(JfTOt . ïCTovV171 apa fl]'Tt TO. 'ñpLCTlLaTo. . WV ßau'lt
 
ILfV fLut TO. ^3r P<ÞZ TPLYWVo. . o.'ñfVo.VTíov Òf 
Ta OIlIN nT . WUTf K( at) Ta UTfpfO- 'ñapo.ÀÀllÀf7TL 7õfÒo. 
TO. à'ñO TWV fLPlllLfVWV ñptulLáTWV àVo.YPo.cþÓlLf 
1'0. ;;UOV\þ71 TvYXavOVTo. . 'ñpO
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ßáUft
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T71V p<Þz ßo.uw . ÓVTW TO. ftPllflÚ'o. üpLU/l-aTo. 'ñPO'> 
o.ÀÀ71Ào. . Õ7õfp lÒft òfÎ
o.t :) 




24- (mEEK 
\SD LATIX P
\.LlEO(:RAPHY CH\P. 


.. 
o 

 


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i
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tl 


 
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+ Þli; 
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O 



XIl 


THE l:REEK :\lIXUS':;CLE BOOK-HASD 


111" 


,:; 


..-.. 

 
-0 
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cD 
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c:; 
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- 

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X 
...... t: "'5 ..
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""\11...:j >-. ;;;. ,;;;-. 
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'- ..... CL ;>... '.... ...... --....... 
 
-< - <:::..'
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.......ej 
 
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-S-'
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3 <0 <::> 
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 (..... I- >-.. I-- :: 'cs 

 
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:g. 
 
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2:!6 


<.;REEK AXD LATIX PALAEOORAPHY 


F_\('
DIILE NO.5:> 



 A 
-aro"dJ
odcU
' 


" 
(i;.
N
lì.4"' 
-../ __ 
_ -..e..:..
'
Ic1.J(J..{'O' t\:d..\, 
CI 
k 
Ot:r' 
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H
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-("U).(:t
"1:e 
h.t:tO
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., .".
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.30U
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d.t
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fr&poo" 

-ub-NcX)C-
C" oJ6-

\ 

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i: 
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(:" \<;c1..\ OU\
?-' 
-crq,c.
 'Uoof..- -. / 


. ,.;'Cr'!rt


JWo
\ 
K aG--ro
 p-cu -rot..JTT1>cr"" ^ &- . 
["t) ur\ No ciJ.rnD. Ò-rrp 

C: ^- 
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\CÕïc." 
^
f:.t4\"4"o-rt 
õ, 
p CL\ \

c:4-rrÓp
c1.t:aro 

urt H 4uLc é{ a-tWfU-LU:PtJ:l\'
 
I Þ- 
....e;" H
 
"TTf'oc
p-d.L 
o ïoo4
Hcr
òJlmd4lu1.tOcnWHC 
,(,d..tåu\
b:n-\

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CL\ \
c4d\"TTOr1"d...t.ki"qGu 
i' (Tt1.N 
. 
 c J6-ï Jlo'r&r ÔU 




ON-rou 
L
 -ni

: 


Uf)::'l'ELS.-E-\ltLY TL
rH CEXTl"ltY 


(
}J-L
'. b' r.oía Èçov(Tía TávTU I r.OLW' Tí h 
}J-îl' OOKtL. I "A
'(Opwr.)O!; EiXEV TfKI'O 
OVO' I\aì. r.PO'lTE.\tJWl' TW r.PWTW "i..Ev' Tf,KVOl'. {hmYE CT1}}J-EPUV ÈpyÚ:(OV Èr TW 
à}J-r.EÀWl'L }J-OV' Ú Cf I àr.OKpLOEÌ!; ELuEl" OV OfÀW" ii,CTTEpoV Ôf }J-ETU}J- EÀ1 1 tJEÌ !; 
àr.ÎJÀ;Oe Kol ';;'pOlTEÀOWV TW hfpW. I ELUW W!; OVTW!;' Ú Of àr.OKPL:OEÌ!; "hw fYW 
K(VpL)f.. Kaì. OVK ù:r.ÎJA.ØW" Tí!; fK TWI' òVo Èr.ÓL,IJUE TÒ OfÀII}J-a TOV r.(aT)p(u)!;' 
ÀfIYOVCTL!' aVTw" Ú r.pWTO!;. ÀfYEL OV TOtS' Ú L(1JUOV)S'. (ì}J-
I' ÀfYW {j}J-LV" õn I Ot 
TEÀWVaL Kaì at r.ópvaL r.PO:ÚYOVCTLV {jfJ.áS' EÌ!; T1W j:JaCTLÀEíav I TOV 8(EO)V' "[lÀtJE 
yàp ';;'PÒ!; {'fLá!; I '0 "iWÚl'l'11S' fV úÖW OLKaLOJ"VV1"J
' I Kaì. OUK È'üLCTTEVCTOTE aVTW' Ot 
Gf I T<:ÀwzoaL Kaì. at ,;;,ópvaL fr.í(]"TEt'.aa
' OÌiTW' 
fLH!; Gf ïòÓVTH ûV I }J-ETE}J-EÀ1} 61 1 TE 
VCTTE;JOV TOV I r.LCTTEVa"QL OÌiTW") 



FAC!-DIILE 1\0, 36 


10).)- 
.
.-I 


- , ,. 
'"r1
ip'; '

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"'i pOol 

.
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IÞ"
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't'twe,.. 


 
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Ut.lutf.-aJ
l'O
t
L.rit.o
l'; 
{o.U
f1' 
!.t.cÙ6-P


"
e
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CÚm


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f 
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p.ltl 

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u

 


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t 
 

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t
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cfí-v-ri!, 
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61
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 0 
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LrcL\
.-AHUt:T A.D, 913 
(TOV 'f'OV' Ù' TiìL lX8úf') ipoì TpfcþolTaL r.oMoì. Ka
 ..OÀVfLOÉH. YLYl'oviTaL õÈ 
,,..., 'J1 , '\. 
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a1JTWV U'WL. KapTa ILfyal\o
' 01JTOL vf. KOL 01JVop.aTa fX01JCTLV' KaL fpxol'TaL 
KaÀfólLfvOL . b' ip.fo 01. TL
' 1jV il' OLTu'iCTL , X/JI'CTO<þO PfWl' tv TiìL 7rTÉfJVYL . r.oL1]p.a 
, , I ." .. I .., \. \. ' ' 8 I \ '? , 
XPVITfOV OVTfWl, aVal\faTO. KaL ILU' I'yw r.Ol\I\aKL
' f fI}ITap.f}V . KaL UXfV TO 
7TOL11I Ja . ßá80') OÈ I Tiì') ÀLP.I"1]') . ..OÀÀÓV . tyw p.fl' . OVK t7rUpl}61}V. ÀlYOVCTL 0' wv .1 
KO
 ÒU}KOCTLWV opyvLÉwv 7TÀÉW' fP.P.U'QL' KaTà P.ÉCTOV OÈ aiTiì'i. I ßWILÒo; ÀL80v 
, , s:::,. "r#, 's:::' \ ' , I \ "'''''s::: ' , ð \ 
OVfCTT1IKfV . vOKfOL
' OV O't'l'W LvWI' . 7TI\WfU' Tf P.Ll', KaL TW( livon f;;OXHCTIJaL' KaL 
1WÀÀOt WLÒf l'OP.L(01:CTLV' I ÈILO
 Of ÒOKfU. aTÍ"Ào') ÈcþfCTTt<r)') ILfya'i, ÒI'ÉXUV TÒV 
ß ' . 'II I S:::'''' \ 6 '" \ s:::' \ (, f: ' / 
WP.OV fCTTf I 7rTOL vf au' KaL vwp.aTa fXfL' ..OÀÀOL vf, KOL fKaCTT1/
' 11P.f PI}'). 
fVX
V t') OLTÒV l1/X<'ILU'OL CTTfcþOI'I}cþOpÉOVCTLV' YLYl'OVTaL i òÈ aVTó8L. Kol 7rOVlj- 
YVpLf<> Tf fJ.ÉYLCTTaL . KaÀfoVTQL oÈ . t'i T1/V Ài:p.v1]v KaToßáfTLh . õn tv aVTijLITU', i
' 
T
V Mp.l1lv Tà ipà I r.ávTa KaTÉpXfTaL' tv TOLCTLV . Ii iíp1] r.PWT1/ à7TLKVÉfTaL . TWV I 
lxtvwv fïl'fKa . p.
 CTcþW
' Ó (
v') 7rPWTO') I01/TaL' 
v yàp Tólof yÉV1/TaL. ÀÉY01JCTU', 
"" , "'\ \. \ 
 '" I t'" '.." , <<: S:::' , f: 
on 7raVT(') (L1i"U/\I\VVTOL. KaL L1/Ta. U jJ.fV. fpXfTaL o'l'olLfVOO; '1/ Vf, r.POOW LITTa- 
, " , I '1 \.' \. ' " , S:::'" I ,. 
P.f/"1/ . a1i"fpyu Tf P.W. KaL r.O/>.I\O I\L1i"apfUVCTa ar;O;;fp.1i"U 'lLfYLCTTaL vf aV1TOLCTLV 
7rOV1]YVpLf<> . ai t
. 8ú.ÀaCTCTal' l'OILLeOI'TaL . òÀÀ' tYW TOVTWV) 
Q2 




:!8 


GREEK XND LATIX PAL\.EOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


The l\lS. is, however, not a Ringular instance of the beauty to which the 
Greek minuscule book-hand had attained in the tenth century. The 
Rtiff uprightness which contributes to that lleauty indicates the leisurely 
action of a school of Rcribes, undisturbed Ly haste or any need for haste. 
The minuscule lettering is ne
uly perfect; the fonns of beta, cf(t, and 
hlJlpa are of the u-shape (\"arying little from each other except in the 
heig-ht of the initial stroke), to the exclURion of the capital or uncial 
forms; cp
ilon alone occasionally llreaks Lack to a more cursi\"e shape. 
Two other codices of classical author" commend themselves sO con- 
spicuously on account of their beautiful execution that, although they 
are undated, specimens of thcmmay lIe usefully sulnnitted for comparison. 
They are both in the Laurentian LiLrary of Florence: the first a )1:-;. of 
Thucydides (PInt. lxix. 2), the other a \"olmne of Plutarch's 'Lives' 
(
IS. 206); and they may be placed in the mi,ldle of the tenth century, 
or perhaps a little earlier (Pal. Soc. ii. 103,83). 


Xo.57 


The accents and breathing-s ha\.e lleen touched O\-er hy it later hand. 
Proper names of persuni-, are .Iistinguishe(l hy a wa\.ed horizontal stroke. 


Xo.3S 
It will be oLser\"Cd that in this )15. uncial forms are free1y introduced. 
Their employment, howewr, appears to he rather an affectation of the 
scribe than the intrusion referred to allove which marks a deterioration 
of style; for all such forms (excepting those which illllicate the lleginning 
of a new 11Rragraph: see line 'ì) are kept to the scale of the minuscules. 
The Bodleian Psalter with catena (Gk. :;\lisc. '5), of which a specimen 
here follows, is abo of the tenth century; amI, as the Table of Imlictions 
is calculated for the years 9;;1 !)j6, the !lIS. lUay lIe assigned to the middle 
of the century. The te:)o,.t of the Psalms is in Slllall upright uncii1ls, 
the cOlllmentaries in minuscules (Pal. Sru;. ii 3). 


Xu. ;;9 
Here, again. the minuscules are of a pure type; and the writing is 
(illite of the clasR of the two prccet1ing speciuwns. Iota ascript has been 
mlded in some instances by a secuud hand. 


We now pass on to the coJicc:; ed
18ti, from the milltIle of the tenth 
century to the middle of the thirteenth century. But before proceeding 
to sun"ey the )ISS. of this periotl, a few wunIs should lIe snid reJan1ing 
a style of writing which is noteworthy, IJecëlUse certain important 
codices of classical liter,tture are written in it, ".hose date it is of 
interest to determine. 



"\.[[ 


THE (:REEK )II
T:-;(TLE B()OK-HA
]) 


22!) 


F\(,
DI1LF Xo. 57 



 \
 
 o..t OOV' \'-'-.W 
 q-co' cro.N 
;,' ,...../ ... ,,"'" 
 
C1.lfTOV 11) I (J 0 p u..ot cr 0 to" 
 -r;x' N 
^

t."OOV9


V

 

,fj(

 / u:ràL 
/ ., 

 

L 
"t"O V O}LOUT 0 to"' a..v -.Tp 0 
 
 "^- -.cLt;'Q UTCO - 
j\ "'d_ "' 
 '-Y"Y. 
 , \ ..... 
u
 ^ u ym..1 -ro V q-p C1.fTO v' tL.ai 0 tm:O}-U U 
cr6'pON 

pOCJd.p
(CDV drrrn,u.{OJ 
_ ---""
 -' _ ,., " 
... C! 
 
 
!:U1J
--v\' _Ou.uU
 

.V'-Jp&' 
'" / , /' ^,' ", 
,-otJTCD 
6-u' 
U 
 rv\W O}l6v O
 
1 rv-ó
voo-'
å.pf\O
OU oocr-rOO ïlIr 
^
lLp



qq-p
ÎCT 
I 


THCCYDID.E
.-TE
TH CI<:XTURY 


( ' cþ ' e ' 6 ' . \ , ., \ ,..,., 
" ... I 
a LITTaU aL a l/z'aLWV KaL 1TLlTTWfTQV Tf!> aVTOV TOL!> OpKOL'i OV" Ta n'\I/ TWV 
' ò ' ." ." "él' .. '" e i" I " 
l\aKf alJ.l.OVLWV o/louaZ'Ta aVTOV fSfJ"fJ.l.\þaz', 1/ J.l.1/l' fUfU at çt'/lJ.l.axov!> aV,TOZ'UJ.l.GV" 

 
 , ,., I Ò ' , , \., '''' 1 . 
OV!> av T.pouayap/Tm, OVTW fxorTal Tor UTpaTOV. KaL OV ToOÀV v ITTfpOV KaL 
uTáYHpO!> àz'òpíwv àT.OLKía I ÇVl'a7i"fUTI/ . Ta
Ta J.l.Ez' OVV Ù, TW efpfL I TOVTW 
." . ... Ò ' , ' I X - ' (] '" , 
 ..... II: , ......, , 
fYH'fTO TOV fT.LYLYVOJ.l.U'OV _ fLJ.l.!(Z'O" fV v!> OP\OJ.l.U'lJV (L!> TW l7i"\T.UKpaUL 
Kaì. Ò1/J.l.ÕÕ-efVfL ITTpaT11yoî,,) 



230 


(
HEEK AX]) LATIX PAL\.EI )(
HAPHY 


CHAP. 


FAl'
DlIL.E No. 3R 




'.
(). ù.n6p;Urrnèr)'Tå/:&:ur.


 
H 

-yHproN
. 
 HI u.a.r
NaUu.. 
tXON"r01 
gtw..pXM
Nío,crÒU
N
 ro 'uw6p p.' no^,^Òt. 

 
 p au 
 
 01 H crp, e1JTf 
 
 '. cj-f_ Grl q-p arr;t 

 aD" !1 O
 N.s H 
 N I cur. lL.a.í:-6ir
 
1 t aN 
 , 
1 ?fG-HN"v<J'J.LßNO': 

cr
. npocrou&rN
 
H 
 
cr ê"tkcrcLprnèr. ÒU
'cÌNa.å1
H
(j. aÌrroa. 

'äu:oü. tLp
q-o,CJ.


No
iN
NÓ
. 
N OC:. 0 U
 1J..t aN n p:? 
 tri.", 
u,Æ-N . 9frC1.N:ra-u
 
v-ro to"' fT pO 
O tD". aJri-ó-tun. 
 6-N . 6-H 
 
m1.0J..&' a:. 
 H 
 Ò N-Ô :rcIDi 
 0 
 1.1.1 Ii 
 6Ú 0 N 
<rraT 
 <ÍrCD CTÚN. lm-á-p ct.crcu! cm.tT-S a..rrro Lun t 
,a.cr , 
quÙrGnrl
6pO
OÙT' CUf
NÒM7"f
61'N6'-ro 


l
LPT.\UCJ[.- T.E
TH CE
TLUY 


(U5 Of yaÀáTOt!> . iJ7õf/' aVTÎJ!> ìTaÀía5 f;;OÀfflOVV. I iíOI] Of Y1I1,cvvu5. òH'í/3a 7õáÀtv 

 v I ( ' ) 0 ' '" " ",' I 0 ' 
 
CTVt'EtXOVTO, Kat KapXlj Ot'Wt5. OVK EXOZ'U!> WCT7õEp OL 7õO""Ot. La Yl]pa!> 
., , ,.. ., \ \.' 'I , I' \. ' ( . ) e , ''t , 
aVa7õaVCTtV CTTpanwv. a"" E7õ1 CTTpaT1] yta!> 7õO"EflWV Kat l1YEflovta!>. KaT EVYE- 
, I . . . , I, , " ' , '" ' I " I I I 
 o 
l'EtaV Kat apErI]V ayoflwot: flapKE""O!> (JE. 7õpU!> OVûEV flEV v flaX1]!> Et U!> 
àpyù!>.oVOf àl'åCTK1]TO!>. aVTò!> i oÈ aÌIToD. KpcínCTT05. Èv Too flDt'OflaXEÎv ytt'ÓflElt,o!> 
. 0 ' I " cJ . 0 ' I ' \. ' ." .. 
OV Efltav 7õpOKÀ1]CTtV E JVYEV . 7õat'Ta5 E TOV5 7õpOKai\ECTaflH'OV5 . a7õEKTEtt'EV' fV 
'" I ' ,h, r/, ' ", 0 ' I ", . ' ( ' ) 
(JE , CTtKEÀLa . TOV aOE"'f'UV UTaKt"tov KU' l'l'EVUZ',Ta (JtECTWCTEV. VT.E/JaCT7õtCTa5 
at 
. , I ' . r/, I . 8 '.. 
 'v ' ) 
UT.OKTEU'((!> TOV!> E7õt'f'EPOflEl'UV5. at' wv ut'n flEV En v<w 




II 


THE (:REEK )IIXCSCl
LE EOOK-HA
D 


231 


FAC:<DIILE Xo. 59 


e-- ^t
! I<À'Ãn?
t)TT'
 I
W'

/ÇW 'r_"} ,^,Ñ.: t.'
h .1 
. 6m 
 0-..\ \-'
 \-' 9J-D"\f2()
 6ÌJ 
 <:4 . 

\W I 
TTW <;\P ,^p
I OJ

\-I'
 6.)J,
!.

'
 Wí\

. 

\oo.YTQU
u,cc:-p\p. 
o-
6v::oo


. 
f?óPTf1t400 
 / 

 1,
 \' 
:\1?-P,,-m. 
"'qp a.-C6U-t 
 . s.-rou;TOO P 
 u.p ä..&:ú .. 
 t 1.' 
IIu..u '
I
 I
 
ó\-éoo-\'lJ' .-.-" _: '"of. 
'" }J 
 t
'-'J '-"'-1-0 fI _ ___ -v ,. , 
 
n^

ft
"
'i'<?'
A 
o O}tJ, (I",
W A..... / 
..
 
4. a . 
.
 nÄf
TT'OIC ß (..^tJri'
H PH(... 
 .?1- 
 
.

tfLJ.
p



 Æ::I"I J 
';' .. roO:


Q"t1\-',
rrool
 
WOO 

 

O'JJ"": ->Q1 ov 
ó\.OOe OJ 
þT"JOOp

{ 
..t


-4o
p
' 
oo " õ
rroo:
õ :.9-u 
 
 

OCJ 
. ..s.o.= <rOO

 -3:E.z.
'TtO.- 


o / OO}1
p
>
r
'TO
 

 
 
p ,. 
 .,........ r' · '.'-J 
 }..roo
1 oot.> 
.. 


P
_\.LTFH.-)lllIDU: OF TE
rH CE
TrRï 


(EÜ
UUaE KUL à1TÓ!>OTE K(UpL)1II TW aEIII üp.wv 
àOavå(IT'os). Ùa 7rapa(VEU'V Ó ÀÓYO
 TpÚ;ETa'. hoUlJl1 ! Tà Eìp1111.Ém cþI1U
V . lUTa' 
iv n;), Ot(on 0'Ka,w:Tl1piw . TOVTOV Xåp'V.. ;w
 lUTa' fV n;), r.a póvn piw TåçauOa, 
TW' K(Vp')W'. àya8wv lpyw(v) I ELva, hap.EÀHTai . (Kal) TVVTWV p.
 ppaov:n]V 
7rOI
Ua' TÌ]V àr.óowu,v. 
núvns oL KÚK},.W UÙTOÛ OLUOUU' !>wpu' 
Tw 4>OßEPWL KUL à4>ULPOUP.Évw 1TvEúp.um àPXÓVTW
V)' 
4>OßEpW 1Tupà TOLs ßUUL},.EÛUL Tijs y1js' 
aOal'å(lTws) . ir.ayyEiÀautJa, cþ1]uìv àya80EpYELZ'. Eì ÕÓTE'Þ WS 0' {'p.â.. Èv ÈKE(VW 
TW' TÓr.W yEvo p.tvov'Þ. oiov Eì owpa Tà.. favTwv r.pa ÇH.. ..pouayaYELv TW' 6(E)W'. 
OVTO
 ÒE 0 O( EV)" cþo ,3EpÓ'Þ iunv. \Ka
) à..ò n;)v r.åÀa, àpçåvTW(V). I (Kaì) YEl'o- 
p.Éz'wv r.OI7]pÎrJl'. TO ..V(Evp.)a åcþa':pEO'írTETa'. Èv ,à p ' ÈKE(Z'W oW, eEiw' (Kaì.)) 



23:! 


UHEEK AXD LATI
 PAL.\E()(;RAPHY 


CII.\I'. 


It is not to Le supposed that ::\I::;
. of the earlier period of minuscule 
writing which has Lecn discussed were only written II)" the most aecom- 
plishell scribes alii I in the Lest Htyle. The workin
 copies of scholarH 
were no IlouLt then as rough and cursin
 in comparison with the facsimileH 
given above as a mOllern scholar's own composition is in conqmrison with 
a printed text; and, e
eept for choice copies, written for some special 
purpose, such, for example, as the Bodleian Plato or the Harley Lucian, 
the extreme calligraphic style was not callell for in Looks which were 
intended for private use. Hence a mure fluent character of writing 
appears to have been practised as a book-hand for copies which would 
sene ordinary purposes: a good working hand, perfectly clear and well- 
formcll, more set and formal than a domestie cursive hanù wOlIlII be, but 
yet not finished off with thc precise care given to copies of the Scriptures 
and liturgies adapted for public reaJing. In the tenth and eleventh 
centuries. then, we fillll l\ISS. written in this style, anll nu douLt still 
earlier examples existeJ. 
Presently a specimen of this clalSH of writing will be HuIJlllittell; Imt, 
now proceeding in chronological selluence, our first cxample of the ('olliceð 
vctut:-ti represents the furmal hook-hand following inllirect line of ,le\-elope- 
lllent from the style last examined. ThiH example is taken from a )1::;. 
of the writings of St. 
Iaximus now in the monastery of the Laura of 

Iuunt Athos (:\IS. H. 37), llearin
' the Jate of .LlJ. Ð70 (XCI" Pul. Sue. 49). 


:K o. CO 


The hallli is a gooa instance of tlJ(' upright luinuscule; Ilut it does 
not cumpare in beauty with our previous rounder examples of thc tenth 
century, although it maintains almost whollJ" the pure minuscule char- 
acter. save for an occasional uncial eia. 1'here is a certain tendency tu 
lateral cumpression. 
Thc next specimen affol'llH an interesting example of thc less formal 
style of writing, to which reference has just now beenmaJe, and which may 
be called the scholar's hanJ, in contrast with the ordinary scriIJe's hand. 
The 1\IB. which supplies the facsimile is Laud 1\IS. Ok. 73, in the Bodleian 
Liln-ary, containing Homilies of ::;t. Chrysostom, Ilated .\.D. 976. The 
text is writtcn in douhle columns; and the first column of one of the 
pages has been written in the informal hand, the authorizell scribe 
resuming the pen with the seconJ column. It iH the upper portion of 
this page which is here reproduceJ (Put. SI)('. ii. 6). 


Xo.61 


In the set book-hand of the right-hand coluIlln uncial forms of letters 
IJcgill to make their appearance by the Hide of the pure minuscules. The 



).l[ 


THE (:REEK :\UXL'::;crLE B()()K-HAXn 


23:3 


F.\C
DIILE Ko, (j() 


" " 
 ' ^ _ '.' - i- .. 
 
ÓI 01P 
 .-pð\Ct'. a.nr a -
 QAJmql)\J \ 
. / 

 þ 
 n' 'or.\ "'.....rvr 
 "-rCVt'tl) 

 
. ø'1

' 
'1qpf t
 
a: Vmfr4\lð)b?r,. 
 

\

uu,;.A,...
 
"ftl_"" .1\_: " 



 .. r'
 ,,

..u "':H\'4OUf'\My.&- 

 1'O!' ø,
0ra.L4\"IDa).& 
U

 .
- - ,- 
'.,Ift - ,

." / 
 p
 
L
Ur-

 -1 O f'Y13 O 
6cr;'
"r

r:
1I
W 

 .

' 
't-_D'1)
eDØ- 
Íj!O\Qa"
4í fh:.rr 

 cJúi 
 0\ . 
 ..1. 
.:......:.., . '- -=. tI , ,.. 

 ....."" 1\ 
\i'-'4J I
 
 u...-..w '\1' 
 


Ocr"O'Dur
 =c\V




cr' 


 \,O

 t a6G'9
iiá-o


/.;-- 

or6-

\I

ì 'l"t

...cr


ö
4@ 

3
'nf: .



cr.
ì
, 

\J


e


 a\

!

 

\bCJ".":=foO"6'-- 
r



1. 




.
 

.
I

'
 





\o
. 

tr'\u4

r, 





Ó
O
 
\
'k*
. 

f
o
'T\ 

. 
cr

O
ÛteÕ'èC1D""; 

 ' 
 
. 
 - 1... r 
"f'>m
';


' 
k 

7.A 


ST. !lLUDlC:-'.-A.D. !),O 


( . ',' 6 ,.. ' 6 ' 0 
 0 " , , , ' 6 " 0 ' 
OLaV fKl\aCT 1/ TOOE U7i"f aVfV 0 fwa' La yap Ta , TOLatTa I\V7roV[J.f a 11.0 POL" la 
yàp Tà ^Ol,r.à . (Ka
) I ^V7rovlu6a Kal ÒPYL(ó.lu6a . àcfn^oaócþw
 I OWKd;.LU'Ol' I 
.ð.fXÓ/.A.H'O
 Ó l'OV
 Tà T(ðV I 7rpaY/.A.áTWV vVlí/.A.aTa I 7rpO
 tKaCTTOV l'ól//.A.a' I /.A.tTa- 
CTX1]/.A.aTl(frr6aL 7r':cþVKf.V . 6fWPWV Of TOV Ta 7rl(tV/.A.aT)IKw
. 7rpO
 t KalTTOV 6H
p1]ll-a' 
7rOI'Kí^w
 Il-tTall-opcþovrr6m' I fV o
 6(f)W YfrÓ/.A.fVo
. I á/.A.vPCÞo
 7i"árn Kd à'TXlj- 
/.A.ánCTTo
 ylvHaL' I TÒV yàp /.A.Orl2!Loij 6fW 
r, f' 
" r ,... I 
 ,- 0 " 
V7ifpayrwCTTov V7rfpaYVW,CTTW
 V7rEPfYVWKW
 . KaL TWl' aVTOV 11/.A.IovpYl//.A.a TW/' Ta 
Ko6 õ>..ov 6Eaaá:Il-H'O
 . Ka
 T-íì
 fV aVTo'i
 I 7rpol'ola
 Kaì KplCTfW
 I Tì,v 7rfpL- 
^l/7rnK
V yrw!rrw 7rapà 6(w)v fl^l/cþW
' I W
 àl{6pw7r)OL
 Of cþl//.A.l 
T ....., t:' I \<< ..., ,.. I" , , 
pLXW
 Tt/.A.vtTaL 0 XPOVO
' Kat 1] /.A.W 7rLtTn
 . TOL
 TpL,CTL CTV/.A.7rapaTtLl'HaL TlJ.lj- 
. 
, ',\ -" I ' 0 ' " - O . . I ' " \ " \ I 
/.A.aCTW'l[ Uf fl\7rL
 TW fVL' lj f aya7r1]. TOL
 vaL' KaL '1 /.A.H' 7rLan
 KaL (I\ToL
 
/.A.'XPL TlI'O
' 
 Of àyå7r1]. I fl
 àTofípov
 alwva
 TW I VTofpà7i"flpw V7rEpl/rw:/.A.'vl/ 
\ . \ , .
 ) 
KaL aft V7rfpaVç(Jvaa 




34 


l;REEK A
V L\TIX PALAEo(;RAPHY 


CH.\P. 


il'l'('gular writing of the first column is characterized hy a certain stiff- 
ness; the periOlI of pliant strokes has not yet arrived. The fact. that this 
:-;tyle of hand apP(,lu'S here in a datell )18. is of much palaeographical 
,-nIne for comparison ,yith undated (,xaJuples. Another Ilated specimen 
Of'curs in a Chrysostnm in Paris of A.D. !)54. (Omont, Pa('ðimil
.
, 5). 
Pnssing- into the eleventh century, tllP set hook-haUlI is first illus- 
trated IIY a )15. of the Uospels in the Amhl'osian Lihrary of )liIan 
(B. 36. ",up.) of the 'year 1023, which perhaps was written in Southern 
Italy (Pal. S/)('. i. 130). 


x o. (j
 


The con:-;elTtÜi '"e chnraC'ter of the \\ riting i:-; ,'ery marked, as is cus- 
tomal',Y in copies of the Guspels and church-lJooks. It will be noticell 
how the letters are modellet I on the pattern of tho
c of the ninth and 
tenth cpnturies, and how pure minuscule \\ riting is atlèctet1. But place 
thi" eX/llnple I,y the :-;icle of the facsimile from the Gospels of the early 
tenth century (Facs. ,j3), awl the later period uf the present :\l
. is to 
I,l' ddected in the growing :-;Iackness of the text, aUlI in the occasional 
enlargement of certain lctters, as ;;ctl(, the(((, IJlLi, chi, etc., as well as in 
roUIH lne:-;s of the Ilreathings awl less precision in the accents. 
_\ :-;trong contra:-;t to the ahoye is a )IS. of the mathematical nnd 
other writings of )lichael PselJus in the L'"ni,'ersity LiLrary of HeillelLerg 
(Cod. l'alat. cclxxxi), written at :-5eleucia in A. D. 1040 (...'i('/(' Pld. S/)('. 51). 


X o. 63 


The haw hniting has indi, idual peculiarities. It is formal, written 
hya profe:-;secl :-;criI1e, Nicholas the Calligrapher; Imt at the same time it 
i:-; rather slack awl wide:-;preacl and a certain latitUlle iR allowed in the 
use of uncial forms; while the attected sc[uareness uf some of the letters 
and of the lllwÜhing<; suggests an intention on the part uf the writer to 
lend an archai:-;tic appearance to his text. 
Xext follows a specimen frum a classical 
lS., writtcn in the light 
inforJllal IUlIld, as llistingnished frum the conventional I.ouk-haml onli- 
narily employell in codices of the Scriptures aUllliturgies: a Demosthenes 
in tlH' Laurentian LihrarJ' uf }'lurence (Plut. lix. !)). l T nfort.unately, 
like the majority of the cla
sical :\lS
. of which this one is a nne 
example, it Leal's no llate; hut there seems gooJ l'ea:-;on, frum the 
character of the writing, to place it fairly early in the elevcnth century 
(Pal. ,';Ot'. ii. H!)). 


Xo.64 


The writing is ulwiously that of ëL practisell pelllJlali, flowing easily 
awl rapidly with a :-;light natural slop(' to the right, amI without the 




II 


THE (:REEK 
IL\C:-;1 TLE BOOK-HA
]) 


:!3;:; 


restraint of the con\"entional hand. It is also to he oLserY(
d that, with 
all its fret'rlom, tilt' tt'xt exhil,its yery little telHlency to mi" cnlarged or 
uncial forllls with the minuo.;cuh.s-an indication that the writer was 
skilled in the practice of the hest style of hi!o. ,lay, and could therefure 
nu tloulJt ha\"e executed any kin" of 
[S. in a calligraphic manner. 
The fact that so many clao.;sical )lSS. of the periocl are foulltl to l,e written 
in this "tyle justifies the assUlnption that this character ()f hall,lwritin
 
was "pecially use" {tH. the hctter :\1 SS. of general literature. 
In the ne"t specilllen we ha ,-e an instance of thl' more con \"('ntional 
character: a good example of tIlt' more orllinary type IIf hlok-hallll of 
thé lIIid.lle of the ele\"enth century. It come" frolll a \"olullle of eccle- 
siastical canon
 in the Hodleia 1 1 Li1,rary (Hamcci 
IS. 196), datell 
A. v. lOt:! (Pal. SOt'. ii. ;.W). 



 o. fi;) 


In thio.; haIllI the cOll\'entional Greek minuscule hook-haml may he 
:-ai.l to ha\"e hroken with the upright close-set style uf the tenth centUl'JT. 
There is a tendency to slope the writing, perhaps indicati,'e of more 
haste; anll the letters are more spacea than in the earlier centuril's. 
The growing haLit, too. of introducing enlarge,lletters and uncial forllls 
Hlnong the minuscules i" Ulanife:-t: and (a small 1mt not insignificant 
detail) the circumflex is enlarge(l. At the sallie time the lettering itself 
is still well formed and cxact. 
The Townley Homer in the British :\luseulII (Burney )l
. 86) is a 
\"aluable example of a classical )IS., with scholia, entering on the seconll 
half of the ele"enth century. It w<to.; purchasell l)y Charles TuwnleJ" in 
RUllle in 1 iiI. A note at the end of the ,-olullle states that it was 
tini,.,hed on Satur,lay, the lðth SeptellllJer, in the thirteenth Indiction, 
that i:" in A. D. 10;:;9 (Pill. "':0'. i. ( 7).1 


:x o. 66 


The writing is a little slope.l aIllI is in a fluent style, the scri1Je Leing 

kilful and experienced. and maintaining an e\"en regularity. 
\ few 
unci:ll forms are introlluee(l aIIIong the lIlinuscules: and there is a ten- 
.lenc,\' to form combinations of letters, as in the case of ay, ax, 7o"E', ToO, H, 
TO, amI E' aIllI t' with a following letter. There are few contractions in 
the te:-..t, but many in the scholia, which for the most part are contem- 
poraneous and are in the hawl of the scriLe. The t'relluent USe of a more 
cur:<i\"e furm of IIl1,7H1 in the scholia (occasionally appearing abu in tlw 
text), with a long, thin, QLli'lue main stroke. is to l,e noted; as well a:,; 
the enlargement of the circumflex anfl of marks of a1.1,re,'iation. 


I By an (:rt"or in calculation, tll(' date of the :\18. has heen 8tatcd by the ulito..s of the 
Pal.u'úgr:ll'l.ical Society to) be A.D. 12;;;;; co...."ct"d in Xelf b,l. .'-'JC. 201. 



2::6 (
HEEK AXD LATIX P.\LAE()(;R.\PHY CH.\P. 


f'.. 
.,::' '3- I -:;J 
 
..
 
 ''I; 
 c 8 (
 ..b"'
 

 J. t \
 1 .1 cp\
 .A a. ..$ .. 
 
 
 
 
 


, f =' .,
 :.s'
 {,.u 
 ' g ce:
'
'
 ...
 
 
"\ U\, 
 
 .. a.. 1-, ..:I, .. a 
"r b 1- g ' =' 
,
-! :2-r:l...
.a.(
, 
 

/g c
 f 
g-<,
,
'
fà g j Q,.
 ';T
 
':- 
 

 i JT-t; 'b 1
;
 .
,tf 
:it/t'g f
J\
 I I " :
:
\f,
 
 
:1
'd à" '(. :L 

 ,b,V\ 
 
" 3.,} 
 " _ 
 I 'f - J; C 
 
 
 a \
 

; . 
:1.( 
'<f g _ ::1 
 

::
,$ 
'" a 
 J- @ 0 .. 
 ' 
 g è 
 d Q.. "a . ,
 -= 
<= i'
 t'
1 r

 
 ft''f,
 t;
 :: 
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XI[ 


THE GREEK )IIXL"SCULE BOOK-HAXD 


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:.?43 



:!46 


GREEK A
D LATIX P
\LAEO(mAPHY 


CIL\P. 


In the twelfth century the minuscule book-hand maintains traditional 
regularity, so far as existing examples teach us. Our first specimcn is 
taken from a MS. of the Acts, Epistles, amI Apocalypse in the British 
l\luseum (Afhl. 1\IS. 28816), datcfI \.D. 1111 (Pal. Soc. i. 84). 


No. 67 


This MS., bcing a copy of the Scriptures, is written with some care 
and ostensibly on the lines of the early type of book-hand, upright and 
regular; not, however, on the stereotyped model which seems to have 
been reserved for 3ISS. of the Gospels. ProgTess in the course of the 
minuscule book-hand shows itself in the spacing of tllt' letters and iu 
less careful finish in their formation. 
A copy of the Gospels in thc '" atican Library (Cod. Urbino- Yat. Gr. 2) 
provides a good typical example of the careful conventional book-hand 
used for 1\ISS. of this class in the twelfth century. It was apparently 
exccuted for John Conmenu
, son of the Emperor Alexius Comnenus. in 
A.D. 112H-9 (..Yell" Pfd. Suc. 106). 


Ko. 6
 


Although the lettcrs generally are formed on the old model, their 
later date is 1.etrayed hy the growing looseness of their :,;tructure and 
their wider spacing. Enlarged letters, such as eptiiloll, tlteÜt, I,XlIJ1)(/' 
amI pll i, and the wide OInegcl, as well as the long circumflex, catch 
the eye amI wal'U us that there is a sensihle advance in the book-hand. 
Compare the facsimile with that from the copy of the Gospels a hundred 
years earlier (Facs. 6:l), still more with the Gospels of the tenth 
ccntury \Facs. 35). and it will be seen how consenati\'e in general type 
the texts of Gospel1\I
S. continue to be, and at the same time it need:; 
little more than a glance from one to the other to (Iistinguish the 
general progref-s made during the two centuries co\-ered by thc three 
specimen:;. 
To give one more specimen of the twelfth centm'J", showing the con- 
ventional hook-hand as it ad\'ances towards the close of that period. we 
select a facsimile of a few lines from a MS. of Lives of the Martyrs 
(Brit. Mus., Burney MS. 44) of the ycar 1184 (Pal. Soc. i. 180). 


:x o. 69 


This example proves how very gradual might he the changes eftected 
within a given period. The writing is still very conseITative; the 
subject-matter being such as would he used in monastic or church 
lections, and therefore demanding a clearly written text. But the 




II 


THE GREEK 
UXü::;CULE BuOK-HAXD 


::!47 


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t.:: 
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248 


FACSIMILE No 68 


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p.o7it 


GOSPELS.-.\. D" 1128-9 
(À ' '" ' ( 
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" . , N 
EV/TaL"TO wa TOV t 1]/TOV V 00 W KpaTJ1/TWlTt Kat ar.OKTHVW/TW" E EYOV oE p'1] E1' T11 
fOpT
 LI'U P,11 Oúpvßo.. I yiv1]Tat fl' TW Àaw TÉ(>..OS)" uPX(i]) TOV ðf ì,1]ITOJíì I rEl10p,ivov 
iv þ1]OaVLa iv oìKLa /TL:p,WVO
' TOV ÀEr.poíì, r.pOIT
ÀOElJ at; TW YVV1] àiláßa/TTpOlJ {xov/Ta 
p,vpov I ToOÀVTLp,OV' Ka
 KaTiXEH' f7Ti T(1]V) I KEcþaÀ1]V aVTov àVaKEtJl.ivov' ìjÖÓVTH 
Ôf o
 p,aOllTaì. aVTov 
ya'váKT1I/TaV ÀiYOVTE". Ei.,. TL 
 à7TW ÀEta aVT'1 TOV P,VPOV" 
qOúvaTo I yàp 7Tpae
vat 7TOÀÀOV Kaì. ò"O
(Vat) I Toî.. 7TTWXOL". y,'oíì.. Ôf ó l(I}/TOû)" 
E'i7TEV I aVToî.." TL KÓ7TOV" r.apiXETE Tij YVI.UtKt. {Pyol' yàp KaÀòv Eì/Jyá/TaITO Eì.. 
ip,i" TOV" 7TTWXOV.. yàp r.á(v) TOTE ;XETE p,EO' faVTWV' fp,f Òt, uv I 7TáI'TOTE fXETE" 
,3aAov/Ta yà , } aV'TI} TÒ p,VPOI' TOVro i7Tì Toíì /Twp,a,.ú.. p,OV, 7TpÙ<; TÙ flJTacþLålTat p'E I 
fr.OL1J1TEV' àp,1]V Àiyw vp,'Ù'. õ..ov) 



THE UREEK )IIXnsGCLE PuuK-HA
V :l49 


F.\l'SnULE )\0. 69 



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k. 
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lL-\.RTYROLOGY.-A. D. llR! 


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of ?TåÀw 
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 . OVTW
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lYl'UTíov . 
O'1 Of Kaì. 
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fV I x(pLerT)w ...ílTTfW
' fverfpfía
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T.úvov
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' fYKpá nlá Tf TWV ßÀa/
fpwv . Ka
 
ßíov Ka(JapWT1]TO
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( ) 
..." 'é " , I 
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X pLerTo v' W 1] uo
a IWL TV Kpf.1T05, Vl'V ImL aft KnL H
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 aLwva
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UìWVWI' àp..lÍ1' :-) 



230 


GREEK AXD LATIN PALAEOURAPHY 


CHW. 


enlargement of letters and tlw mixture of forms amI other signs of 
atlvance specitied in our other examples of the ccntury mark the 
date. 


The two hundred 
years from tIlf' middle of the thirteenth century to 
the mid,Ue of the fifteenth centUl'
', which are the perioll of the ('()(li,('f'.
 
'1'c(,c1ztiorcs, witness more rapid changes than have appeared in the 
previous periods. There was naturally a wider diffusion of learning amI 
a conse(juent multiplication of cupies of Looks of all kinds. Among them 
are instances of a class which may lie regarded as studcnts' books: not 
the fairly. lmt at the same time uncom'entionally, written copies of 
classical authors to which attcntion has already heen directed and 
of which instances have been given, hut ,'olumcs in current script such 
as would have lleen employed in domestic life; amI not produced for 
the gcnemlmarket. Lut for the personal use of students. Such cursiwly 
written )18:-;., it may he assumed, were in existence in earlier times, lJut 
none such are known to have survived, and the earliest examples appear 
in this century. 
A facsimile is here ginn from a 1\1S. of this description, which, 
although in date earlier than the middle of the thirteenth century, may be 
conveniently classed with the 1'f:celltiúl'C
; a Commentary on PorphyrJ's 
Introduction to Aristotle in the BiLlioth
que Satiollale of Paris (MS. 
grec. 2mm; Omont, Fac
i7n. 52), written in A.D. 1223. 


:Ko. ,0 


In a 3IS. intemled for the student's use there could be no ol.ject in 
stinting contractions and alJ1Jl'cviations. He would lJe familiar with such 
methods of reducing the lallour of writing anù of saving space, and woulll 
lIe trained to read with facility the texts of books thus treated. Accord- 
ingly, in the text before us, there are numerous compendia on a "cale 
quite inatlmissihle in MSS. of the cOIl\'entional Look-hand minuscule. 
As to the writing itself, it is to he oLserved that, although at first sight 
it may appear intricate, it really presents little difficulty in decipher- 
mellt, apart from the solution of the compenùia. There is a certain 
stiffness or, if we may use the phrase, a wiry appearance, in the hand, 
which we may conclude to lIe characteristic of the domestic cursive of the 
thirteenth century. 
The next cxample of this century is abo from a MS. of the less con- 
ventional style, a Commentary on the Octoechus, a service-Look of the 
Greek Church, in the Britibh )[U"eUlll (AcId. 31S. 2i3,j!)) written in 
A.D. 1252 (Pul. Soc. i. 203). 



)'II 


THE nREEK )IIXC:-;CTLE BOOK-H.\X D 


231 


F ACSDULE X o. 70 



 


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.. 


CmmEXTARY os POHPHYRY.-.\.. D. 1223 
(IlLå K(al) ÉK'1.fTTT} K(a)T1jyopLa e
WpOÎ'vT(m). ft }(àp) yÚJT] fto{ll') a
 K(a)nlyo'pLm, 
r.åvr{w!õ) K(al) T(à!õ) iÍÀÀ(a!õ) cþwv(à!õ) fTVI'ElUcþÉ(JO'L'CTt. Õ7rOV y(àp)yÉvo(!õ) fKEÎ I K(al) 
at Vr.ÓÀOl7rOL cþwL'al (TETåpT1JV)' ErL ÓPWlLlEv) alÌT(wv) K"U'Wl'!(av) I TÒ E'iI'al 7ráfT(a!õ) 
õp(ov!õ) K(al) r.Épao;-a TWV K(a)rà cþLÀouocþí(av) cþWL{WV). I 7r(áu)m y(àp) a
 K(a)rà 
cþV\OuocþL(av) cþwval Eì.s- aVT(à!õ) 7TEpaTovvT(m) I K(al) fKTè(!õ) aVT(wv) OVK (tUTLv). 
ÉTfpa (üÉIl7rT1j) aVT(wv) Kou'wvLa ópáraL. I rò UVl'ELuå}(ELv) Ka
 fTVI'avmp(EÎL') 
àÀÀ1íÀ(a!õ). Õ7I'OV y(áp)(fUTL) IlLa cþwvÌ] I rovr(wv). f.Ú' ftutv, (Kal) at V7rÓÀOLT.(OL). 
õr.(o)v (ôÈ) Mia hÀEÍüEL, I fKEÎ (Kal) r.(áu)m fKÀdr.OVCTL. EÌp1jKÓT(H) Tà!õ KOU-W- 
I'L(a!õ), XWP1í!uwll(El') (wi) hl Tà!õ l(w)tþo(pá!õ). OEVT(É/Ja) (ôÈ) ô(w)cþllpà avr(wv) 
vr.ápX(EL), I Ó TpÓr.O(!õ) T(1ì!õ) K(a)rT}}'opL(U!õ). at Il(Èv) }'{à p ) fV TW TL(ÈtTT1) K(a)T11Yo- 
poíh'T(m) I WU7"iEp TÒ yÉvo!õ. K(al) TÒ Eiôo(!õ). a
 (oÈ) h. TW ór.oíOl' ri (ftTT!I'): WU7õEp 
11 o(w)cþo(pà), (Kul) TÒ rOLOI', K(al) TÒ uVIJr3E[3I)K6(!õ)) 



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:!j-1- 


(;REEK ASD LATIN P .ALAEOGRAPHY 


CH.U'. 


Xo.71 


The general character of the writing is of the set lJook-haml type, 
hut written fluently anrl with ample spacing, and thereby assuming 
a half-cursive appearance. The thickening of the strokes is to be 
attributed to the coarse paper of whieh the :\lS. is composed. The 
enlargement of certain letters and the mixture of forms arrest the eJ'e. 
\\'e may note the appearance of the v-shaped IlU. 
Another instance of a student's book occurs in a )I
. of Hesiorl, on 
paper, in the Laurentian Library of Florence (Plut. xxxii. 16), of the year 
1280 (..Ly/,

, PaT. Sor'. 154). 


Xo. 72 


The text in double columns is arrangetl in a very unusual fashion, to 
he read continuously across the page. The writing is very delicate awl 
of a lighter touch than that of the Porphyry of 1223 (Facs. 70); lJut 
it is still of the same stiff or wiry character, although approaching the 
close of the thirteenth century. 
In our next ft\csimile we return to the conventional styl
 of the 
Gospel )I::5S. This specimen is from a 
IS. in the monastery of Serres 
()IS. r. 10) in )lacedonia, written in _\..D. 1282 (Ne'lfJ Ped. ;:{ur. 78). 



o. 73 


Looking llt\ck at the facsimilps given abo\"e of the Gospels of the tenth 
century (no. 55), of A.D. 1023 (no. 62), awl of A.D. 1128-9 (no. 68), the 
success with which the tratlitional style is rnaintainell in this example is 
remarkahle. But tlle general character of the thirteenth century, antl 
the efl'ect on the eye of enlarged letters, as :::eta. thela, 1'ho, 
Ipsiloa, phi, 
and of the mixture of forms, are not to he ignoretl 
Another copy of the Gospels. a third of a century later, is less il1lita- 
ti ve allf I tliscloses its true periotl more easily. This is a .:\1S. in the 
British 1\Iuseulll (Add. )IS. 37002). written in A.D. 1314-13 (....YelL' Pal. 
;:{O(". 52). 



o. 74 


The writing is a good typical example of the com-entional minu:-,cule 
hJOl.:.-haml of the fourteenth century. Spacing of the text. enlarger I 
letters, and intermixture of uncial forms, and also the free mannpr in 
which the accents are tlashed on, sufficiently iwlicate the period. The 
us.. of a w/Lve.l horizontal stroke to rlistinguish the proper name Al.raam 
will he oh,ervetl. It lIlay also be notice. 1 that the ink usetl i,.; very 
1.lack. such as is oftpn fouwl in Greeh )ISS. of the thirteenth century in 
particular. 



XII 


THE (:HEEK ",nXl'SC{
LE B()UK-H.\
D 


.,- - 
._;) oJ 


In thc course of the fourtecnth amI fiftppnth centuries l\f:'-\s. written 
1.y inllepemlent hands, not strictly following the cOll\oeutiom, of the 
professional scribes of the minuscule I J ook-haw1. necessarily multiply 
particularly in the 11el(1 of classicill amI general literature an.I of works 
not connecte.l with lituq,6cal and Scriptural sul
ects. Of these imlepen- 
dent )ISS.. the Herodotus of the Laurentian Library of Florence (pluto 
lxx. 6), of the year 1318, is an instance (-YelL' Put. SOC. 156). 


Xo.75 


Here the writing is clear awl simple amI the letters are normally 
formed; Imt there is no attempt at calligraphic ncatness, amI there is an 
clement of cursi,oeness in the general style. By this time the inter- 
mixturp of uncial with minuscule fonns has 1.ecolllP normal, au,I the 
v-shaped HU is the prevalent shape of that letter. 
The npxt, nearly contemporary, specimen is more decidedly cursi,oe 
amI is much abbre,oiate.l. It IS taken from a )IS, of the treatises of 
:'-\t. Atbanasius in the British Museum (Harley )[8. 557!)), written in the 
year 1321 (Pal. :ioc. i. 133\. 


Xo.76 


The writing has no claim to heauty, hut it is (Juite legil.le; anù, a:-. 
a working copy. the :\lS. holtls a respectable place. The f.1Ct that it is 
written on paper accounts for a slight thickening or blottiuess of thp 
letters: anlI the e:x.aggeration in the .lccents and in the signlS of al.l)l'e,.ia- 
tion lends an ail' of untidine
s to the text. But the actual structure or 
the lettering is fairly neat. 
In the next example there is a return to the set hand. The facsimile 
is from a )1:'-\.. on paper. of Lives of the Fathers, in the British )[useum 
(Burney :\IK 50), of the year 136:! (P((l. :it/C. i. 207). 


:x o. 77 


This )18., prolJably intemle,l for purposes of monastic lection
. follows 
the conventional style of the book-hand. its I
te date being manifested in 
the spacing out of the letters ilUd in the usual exaggeratell forms of the 
perio l 1. But the regularity of the writing intlicates a practisell hand. 
The paper being apparently of the manufacture of Italy. the :\IS. milY 
most probably have l.een executeil in that country. The scribe was 
namell John Philal!rius. 
Our first :-.pecimen. of the fifteenth century is from a claslSical )IS.: 
the History or Polyl,iu<; (Brit :\Ins., _\t].L )IS. 117:.!8), of the year 1416 
(Pal. S/J/'. i. 134'. 



2j() 


nREEK AND LATIK PALAEOGRAPHY 


C HAP. 



 
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THE ({REEK )ll
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60 


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GO:;I'ELS.-A.l). 1314-15 
(àr.i8avov. rí.lla uwvròv r.OtfÎ!ì' àr.f.' Kpí.()1J lC1Juov)!ì' tàv tYw ooÇ"á(w tp.avròl" 
lí ôójÇ"a p.ov ovoÚ, turtI:" fUTtl' Ó r.(ar)
p P.OV Ó oolÇ"á(wv p.f.' ðv vp.fÎ!ì ÀfYf.Tf. õn 
8(f.ò}; vlp.wv tun Ka
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ün I OVK òîoa àvròv, fuop.at õp.oto!ì vp.w(v) I \þf.VUT1j!ì" àÀÀ' òîoa avròv' Kaì. ròv 
A.ólyov àvrov TTlPW' à/3;;aàp. ó r.(ar)TlP vp.w(v) /ljyaÀÀtáuaro Zva 'lOTI r
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àp.
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' àr.f.K{lí.(1) ì( 1)UOV)!ì. 
IIVTf. út:rO!ì) 



THE GREEK )lINeSCeLE BOOK-H_\.sn ;!()l 


FAc::;nULE 
o. 75 


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HERODOTCS.-A. D. 1318 


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Tà p.fV O
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r.aVTWV t" VEWl' Kaõa YVWP.Tjl' Tr,V EP.1JL'. al\I\a yap rovro a7rOpUV ucþt Km 
àP.1íx avov ) 



262 


FAC
n.IILE No. 76 


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ST. ATHA:YA
IUS.-A.D. 1321 


(TOV 
v, Tí
 âv àcþÜ'H TÒ àtôï(ov) . TOVTOL.. y(àp) (Kal) '7TavÀo(,,) f.V Tij 7TpÒ(
) 
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) alw(I'a
). rÀÀ1]I'(a.,) 
(ôì:) f.VTpt7T(WV) lÀ(E)Y(E)' Tà y(àp) àópaT(a) aVTov à7TÒ I KTíUE(W") KÓUP.OV. TOi'
 
1TOL
lLauï VoovlLEva Ka80påT(m). ií TE àtÒLo(
) aVTov I ôúvap.ï
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(ôì:) 1í TOV 8( EO)Û òVl'ap.Ï'> '7TavÀo.. ôLôåum À( t)y( WI') I X(pLUTÒ)
 8( EO)Û òVvap.ï
 
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 TÒ aVTOV, OVK 
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(Kat) T
V àKOÀov8í( av) T( wv) p7J(p.a )r( wv) I (Kal) hrïyp&1þaT( E) '7T pò( 
) K( VpLO )v. Ó 
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p.(wov). '7TEpl y(àp) Tij
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 fuåv Ó ÀÓYO(") T(OV) 8(Eo)v'l 
ÔL' OV (Kal) Tà '7TåVT( a) ylyov( EV). El p.(ì:v) ovv aVråpKJ1'> fUTlv -q KTíuï
 àcþ' 
favT(ij
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 vtov yvwpíu(m) T(ÒV) 8(EÒV) . UK01õE'iT(E) P.71 '7Tlum(E), 
VOP.í(OVTH (Kal) xwpt.. vtov I T7/V Kpíuïv Yfyovt'(vm). El (ôì:) ÔL' vtov ytYOVE (Kaì) 
fvaVTw Tà '7fáVT(a) UVVlUT11Kfl',) 



FAcsnllLE Xo. 77 


263 


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U,QOII( .J.MPIIJ{O,-rtF. 
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wT' 
:-too lü,'!oU; Xiii .... (./.&.&c.1'ot.- 
a... "". 


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U ..,,: 
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..u.tI J f:\/'Tr,O_..,. y
wl'j t'tlf -'..l
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cyiJ 


Lln:s OF THE F_-\.THERS.-A. D. 1362 


((Kat) tJfTT.fip alxp.áAWTO
. WÔE KàKÚlTfi, YVP.VÓT1JTt ttXH I ôïap.b'wv, Kat T-ij cþA()yt 
TOV 7/ÀtOV ÔïaKaLóp.(il'O
' aí:epïo
 
v 7få/"Ton . Kpïp.l'OÎS ipJ/p.ïwv ToAavóp.fiVO
, I Ka
 
\' 
 .r, ' " , , \ \ ' ( " ) I " .. \ ' 
'ül\aTtat
 T7/
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cþlpfilTOat, fivôoK
lTa
, fiLÔfi' Kat I ToOTt aiJp.ßIßJ/Kfi TOVTW fil
 
P.fipóT1}Ta TÓT.WV 
iA8Úv, I {vOa 7/ Tij
 P.Ol'OTpÓT.OV (wij
 p.O,.á(OVTH, r(òv) ßtov KOU{ÒV) I {x oVlTï ' 
Kat {çw Ovpwv KaOfi(ój.J.fiVO
, {KAatH', tJlTTofip I iK varaylov Tt
 àT.oppïcþfi

, OVTW
 
WÔVPH()' fiiTa iÇfiA8(Ú
) I Tl
 TWV àÔfiAcþ(WV), éVpfi TOVTOV W
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-, I 0 ' \. 
 
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TOV KUITP.OV Ka l/P.fil'OV . KaL 9'YLlTa
. fif\fiYfiV aVTW . Ti. Kl\aLfiL
 av PW7f fi. P.l/, 
ôlu Tïvò
 T(WV) àl'aYKaLwI'; iç ljP.Wl' TÙ KaTà ôih'ap.(ïv)) 



264 


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.õ to: I- 0 I< "" 



THE GREEK )II:SL
CrLE BOOK-H
\SD 26:> 


No. 78 


This is an excellent instance of the fluent hawl of the period. the 
letters, in a restrained cursive, heing well fOrIl1cd and ,-cry legible; anfl, 
although enlargef] letters are freely employed, they are not aggressively 
exaggerated. Tlms there is a pleasing harmon
- in the general setting 
of the text, indicating a skilful and practised scribe. 
For the next example we turn to a copy of the Books of the 
Prophets and Job (Brit. l\Ius., Add. )lS. 21259). of the year 1437 (Pal. 
t3oc. i. 232). 


.x o. 79 
This is a good instance of the conservati,-e, com-entional style of 
writing maintained in MSS. of the Scriptures. Certain pure minuscule 
forms continue to be used, which in the more independent hands are 
generally abandoned; and the accents are in most instances unohtrusive. 
It is a valuahle point to note in palaeography that a stereotyperl form of 
writing may persist for special purposes, especially in the case of )IS:-;. 
produced within a limited area and more or less exclurled from foreign 
influences. 
A 31enaeum, or monthly offices of the Greek Church for saints' days, 
provides us with our last example of a liturgy: the Add. 
lS. 16398 in 
the British )[useum, of A.D. H60 (Pal. Boc. i. 233). 


Ko.80 


This is a le:-.
 striking instance of consen-ative 8llherence to the con- 
ventional book-hand than the preceding specimen. The writing is less 
exact. and shows a certain disposition to combinations and to '-arieties 
of forms. But at the same time the text is mostly composed of clearly 
formed, though small, minuscules which would present no tlifficulty to 
the reader in monastic or church service; and ahbreviations and contrac- 
tions aTe few. 


The history of the codices ,wt.elli lies heyond the scope of this work, 
for with the middle of the fifteenth century written codices practically 
give place to the productions of the printing press. The Greek refugee 
calligraphers, who in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries settled in Italy 
and in other countries of \Yestern Europe, executed lIlany eX'luisite :\lS:-;. 
for wealthy patrons. and for a brief period prolonged the existence of an 
expiring art. But they, too. had to succumh to the march of events, and 
in many instances turned their knowledge to other uses as correctors of 
the press.] 


I The student will find an excellent series of reproduction
 from the 11188. of the Greek 
calIigl'aphers in Omonfs Ftlcsimi/is des Mall!lsrnts grecs des XV" et XVI" sii:cles, Paris, IS<;7. 



266 


GREEK AND LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


F.\.CSDIILE No. 79 


.., \.., , ,
 ., .. .. --.!]. , 
o \.mp.!Jù 5^ot"' G'1D G1" . ..... t'1 CVT\e, '-ê" \.., I' ev.OWlOOOU 
 
S\t
"t' .o
-rt..W;'Õ::À.!O
OÛ
^
crtt'! at: 
(þao-no
" 
'" · I r ' 00..-_ ' , t \." "'.. 't\ 1- .& 
W rtt 
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Öt. 
., I 
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u rap 
 
.Q"'X. ..-wJ.s E:U,.u --raJm

" cn:u · 'kOJt'Qu 4 q.ø..,ocW 


" 
p;
,


opè:f-n e;o;
o', 'Â.1ò

.LUt 



ù: '

rufe;"Jt.Ü"



IOfJO"\J 

(t)Ü^
V' a 
 
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t . . \ c...... '.. 
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I" , 
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. r 
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JAØf 0 U 70Ifr '-3I1O.JJ ,,",\!,cr- 

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c)"T1 0 u 
<t tr1 eeo. . CI..I.1TCII 
v -..3 v 
 f 0 U?pOtJ v"n 14f. 


ö

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tq 
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fI
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f
 
ò "q
cr}-LDÛ:"c(;- 
+ 

"'Ep-\ ou-a:p1uf:. 
 


TIlE PROI'HETS.-A.D. 1437 


(ovn p.
v t'ÌÛl.oY'ÍUWCTLv' u1Jp.f:ía TÈ" fV 
8t'f:uW tV ov(pa)vw ov p.
 I Ôf:íÇWULV . ovn 
W!> Ó 1íÀLO!> ov P.71 Àáp."'wuw . OVH cþWTLOVlTW I W!> 
 Uf:À!jV1J . Tà 81Jpía fUTì. Kpf:íu- 
uova avn';,v . â ôVl'aVTat fK:cþVYÓVTa f:L!> uKi1f1Jv, MVTà Wcþf:À
Uat. KaT' ovôÚ'a 
ovv I TpÓ1fOV flTTì.V 
p.'iv cþaVEpòv õn f:Ld 8f:ol' ÔLÒ P.71 cþoß7118
H aVTOV!>. WUT.f:p 
yàp tV ULKVllÀåTW 7TpoßaUKáL'LOV ovlÔÈ"v cþvÀåUlTtlv. OVTW!> EìfTlv oi. 6f:0ì. aVTWV 
ÇVAWOL Kaì. T.ÆlpíxpiiuOL' Ka
 7Tf:PLáprVPOL' à7TÚ TE T
!> 7Topcþvpa!> Kal I (Ka
) 1
!> 
, ,.. J r ,.. , , I 8 ,., , ., \ 8 ' 'I.........,t 
p.app.apov TOL!> E7T aVTOL
 U1J7TOP.f:V7J!> . YVWUf: U at on OVK <LUL f:OL' aVTa Tf: f:
 
vUTipov ßpWe
Uf:TaL. I (Ka
) 
uTm onLôo!> tV Tij xwpa' Kpf:íuuwv ovv lív(Opwü)o!> 
ôíKaw!> , ovlK tXWV Ei.'ô!lJÀa. 
uTaL yàp p.aKpàv à7TÒ ÓVf:LÔLUP.OV: + + 
+ riÀo!> i.f:pEp.íov áp.71V: + +) 



XII 


THE GREEK MIXCSCCLE BOOK-HAXD 


-} 


- 


:x 


. 


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c
t r 1l
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267 


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::. ;:;. x a- <3 ö ::. 
Cj Cj õ '" I: 'XCQ :... 
b"
 
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I: È 8':(. Cj x 


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..

 
 



26R 


GREEK A
D L.\TIX P
\LAEOGR.\PHY 


CHAP 


FAl'
DnLE .No. 81 


n ,.. - 'e- I"'" 
@ðt8rfuf1j1lU JtClJtoøI'
oc 0' vtðJlUlw't 
'ct!fOJÐr"dotN/D 
n,.J!. d:üfi "TT7IPf-)\J-rmcy ..1 
rJ\,;;v 'Y'
 
m
ï øtiu
ï.,n)f'JCñ
 
 
r-" c-.!7 , " ^ . _ ... _ 
 \ .... &_ _'\. I rJ.f 
'"m1J.ØU.C ø D
' V" t4SIII CI.C k
"'" JU\. 1'( I tIf. 
, '^-..... - . · JI.., I \ ., 
 
TOl'u GArq'lJ'tOfJI f'rm T ï J\ w 7f-tþ.r IUlùk).p . 
Jlà.&

.J"I'.fJ bMl


'lb>"/(
. 

';'rth 

t'''PJI

,.:m ì'u
iþnx
 
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''''ir'...tø1
-rn.m;-.c
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.'_ &! ..' 
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r 
"'P-f''TO'fJ1 J 'U.iEetMG"l'}tLC".
I""': , 
, U ( ., ' A .f .s, ').'! 


a"." 7IfM0'I
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G)Cf;
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;"1 ncl,r.;;OI.,.n".
ÐÍc'" .1'.. 
; 
cm'u 

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i( In- fitI' 1.11...,.-, ,((.hI 
1Iøt <<alA - 
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cù'.i1
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 .(\ 

. 
 


ODYSSEL-A. D. 1479 



xu 


THE (:REEK )llX-CSCrLE BO()K-IIA
D 


(GLut" OÚwv ypijv KaKWV líKOI> oLut" ôl p.ot 7r"fp' 
ócþpa Ot"w
uw p.lyapov. uÐ Ôt 1õ'1 V t"ÀÓ1õt"WV 
iMt'iv ivOåôt" lívWXO"i utI' àp.cþ;;7róÀOtu"i yvvatçt 
'7Tãual> Õ' ÓTPVI'OV ôp.wàl> KaTà ôwp.a )"Úu6at. 
T ' 
, .. , .1, cþ ".1 , 
01' u aVTt" '7TpOUt"H7rt" cþt"1! TpO 01> t"vpVK"Ha. 
va
 c
 TavTå yt" TtKVOV fP.ÒV KaTà p.o'ipav lH1õH . 
àÀÀ' líyt" ò
 XÀaivav H X;;Twvå H t"ïp.aT' fVt"iKW . 
p.
 Ô' OVTW ptKt"U;;V '7Tt"7rVKaup.(tv)OI> t"vpta!> c:Jp.(OVI>) . 
tlTTaO' il'Ì p.t"yåpota"i, vt"p.t"U'1TÒV Ôt Kt"V fÚì. 
T1Ít' Ô' à1õap.t"tpóp.(t"v)ol> '7Tpoutcþ71 '7ToÀvp.'1T(;;)1> òôii(uutvl>) : 
T.
p v
v P.Ot '7TPWT"iuTov ivt p.t"yåpotIT;; YfiduOw. 
"!21> lcþaT' ovô' à'7Tte'1ut" '7Tt"p'lcþpc,JV tVpÍjKÀHa' 
"ÌÍnYKt"v ô' èÍpa T.
p Ka
 O
"iol" aVTàp òôvuut"vç 
tV ô"it"Otiwut"v p.lyapov Ka
 ôwp.a KaL aVÀ(Ì/v). 
ypijvo; Ô' aVT' à1õtß'1 ô"ià Mp.am KåÀ' òôvuijoo;. 
àyyt"Àtovua yVvatçt Ka
 ÚTpvvfovua vttuOat' 
aï Ô' 'tuav fK p.t"yåpow ôåol> p.t"Tà Xt"patv tXovuat. 
ui p.tV líp' àwÞ' iXfOVTO Ka
 àU1Tå(oVT' òôvuija' 
'W
 KVI't"OV àya'7Ta(óp.t"vat KtcþoÀ1ÍV H K(ai) wp.(ovo;) . 
xtÎpal> T' aìvVp.t"vm TÒV ôÈ yÀVKtl> CtP.fipOo; ijpH . 
KÀav6p.ov Kaì. uTovaxijl> ytl'WUKt" 
Ô' lípa cþpt"ut üúlTao; :) 


:!(ìU 



270 


UREEK AXD LA_TI
 PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


To concluùe this section of our work we give a specimen from a )18. 
executed by one of these calligraphers. It is a copy of the Odyssey 
written in Italy (probably in Rome) by John Rhosus of Crete (Brit. 
1\[us., Harley :liS. 5658), in the year 1479 (Pol. t::Joc. i. 182). 


Ko.81 


Greek Writing in Western Europe 
A few 'ISS. may he noted which illustrate the course of Greek 
writing in Western Europe. We refer only to thu:se \l88. which are 
written in actual Greek letters or in imitative letters, not to those in 
which Greek words or texts are inscribed in orùinary Latin letters, of 
which there are not a few examples. 
Two celebrated MSS. of the sixth century containing bilingual 
texts ha,'e already heen rpferreù to I as having heen written in Western 
Europe. The' Codex Bezae " of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, at 
Cam bridge, anù the' Codex Claromontanus " of the Epistles of St. Paul, 
at Paris, are both written in Greek and Latin in uncial letters, the Greek 
being to some extent modelled on the Latin forms. In a third example 
of a hilingual text, the Harley )18. 579:! (Cut. AnI'. Jlt::Js. i. 13; Pal. Soc. ii. 
::5), which contains a Graeco-Latin Olossary, written probably in France 
in the sen'nth century, the Greek writing betrays its Western origin 
very palpably. An example of the eighth century is the Graeco-Latin 
P:-;aIter at Paris, MS. Coislin 18ß (Omont, Facs. des pl1.ts anciens .lIS::;. 
9 1 'et'.".7). Distinctly imitative is the Greek text in the' Codex Augiensis " 
of Trinity College, CamLri(lge, in which the Epistle:s of St. Paul were 
written in Latin min uscules and Greek bastard uncials in the latter 
part of the ninth century, at Reichenau in Baden (Pal. Soc. i. I:!7) ; in 
a Graeco-Latin MS. of some of the Psalms, in the Library of St. 
 icholas 
of Cusa, of the same character, written early in the tenth century (Pal. 
Soc. i. 128); and in the' Codex Rangallensi1ô' and the' Codex Boernerianus ' 
of DI'estlen, which once formed one 1\18. and contain the Gospels aIllI 
Pauline Epistles in Latinized Greek letters of the tenth century, with 
an interlinear Latin \"ersion (Pal. SQ('. i. 179). Other )1:::,::;. of a like 
character are; the Pauline Epistles, the' Codex Sangermanensis', of the 
ninth century (Omont, F(/csim. 5 Ms); a Graeco-Latin Glossary, )IS. Lat. 
7651. of the ninth century (ibid. 23); anù a Psalter, Arsenal 1\[S. 8407, 
also of the ninth century (ibiù. 24).2 
A few instances survive of the employment of Greek letters in Latin 
siguatl1res and subscriptions to document<; of the :-;ixth and seventh 
centuries from Ravenna anù Kaple1ô (
laJ.ini, I Papiri Diplmn. 90, 92, 
I See p. 209. 
2 See also 'Vattenbach, An/eittlng "111' griech. Pa/aergrapldc, 3rd ed. 
1895), 40, 41. 



),11 


GREEK WRITIXG I
 WESTERX E"LROPE 


271 


121 ; Cod. Diplo1ll. Cm'elllôí", ii, no. 250; Pal. Soc. ii. 53); and the same 
practice appearH to ha\'e been followed in France amI Spain as late as the 
eleventh century.I There is an instance of a Sardinian charter, of the 
eleventh or twelfth century. in Latin written in Greek characters. 2 But 
we may regard such a superfluou..<; use of a foreign alphabet, at least in 
most instances. as a mere affectation of learning. 3 In the ornamental 
pages of fanciful letters, also, which adorn early Anglo-Saxon and 
Franco-Saxon )ISS.. a Greek letter ocmsionally fin.l" a place, serving, no 
doubt, to show oft. tlw erudition of the iIluminator. 4 


I BibliotMque de l' École des Charles, ,i. 4-13; Delisle, Mélanges de Palio!Jmphie, 9:> ; Giry, 
Manuel de Diplomatique. 596, n. 3. 
S Bibl. de Z'ÉcoIe des Chm'tes, xxxv. 2õ5. 
S There are, however, early instances of the employment of Greek for Latin letters 
"hich may be attributed to imperfect knowledge of the Latin language and alphabet. 
A form of receipt is thus written in one of the Pompeian waxed tablets, A.D. 57 (C. I. L. iv, 
Supp!. no. xxxii); and the British Museum Papyrus cccclxxxi (Cat. Gk. Pap. ii. 321) 
contains a fragmentary Latin-Greek glossary of the fourth century, in which the Latin 
words are written in Greek letters somewhat phonetically: perlwps a Greek school-bo)'s 
list of words. 
4 Delisle, L'Émngéliaire de Saillt-Vaast d'An-as. 



CHAPTER XIII 


LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


WE now proceed to trace the history of Latin Palaeography; and the 
scheme which will be followed in this division of Our subject may first be 
briefly stated. 
Latin Majuscule writing, in its two branches of (1) Square Capitals 
and Rustic Capitals, and (2) Fncials-the most ancient extant forms of 
the L'1,tin book-hand-claims our first attention. Kext, the modified 
forms of Uncial writing. viz. the mixed hands of uncial and minuscule 
letters, and the later developed Half-uncial writing, will be examined. 
We shall then have to pass in review the various styles of Roman Cursive 
writing, IIt>ginning with its earliest examples; and from this we shall 
proceed to follow the coun;e of the X ational :M in uscule hands, which were 
Ilerived directly from that source, down to the perio,l of the reform of 
the .ìUerovingian school in the reign of Charlemagne. The independent 
history of the early Irish and English schools forms a chapter apart. 
From the period of Charlemagne to the close of the fifteenth century, 
the vicissitudes of the literary han,lwritings of Western Europe will be 
descrihell: awl this portion of our work will be brought to a close with 
some account of the official Cursi,-e writing of Western Europe aUfI 
a re,'iew or the English Chartpr-hamls. 


The Majuscule Book-hand.-Capitals 
The Latin )lajuscule Book-hand of early :MSS. is Ilivided into two 
branchcs: writing in Capitals. and writing in rncials.! Capitals, again, 
are of two kimlH: Square Capitals and Rustic Capitals. The most 
ancient Latin 1\1SS. in existence are in Rustic Capitals; but there is no 
reason to presume that the rustic hand was employed in )[sS. before the 
s(!uare hand, nay, rather, folJowing the analogy of sculptured inscrip- 
tions, the priority shoul.l bc given to h1lume letters. At thE: same time 
siluare capital writing was obviously so tedious a means for presen'ing 
literature that we may IJe prett.'. certain that it was spldolll used, and 
that the scribes hastened to escape to quicker methods. This seems to 
l'e proved by the paucity of extant examples in that character, as com- 
pared with those in rustic letters. 
Capital writing, in its two styles, copies the letterings of inscriptions 
which have been classed under the heads of . scriptura monumentalis' 
, 1 Traub.. 
upplies a li
t of extant Capital and Uncial MSS. in his Vo,'lesul1gen, i.157-263. , 



THE L_-\TlX :\LUn.;CTLE BOOK-H.\.
]) 


-.?ï'3 


and '
criptura actuaria " a<; executell in the tin1f' of .\.ugustus aII,1 succes- 
sive emperors; 1 the square chars'1cter following generally the tirst, allll 
t he rustic the seconrl. 
In square capital writing the letters are in general of the same 
height; Lut.F anll L, ri,.;ing alJo'"e thc line, are exceptions. The angles 
are. hy prefcrence. right angles, allll the hases and tops anll e"tremities 
are usually tinishell off with the fine strokc<; amI penllaut<; which an"' 
familiar to all in our Illorlern copies of this type of letters. 
Rustic capital..., on the other hand, are, as the namc implies, of a 
more negligent pattern, although, as a style of writing for choice hooks, 
they were no less careiullJ- formerl than thp square capitals, But the 
strokes are more slender.cros<;-stroke
 are short and are more or less 01.1i'lu(' 
amI \\ Iwell. allll finiab are not adlled to them. Being tIms. in appear- 
ance, less tinishe,l as perfect letters, although accurately shapl'rl, they 
haYe rf'cei'"ed the somewhat misleading title which distinguishes them. 
Besides F and L. othcr letters of the rustic alphaLet occasionally show 
a tenllency to rise abo,"c the line. 
The fact that a large proportion of the surviving )[SS" in capibtl 
letters of the Lest clas" contain the works of \ïrgil points to the same 
conclusion as that suggeste.l hy the ,1iscO\-ery of comparatively so many 
copies of the Il Îad of Homer in t.ady papyri, and "y the existenee of the 
Bihle in three of the most important Greek ,"ellum coilices which ha,'e 
deo.;cended to us: namely, that a sumptuous style of prolluction was. 
if not reserved, at IC<l<;t more e
pecially employell, fOl' those hook., which 
were the great works of their day. Homer in the Greek world. \ïrgil in 
the classical perioll of Rome. and the BiLle in the early centuries of the 
Christian Church filled a space to which no other hooks of their time 
coul,l pretenll. And the sun"ival of e,'en the not very numerous copies 
which we po<;s(:',.;s is an indication that such fine )JSS. were more ,-alued 
anrl1.etter cared for than ordinary ,'olumes. 


()f :::;,!ual'e Capital writing of ancient date there is. as already 
remarkell, \"Cry little now in existence, viz. a few lea,"es of <l )[S. of 
'-irgil, divided Letween the Yatican Li1Jl'ary an,l Berlin, which are attri- 
Luted to the close of the fourth century (Z. \Y, E.r,. 14-):
 and a fe', 
from another )[S. of the same poet, of the fourth or tifth century, pre- 
.,er\"ed in the lil.rary of :::;t. Gall in Switzerlan.1 (Z. ,,-. E.,'. 14 a; P"l. SO,-. 
i. 20
): and also some palimpsest fragmcnts: of \ïrgiI. at Yerona, and 
of LucaD, at \ïenna and Xaplcs. \\-e take .1 specimen from one of the 
St. Gallleaws (Co,1. 1394) :- 


I See ETLmpla .'" I plume Epigmplticfle La/inn (rnrpus 11" rip/. La'.), eù. H übner, IS8;;. I 
2 Z3ng
'lnei.der .HU} ,,"'uttenhnch. F) uti}!' C t" 'Ill T I' I ,,, I ')" ,. 
 .';::-" 
qipf lunl 
III idp]l" n.=-. 1....;4Î. 1
7!). 


" . 


I' 



274 


nREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


No. 8
2 


It is certainly remarkahle that this large character should still han 
been employed at the time to which these fragments are attrihuted, so 
long after the classical period of Rome. We might IULYe conjedure,l 
that the use of so inconvenient a form of writing, and one which 
covered so much material in the case of any work of a"erage length, 
would ha,'e been entirelJ? abamlonell in favour of the more ready 
uncial character, or at least of the les..,; cumhcrsome rustic capitals. Its 
continuance may be reganle,l as a survival of a style first employed 
at an early period to do honour to the great national Latin poet; and 
may. in some degree, be compared with the consen'ative practice in the 
middle ages of kpeping to an old Rtyle of writing for IJiblical and lituq
ical 
:\188. The same remark applies also to the comparatinly late employ- 
lllent of Rustic Capital writing under similar conditions. 
1'his latter style of writing is found in the earliest extant Latin codices. 
Like the Sl!uare capitals, the rustic alphahet was used for inscriptions 
on stone and metal: and it appears to have been also employed when an 
exact a11l1 formal type of writing was required for any particular purpose. 
Thus. we have an e'(ample in a muster-roll of the First Cohort of 
Spain when on service in EgJ'pt in .\. D. 156 (Pill. livc. ii. 165), a kind 
of document which naturally demanded a clear and formal script. 
But in its application to literature, while it was employed in the pro- 
duction or hooks intended for the market, examples can hanlly have 
lleen at any time "ery numerous. It could not have been the only style 
of literary IUlillI of its time. It was far too cumbersome; and it is 
probable that the IJetter class of cursi "e hands also were 1IlOuided into 
uniformity for literary purposes. More will Le said on this subject 
when we come to discuss the formation of uncial writing. 
In some of the papyrus fragments recovered at Herculaneum the 
rustic writing is of a character copied closely from the lettering of 
inscriptions on stone or metal (Z. 'V. E,,'. 1, 2); in others it is of a less 
se"ere style. 'Ve gi "e a specimen of the lattpr lánd, making use of 
one of the engraved plates, from the fragments of a poem on the Battle 
of Actium (Fra!]Jrwnta HerculancHsia, ed. ,Yo Scott, 188;)), written in 
light, quickly-forme(lletters. 1'he year of the llestruction of Herculaneum 
was A. v. 79. 


No. 83 


Here the wonls are separated rrom one another with the full point, 
as in inscriptions. Long' oweb are abo, in luany instances. markell 
with an accent; in the ca!-e of long i, as an alternati,-e to the accent, 
the corrector alMs to the height or the letter, which then has the 




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THE L\.TIX )( \..JD-:;lTLE BOOK-HA:\"]) 


,)
- 
,-I I 


appearance of being dOli blcfl H>rtically. The paragTaph mark will I,l' 
ohsen-ed betwecn lines 7 and 
. 
Sppcimens of nearl
' all the e'\:isting ,'ellum )ISS. written in ru!'.tic 
capital ldters are representell in facsimile in the E.,'em,la of Zang'e- 
meister and "
attenl)ach, the publications of the Palaeographical Society, 
and other works. ' The \\ riting on this material is of a more careful 
type than that which we ha'"e seen in the last fac!'.imile from a papyrus: 
and the estimation of the age of the earliest of these lISS. is a 
matteI' of uncertainty, a<; we hm-e no specimen to whieh a date can I,c 
apprm..imately assigned before the latter part of the fifth century. Hut 
fo..ome of them may I,l' placed earlier than that period. For e'\:mllplp. till-' 
palimpsest fragments of the Yerrine Orations of Cicero, in the Yaticall 
Library (Z. \Y. Ex. -J \. are generally assigned to the fourth centur,y, But 
the )I
S. which before all others appron.ch nearest in the forms of their 
letters to those of inscriptions, are the two famous codices of \ïrgil, 
known as the' Codex Romanus', and the' Coòex Palatinus' (Z. \Y. Ej'. 
11. I'!; Pal. Soc. i. 113-15). In these the style of lettering found in 
formal illl'-criptioDs of the first century of our era has he en closely 
followed: and although no one ha,> ever thought of placing the )1;:;S. ill 
so remote a period, )'et it has been suggested that, as scribes may ha,-e 
kept up the style without tlegeneration for one or two centuries. 
they may therefore IJe as old as the third century. Others assert that 
they are merely imitative, and that the Codex Romanus in particular, 
on account of the 1,arI.arisllls of its te'\:t awl the coarse character of the 
colouretl dra\\ ings with which it is illustrated. must he of a later date. 
Tlw general opinion at the prcsent time is that thc5e 
ISS. are of thc 
fifth century. 
The following facsimile is from the Cotlex Palatinus (Cod. \-a1.1(31):- 


Xo.81 


In this writing the contrast of the hea,'y anti light strokes is a!'. 
strongly lHarked a:-. in inscriptions on stone or metal. Shortlle
s of 
horizontal strokes, smallness of I,ows. as seen in letters P and R, and 
general lateral compression are characteristic. The formation of the 
lette). H is easily e'\:plained by referring to the same letter in thl-' 
facsimile from the poem on the Battle of Actium. It recalls the forma- 
tion of the common truncated IH.:haped eta in Greek paPP'i. The points 
are inserted by a later hand. 
But probably an earlier )IS. of \ïrgil in rustic capitals is that known 
as the' Scherlae Yaticanae' (COlI. Yat. 3223), which is ol'llamented with 
a series of most interesting paintings in classical style, no douI,t copied 


1 Tr:HIhe'
 list t"numel":lte
 hI t"nt
 -tl})"h' extant 
I

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F.\.C
DIILE 
o. 86 




I J\( U l\U 
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. 


YIRIHJ. (Cod. )Iedic.).-Bn'oHE A.D. 49-1- 


(area cum primis ingenti aequanòa cylinòro. 
et vertenda milnu et creta soliòanòa tenaci . 
ne suheilnt herbae . neu pulvere vieta fatiscat . 
u 
tum variae inluòant pestes . saepe exiguus mus . 
sub tenis . posuitquc òomos . atque horrea fecit. 
aut oculis 'c'apti foòere cuhilia talpae . 
inventusquc cavis hufo . et, quae plurima terrae 
ll10nstra ferunt. populatqllc ingentem farris acerv[ull1 
curculio. atquc inopi nwttwns formica senect'a'e . 
contemplator itùm . cum se nux plurima silvis 
inòuet in florem. et r:tmos curvavit olf'ntes . 
si 
uperilnt fetus. pariter frumenta sequentur . 
magnallllc cum magno velliet tritura c:llore . 
:It !'oi lu"\.uria foliorum exubemt umhra. 
nequicquam pinguis palea teret area culmos . 
semina vidi equidem muItos medicare serentes .) 



THE LATI
 )L\.JrSGCLE BOOK-HA
D 283 


from more ancient prototypes (Z. \Y. E.c. 13: Pal. "';Jr'. i. 116, 117). It 
is assigned to the fourth century. 



o. 
j 


The writing of this )1::;. is less monumental than that of the Codex 
Palatinus, aJltlmay he regarded as a more typical example of the hooks 
produced in the fourth IUlIl tifth centuries in the rustic hand. "-riting 
in capital letters would he an appropriate style for a tinely illustrated 
co,lex, such as the present one. 
The tir:--t rustic MS, to which an approximate date can he given is the 
)Iedicean Yirgil (Plut. 39, 1) in the Laurentian Library at Florence (Z. W. 
Ex. 10; Pol. t3JC. i. 85). A note at the end of the Bucolic,,; states that the 
)IS. was read, pointed. and corrected by the · consul onlinarius' Asterius, 
who held office in the) ear 494. COnSefjUcntly. the te'\:t must have been 
written at or before that date. 
\. specimen is here given. 


So. 86 


This smaller and more liO'htlY inscribed hand no donl->t was written 
"" 
 
with fair speed; and the 
IS. may, therefore, represent an onlinary 
!5tyle of cOIle'\: in rustic capitals when pro,lucet! for scholastic use and 
not merely as a handsomc hook. 
Among the remaining older .:\ISS. of the rustic class the most important 
is the Codex Bemhinns of Terence (Z \Y. 1":"'.8, 9: P,ll. Soc. i. 133) in the 
Yatican Library, a .:\18. of tbe fuurth or tifth century, which takes its 
name from it former owner, Bernardo Bemho, in the fifteenth century, 
alltl which is valuahle on account of its annotations. 
This handsome hut incom'enient style of literary writing could not 
be expected to last, even for étlititJtU3 de lll.fe, for a yery long periotl. 
There still survives, however, one ,'er) tinelyexecuted .:\IS., the poems of 
l'rudentius. in the Bibliothèque Sationale at Paris (Z. W. Ex. 15: Pill. 
Soc. i. :!9, 30), written with great skill, but thought not to be earlier than 
the sixth century. In the Turin Sedulins (Z. \Y. E,t'. 16) of the seventh 
century the rustic letters have altogether passe/lout of the /lomain of 
calligraphy in its true sense, amI are rough aU/I misshapen. Lastly, we 
may notice a .:\I
. which, on account of its contents and history, has 
attractell more than usual attention: the "Gtrecht Psalter, which is 
written in rustic capitals and yet can l,e scarcely older than tbe begin- 
ning of the ninth century. Copied from an ancient original which was 
illustrated with drawings. it seem" that. in orcler to maintain the same 
relative arrangements of text and illustrations. the scrilJt' founfl it the 
simplest conrse to copy the actual character of the letters, the text tlm-. 
tilling the same spacc as the original and le
l.\-ing the proper inten"als for 
the illsl'rtion of the clrawinrrs. .\]}CI yet the tex:t was not so \'"\.acth- 
,... 
 
 




84 


(mEEK AX]) L\TIX P \LAEUGIL\PHY 


('11.\1'. 


cupie(1 as to l,e (illite consistent with ancient usagl': for titles are intro- 
ducell in uncial letters-an intrusion whieh woul,1 have Leen (luite 
illlPossil.le in the earlier amI purer period of rustic capital writing. I II 
a word, the form in which the 1'trecht Psaltcr is cast must l,e re- 
ganled as acei,lental, a mere imitation of a style which hatl praeticallj" 
passed awaj". 
.J mlging- Ly the specimens which have suryi,-ed, capital writing maj 
he said to have ceased to exist as a literarjT hand for entire -te Xts ab out 
t he dose of th e fifth century. In the middle ages it survi,'ed, in l,oth 

(Jllare amI rusti c :,t yles, as an ornamental form of writing for titles and 
initials. and occasionally for a few pages of text. For example, in the 
Psalter of St. Augustine's. CanterLurj", of the beginning of the eighth 
century_ now one of the Cottonian )IR
. in the British Museum, then' 
are several prefatorj" leaves written in imitati,-e rustic lettcrs (Pul. Soc. 
i. 19: ['(It. AnI'. .lISS. ii. I:!, 13): awl in the Benedictional of Bishop 
Æthelwold (Pul. Soc. i. 143) of the tcnth century, and in a 1\IS. of Aratus 
at Boulugne (Pill. Sill'. i. !/6) written 'iuite at the end of the tenth century. 
pages in the same style are to ùe found. In the profusely ornamentetl 
)IS::;. of the Uospels and other sacred texts of the periOtl of tbe 
Carolingian kings till-' Lountiful use of capitals i& a prominent feature of 
their decoration. 


Uncials 
The second form of )Jajuscule writing employed as a literary haml 
for the texts of )IS8. is that to which the nallle of encial has lwen 
giyen. 1 It is a moditication of the square capital writing. As s(iuart' 
letters were the easiest to carve on stone or metal, so was it more simple, 
whcn writing letters with the reed or pen on a material more or less soft. 
to avoid right angles by the use of curves. rncinl, then, is essentially 
a rouwl hantl, amI its principal characteristic letters are the curved 
fomls, è\ b E h (Y). The main vertical strokes generally rise al,ove or 
fall l,elow the line of writing. This stylI-' appt'ars to ha,'e cOllie into 
common UEe as a literary hand at least as early as the fourth century. 
How much earlier it may have ùeen employed remains uncertain: Lut 
as in the most ancient specimens it appears in a fully ,lcveluped shape, 
it is not improbaLle Unlt it "as used for Looks e'"cn in th.. third century. 
Tht' period of the growth of the hand has In-en determine(l, from the 
occurrcnce of isolated uncial forms in in
criptions, etc., to lie Letwcen 
the latter part of thl' secowl century and the latter part of the fourth 
century.:! But :"ome light is thrmnl 011 its dcveJopement l.y the recovery 
at Oxyrhynchus of a fragmentarj" papyrus containing a portion of all 


I 
ee alJove, p. lO:?, 
2 Z. "'. ]"'/11/1'7(/. p_:>. Unci"l- \\en- u
..<1 in Latin ill"nl"Íptitln
 in Af..ka ill till' third 
eentu..y. 



),111 


THE LATI
 :\L\..n-:-;lTLE EOOK-H.\XD 


:!85 


epitome of Liv,\-, of the thir,l centUl'y.I Here the writin
 IS mainly 
in characters of the uncial typt': Il\1t certain letters are minuscules 
,lerived from cursive writin
 of the time. Thu'! \\1.' ha\e at this early 
,late an example of the mixed style of writin
. to lie pxamine,l in the 
ne,,-t chapter, which may sug
,'st that at that time the uncial script wa<.; 
not elefinitely developed, or. if. as is more prohahle, it W.1S so dm'elope,l. 
that another. mixed, styl!" of writing was also pmployed as a literary 
hanel. 
From the fifth to the eighth century uncial was tIll' ordinary l'ook- 
hawl of the first rank. In )[SS. of the fifth an' 1 sb..th centuries, and 
particularly in those of the earlier century, uncial writing is eXaCt. al1l1 
is generally formed with much heauty and precision of stroke: in the 
seventh century it becomes more artificial: in the course of the eighth 
century it mpidly degenerates aIlll breaks clown into a rough, bwlly- 
formcd hand, or, when written with care, is force(l and imitative. A 0.; 
a test letter of age. the letter (Y) has been :"e1ected, which in its earliest 
forms appears with the first limlJ straight, or at least not cnrvefl inward'! 
at the hottom, as it is seen in later examples. AmI the shape of the 
letter E may also he of assistance for eletermining the period of a )[S. : 
in the earlier centuries, the cross.stroke is consistently placed high, hul 
when the hand l,egins to gi\-e way in its later stages the stroke varies in 
position, hping sometimes high, sometimes low. in the letter. In fact, as 
is the case with the hawlwriting of all periocls amI countries, the first 
examples of an established hand are the pure:;t anfl hest: the letters are 
formed naturally, 11.11(1 therefore consistently." 
Of lISS. in uncial writing there are still a not inconsi,leralJle numl.el' 
extant,2 aIltl the earliest and most important ha\'e l,een represented by 
facsimiles in various palaeographical works. The palimpsest fragments 
of Cicero (Z. \Y. E.,'. 17: Pill. S".'. i. 160) in the Yatican Lihrary (Cod. 
Yat. 3757) are generally quoted as the mo
t ancient e,,-ample, amI are 
assigned to tllP fourth century. 



u. 87 


The letters are massi \-e al1l1 regular. amI the COlUlllll
 of writing arc 
very narrow. A few lines will give an idea of the amount of material 
which must have he en re'luired for the whole work. there ùein
 only 
fifteen such lines in each column, or thirty in a page. The later text is 

t. Augustine's Commentary on the P"alms, of the 
"'-enth cpntury. 
Prohahly of a nearly eljual age are the fragments of the Guspel
 of 
\Tercelli (Z. \Y. E;)'. 20), a :\JS. which is tra.litionally 
ai.l to ha,-e l.een 
written by :::it. Eusel,ius himself, who flie.] .\. D. 371. awl whie-It !IIay 
safely be placeel in the fourth century. 


I 
. (' Iwlow, p. 2
8. 


fr.lul,e-.., list l xten(l... (" 

!) ]u,.... 




86 


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287 


FAc
nnI,E :Kn. 88 


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-- - 


GOSPEI.S UF VERCELI,I.-F01:UTH CEXTUty 


(niam si 
u
d I 
etieritis 'pa,tr
n
 in nO,mine meo da vit vobis uS,que a'd/hue 
l1
n I pebsbs, 
Ule"quam ,Ill nO,mme meo pe,tite et aecipie tis ut gaudiulJ/ 
mme meo pe hte et ego rogabo prop tel' vos ipse elnim pater a mat vos me 
a'mastis et ere:didistis quojniam ego a deo 1 I e\.ivi et a pa trem veni in 
hUl1e mun) 


, I An instance of the u,(' of the mark o)f contraction with an uneontmcted 
aer(;d name 
See above, p, 8li. note :!. . 




88 


(;REEK 
\.XD L\.TlX P_\LAEOGR_\.PHY 


CH \I'. 


"S0.8X 


The Iptters have the characteristics of an early I late, snch as the 
straight first limh uf (Y) awl the consist<.'ntly high-placp.1 hurizontal of E, 
awl tllP firmness of stroke which signifies pm.ctice in a familiar style. In 
this :\18. also we have another e"ample of tIlt' en,d)' practice of writing 
the text in extremely narrow colulII ns. 
Amon cr early uncial )ISS. two of the most famous are the cOflices of 
'"' 
 
Livy at \ïenna and Paris (Z. W. Ex. 18, ID; Pal. So'.. i. 31, 32, 183). 
The writing of the \ïennese .:\IS. (Cod. Lat. 15) is rather smaller than 
that of the other. It is also a volume historically interesting to 
Englishmen, as it is conjectured, from the occurrence of a note in it, to 
have belonged to the English monk, 
nitbert, or 
uihcrht, one of the 
apostles to the Frisians. who became their bishop ahout the year 693. 
'Ve t-;e1ect from it a specimen as a good example of uncial writing of the 
fifth century. 


Xo.8U 
The uniformity ancl precision of the writing of this .:\18. are most 
remarkahlp, amI testify so perfect a training in the uncial 
cript that the 
scribe mu'!t havt' writtcn it with all the ease awl fluency of a natural 
han(l. These characteristics mark an early period. when this form of 
writing was in full ,-igour a!) the choice haw I for the prÜlluction uf books 
for the market; an.l there can therefore lIe no hesitation in placing tho 
.:\1:-). in tlw period state.l above. It will be ohselTed that, in accordance 
with tllP practice followell in early .:\ISS. of this class, the first letter in the 
page is enlarged, even though that letter may, as in thi.,> instance, occur 
in the mi.l. lIe of a word (consilia'lmla). 
As in other series of Western .:\U::;S., codices or portions of codices of 
the Scriptures, especially of the Gospels. form It large pmportion of the 
uncial series of the fifth amI sixth centuries. From amOH<' them the few 
co 
lea'''e!) of what must ha,'c been It nohle ,"olume, now presol"\'c.l in the 
lihraryof St.. naIl in J-'witzerlawl (COIl. 1394), llIay IJe selected as a repre- 
sentative example of the Lest cl,lSS. The (late of this .:\IS. has been 
place(llate in the fifth or early in the si-dh century (Put. .<';oc. ii. 50). 
X n. 90 


Comparing the writing with that of the Yercelli Gospels (Fac!>. b8), 
there appears no apprecial,!e difference in the general forms of the letters; 
lmt allowance must always be made for the maintenHnce of a Consen'a- 
ti,'e type of haml in sacrell and liturgical codices.. Other indications. 
tou, such a'!, perhaps. a little more simplicity in the cast of the lettering, 
awl the narrowness of the colullln.;;, mark the greater antiquity of the 
Yercclli )[8. 



),111 


THE LA TI:X 3L\.JCS(TLE BOOK-HAXD 


289 


For an example of uncial writing of the sixth century \\-e are able to 
turn to a )IS. which can be approximately dated-th
 Fulda MS. of the 
Gospels and other books of the X ew Testament, which was revised hy 
''ictor, Bishop of Capua, in the J'cars 346 amI 547, and is itself prohaljly 
of aljout tilt' same period (Z. W. Ex. 34). 


No. 91 


Even in this )18., as early as the middle of the sixth century, there 
is a falling off in ease and firmness of writing as compared with the earlier 
examples. There is a wider spacing of the letters, in
tead of the older 
more compact script. The curving of the fir,.;t limb of (Y) is to be noticed j 
and a certain feebleness in the management of curves. as for example in 
the letters Band S, appears to indicate that the scribe was not in perfect 
command of the style. 
To illustrate the uncial writing of the seventh century we are again 
fortunate in being able to draw on a 1\1S. which is actually dated. This 
is a )IS. of homilies of St. Augustine, 
vritten in the ablJeY of Luxeuil in 
A. D. 669. 1 


No. 92 
A rough hand of the :\lerovingian period; the letters hasty, uneven, 
and careless in regard to unifonllity. These shortcomings indicate surelJT 
the failing power of the uncial as a model literary hand. 
The next facsimile is taken from the great M8. of the Bible known 
as the Codex Amiatinus (Z. W. Ex. 35; Pal. Soc. ii. 65, (6), in the 
Laurentian Library at Florence. It is one of three codices of the Bible 
which were written l)y order of Ceolfrid, abbot of Janow in Korthumbria 
from A.D. 690; and it was taken by him on his journey to Italy, during 
which he died. in 716, for presentation to the Pope. The date of the ':\18. 
is therefore about the J"ear 700. It. must, however, be rememljered 
that the uncial book-hand appears never to have gained fa\"our in 
England; and it is probable that the ':\18. was written by Italian 
scribes hrought over to this country. 


No. 93 


. 
The text is arranged stichometrically, and the characters are rather 
ornamental but are bold and in harmony with the large scale of the 
volume, which measures nearly 20 inches in height and contains more than 
a thousand leaves. But, if the letters are individually examined, their I 
imitative Rtructure is soon fletected; and their lack of unifonnity and 


1 See :Kotice sur un Malluscrit de l'Abbaye c:e Luxeuil, by L. Delble, in Notices et Extraits des 
MSS., tom. xxxi; and Questions Mércn;ingifnnes, no. iii, by J. Havet, in Bibl. de fÉcole des 
Chartes, 'tlvi. 430. The :MS. is now in the library of ::\11'. Pierpont 1Ilorgan. 
1184 L 



290 


GREEK A
J) L
\.TIX PALAEOGRAIJHY 


CHA}'. 


FACSDIILE No. 89 


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LIyy.-FIFTH CEXTUHY 




III 


THE LJ,-TI
 "\L\.JrSCCLE BOOK-HAXD 


291 


(Bula dimissis tanta multitudo iu niorum romam con venit ut gra VIS urbi 
turba insolita esset prae,ter dilectll em.um quos in supple,mentuIll mitti 
oportebat quattuor a .c. sulpicio practorc ,",criptae legiones - I sunt intratlUe 
undecim dies dilec,tus est perfectus consules deinde I sorliti provincias sunt 
naIll prae,tores propter iurisdictionelll ma turius sortiti erant urbana -c. suI picio 
peregrina c. decimio obtigerat I hispanialll .m. claudius marcellus I sicilia III 
ser. cornelius lentulus I sardiniam .p. fonteius capito das'sem c. marcius figulllS 
erat sorti,tus consulumque servilio italia I c- marcio macedonia obvenit 
la,tinisque actis marcius extemplo I est profectus cepione deinde re:ferente ad 
senatu quasex novis Jlegionibus duas legiones seCUlll in: galliam duceret decre- 
vere patres I ut .c. slllpicius .m. claudius practores e'"{ his I quas scripsissent 
legionibus qllas I viderentur consuJi darent indig,ne patiente praetorum 
arbitrio con sulem subdectull1 demis,,;o se non I ad tri\mnal praetorum 
stans postu) 


112 



292 



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E-\CSDIILE No. 91 


293 


r '
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C'c I 't.(.9UU"1 
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XEW TEST_nrEXT OF FCLD..-\.-ABOrT ..-\.D. j46 


(Propter spem enim isra hel catena hac circum,datus sum. At illi dixe;runt 
ad emu. Nos neqllc Ilitteras accepimus de i te a iudaea. Neque adve:niens 
aliquis fratrum ' nuntiavit aut locutus' est quid de te malum' Rogamus autem 
a te aud(re quae i;,entis. :Nam I de secta hac notum est I nobis quia ubiqlle ei 
contra'dicitur. Cum consti tuissent autem illi (liem I Venerunt ad eum in 
hospi tium plure;.:. Quibus I exponebat testific:ms I regnum dei. Suadensfllle I 
eis de iesu ex lege mosi et I prophetis a mane usque I ad Yesperam. Et 
qui dam credph:mt his qUlle . dicebantur. Quitlam, vero non credebant) 



294 


GREEK 
\.XD LATIN PAL
\EOnRAPHY 


CHAP. 


F ACSIlIIILE No. 92 


cr\.ll qu lL).ßO N J ollEcT1oNeope.R
U1U. 
ETUÉ>l hOCCOç"NUSClmUS7 '^-1l 
 m es 
IN TERROÇACOR.-':uucn 
1.ð
nl-oJßC1
 
TJ t.TCjUJ-ol::ß"1c7\.ppeT1SLJ - S
U"HXn-uJ
' 

N
uðEl-,OC01NÜ UeN<yDS
-'NLUS 
U 1 ðE: 
cn h ocoo 1 U"O 1 Cá\.."'Q...E -,.;1.0 NpO
"1: 
,q u er:n U) ðE:n..E-- ]'l ON-p 01ES1:, S lp6-n..5 U
 
-6
 US COJU)EJ'lO S C7U> ;CO-n...A.CO ",pSOp 
 
SU 
()

S7 QU1 ci\.S <:XI ') aJ.,e; SENL1ð\..T 
CoRNOSTR.u . ,"'bêSL.
CUSe..LJ'-10S1N 


ST. AUGUSTINE.-A.D. 669 
(aliquid boni dilectione operamur.' I et ubi hoc cognuscimus, ante dcum es I 
interroga cor tuum vide quid fecis:ti et quid ibi appetisti. salutem tuam I 
an laude hominum ventosam, intus I vide Nam homo iudicare non potest I 
quem videre non potest, Si persua;demus corde Ilostro: cormn ipso per:suade. 
amus, quia se male sentiat I cor nostrum. id est accuset nos in) 




III 


THE LATJX 3lAJCSGGLE BOOK-HAND 


295 


FACSDULE No. 93 


I= >..CTU<.l) esT 
u:re<.T\ L"'U<'1) 
1-"UI
ßXeINllUeJ
e-NT INOl(l") 
--... 
UTÅuðl,
eNL Uel
BUl\,ðl 
eTlpSESTÀB
T SECl1S ST
SNU-;' 
<JeNes
Re-r'l) 
eTu,ðlT l'u
 NXUesSTÀ,NTeS 
SecUSSTÀSNU(\) 
1)ISC
T{)J
es ^U
\')ð1SceNOe 
,uNTeTI:
UXBÅNT ReTIÂ 

ceNðeNS ^UTe(n tNl.INA<.Y) 
N
Uccn qu"eeRA.T 
SlmONJS 
J
(.)ÇAU1l:'ÀlITe<n 
-reJ"lnÀ 
RrolJCel
e pUSllLU(l") 
eTsroeNs ðoCel\AT 
ðeN
l.1lcuL,- TURß
 


BIBLE (CODEX AML\.TINLS).-ABOUl' A.D. 700 


(Factum est autem cum I turbae inruerellt in eum I ut audirent verbum dei I 
et ipse stabat secus stagnum I genesareth I et vidit duas naves stantes I secus 
stagnum I piscatores autem discende rant et Iei).vabant retia I ascend ens autem 
in unam I navem quae erat I simonis I rogavit autem a terra 11.educere pusiI- 
Ium I et sed ens docebat I de navicula turbas) 



296 


GREEK AXD LATI
 P
\.LAEOGRAPHY 


CH.\.P. 


F ACSDIILE X o. !)4 


.ph
ReS).LlTecDge 
NU1TeSROCD 
eSRom
uTecnge 
Na1T
R^-m 
-xRM:D
UTEXTIgeNaJT 
-XmlN1\.O"Xð 
}...mlNXO.Xð^UTem 
<;eNa1TN

SSON 


SSON
UTeQ")ge 
iNuJTs
LcnoN 
s.
mON
UTeax;e
OJT 
"I fßOOZ oeR^-cn"):ð 
.I 


GosP ELS.-A. D. 73!)-60 


(phares autem ge;nuit eSl'om I esrom autem ge nuit a1'am I aram autem genuit I 
aminadab ' amil1adab autem I genuit naasson : l1aasson autem ge,nuit salmon 
salmon autem gel1uit I booz de rachaL) 



XIII 


THE L\.TIX )L\.JL'"SCrLE BOOK-HXXD 


:
97 


general unsteadiness indicate that the uncial hand is here passing into r 
the period of decadence, although the hand<;ome scale of the writing 
rather screens its defects. 
Of the other two codices mentioned aboye, which Ceolfrill presented 
to the monasteries of \Vearmouth and .Jarrow, only a single leaf appears 
to have suryived. This leaf (Brit. 
lus., ArId. 
IS. 37777: .LYell' Pal. Soc. 
158, 139) is written in the same uncial style, though in a smaller hand, 
and is evidently of the same date as the Code'(: Amiatinus. There is 
every reason to I J elieve that its identification as a leaf from one of Ceol- 
frid's famous codices is correct. The writing. like that of the Amiatinus, 
has no distinctively English characteristics. 
To illustrate the uncial hand when it had passed further into the 
imitative stage of the eighth century, a specimen is selected from a )IS. 
of the Gospels (Brit. )lus., Add. )IS. 5463), written by the monk Lupus 
at the command of Ato or Atto, abbot, npparently. of the monastery of 
St. Yincent on the Yolturno, in the territory of Benevento, from A.D. 739 
to 760 (Pill. :ioe. i. 236). 


No.9J 


The writing i
 liuite calligraphic, displaying the fine sense of beauty 
of form which is conspicuous in the best specimens of Italian writing of 
all ages; but its imitative character is easily detected if the letters are 
analysed. It will be !:ieen how inconstant and weak in formation many 
of them are, in spite of the fine appearance of the )IS. 11,'3 a whole. 


It is not necessary to follow the history of the uncial hand in the 
ninth century, when it was pl'1lctically dead as a literary hand and was 
chietlyemployed in alMing a further air of spleu,Iour to the co
t1y )ISS. 
of the Carolingian monarchs. 



CHAPTER XIV 


LATI
 P ALAEOGRA PHY (coati/wed) 


The Mixed Uncial and Minuscule Book-hand 


THE fact must not he lost sight of that, after alL the majuscule forms 
of writing, both capital and uncial. which have been under discussion, 
represent only one class of the handwritings of the periods in which they 
were practised, namely, the literary script used in the production of 
exactly written codices, and therefore a hand of comparatively limited 
range. By its side, and of course of far more extensive and general 
use, was the cursive hand of the time, which under certain con<Ji- 
tions, and particularly when a book was being produced, not for the 
general market, but for pri,.ate or limited circulation, would invade 
the literary domain of pure majuscule writing and show its presence 
by the intrusion of minuscule letters which are proper to the cursive 
alphabet. l Thus some of the notes of scholars in the margins of early 
majuscule 1\18S., or sometimes a few inserted leaves of additions, are 
found written in a mixed style of negligently formed uncials with certain 
cursive forms in limited numbers. 
But some recently discovered fragments carry us back stiU further 
to a period earlier than our earliest Latin vellum codices (the Ambrosian 
Homer, perhaps, excepted), amI suggest interesting speculations regarding 
these ancient mixed hands. These fragments are the remains of a papyrus 
roll containing portions of an epitome of Livy (Brit. l\lus., Pap. 1532), 
found at Oxyrhynchus in 1903 (Ox. Pap. iv. 90-116), which may be 
assigned with contkIence to the second half of the third century (Ne
v 
Pal. Soc. 53). 


No. 95 


Here we find a handwriting main],}' following the uncial hook-hand, 
but admitting certain minuscule forms, as b, d, m, r; and with the 
letter f fluctuating between the uncial and minuscule. The MS. there- 
fore, while in no sense a calligraphically written one, may he regarded 
as a characteristic working copy for ordinary use, and as an ancestor of 
the mixed-uncial and half-uncial ::USS. which form the subject of the 
present chapter. 


1 In de
cribing these mixed hands it is necessary to anticipate the discussion of the 
Roman cursive writing. 



THE LATIX )[JXED BOOK-H.\XD 


299 


. 
But the occurrence of this e...ample at so early a date, and at a period 
when it has been thought that the uncial was only in course of develope- 
ment, raises the question whether it is an instance of the Latin book- 
hand making for that developement, or, like the later examples of mixed 
hands, a variation from the uncial already full
' developed. It is more 
probable that the latter view will turn out to be the correct one, and 
that further discoveries will prove that the uncial book-hand had reaclIed 
its final stage of perfection at an earlier period than has been supposed; 1 
and, further, that, as the present )18. shows, the uncial was not the only 
style of book-hand current in the third century.2 
A good instance of mixed writing occurs in the notes and additions 
to a )18. of S1. Jerome's version of the Chronicle of EU'3ebius in the 
Bodleian Lihrary (MS. Auct. T. 2. 26), of the sixth century (Pal. Soc. 
ii. 129, 130). 


No. 96 


Here the general character is a sloping uncial, but the letters band d 
are minuscule forms, and the cursive influence also shows itself in the 
lengthening of vertical strokes. An unusual method of al)hreviation of 
the termination bus, by placing a dot above, instead of at the side of, the 
bow of b will be noticed in line 7. 
The adaptation of this mixed hand, growing as it were by accident 
into a recognized style of writing, to more formal literary purposes woulù 
naturally follow. In the 
IS. of Gaius at Yerona (Z. W. EJ'. 24) of the 
fifth century, besides the ordinary uncial forms, the cursive-shaped d and 
long s 3 are used; and also in the few fragmentary leaves of "Glpian at 
Strassburg, of the fifth or sixth century, the cursive long s occurs (Berlin 
Acad.. Sit::.un[Jsbe1". (1903), 922, 1034; (1904), 1156). In the Florentine 
Pandects. written by many scribes. several cursi,.e fonus appear (Z. \V. 
Ex. 54; Pal. Soc. ii. 108) in one portion of the MS. And fragments of 
a Graeco-Latin glossary on papyrus (Gomment. Soc. Gottil/[Jen. iv. 156 ; 


I 'Vhen writing the chapter on 'Palaeography' in A Companion to Latin Studies, 
Cambridge, 1910, I "as inclined to take the view of the later perfection of the uncial 
book-hand. 
2 That the mixed hand continued in use in Egypt even for classical works is proved 
Ly the papyrus fragments of Virgil (Am. i. 495-50;) and Sallust. (Catüine), of the fifth 
century, found at Oxyrhynchus (Ox. Pap., nos. 31, 88-1). In the Rainer collection at 
Vienna, also, is a fragment of the' Formula Fabiana ., on vellum, in a mixed hand, said to 
be of the fourth century (Mittheilungen a'Us der Sammlung Rainer, h. 1). 
S A curious instance of mi
under,tanding of the cursive or long s (f' by an ignorant 
scribe is afforded by the Harley 1IIS. 5792, which contains a Graeco-Latin glossary, written 
probably in France in the seventh century. The archetype from which the MS. was 
transcribed, evidently had this form of the letter in several places. The scribe of the 
Harley MS., not understanding it, copied it sometimes as an i without a dot ,I), some- 
times as an i with a dot (i .-Glossae Latino-graecae, etc., ed. Goetz find Gundermann, 1888, 
prnef. xxii. 



300 


FACSDlILE 
n. 9;) 


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El'Il'om; OF LI\"L-THlRlJ CE
TlHY 



301 


(sua manu bonu... I a lanatone cen. . . I vastaita porci[ a 1. .. I m. claudio 
marcello. . . I p. licini cmssi po... I ludis funeribus... I tLabernac]ulis 
po . . . I nate.. eci . . rat. .. I in foro futura i .. I dim. . . m han . . . , . . . . . 
.' . I... I . . . 11 beri. .. ... bellum p . . . ' . . . l!ites in . .. .... theoxen . . . 
in mare m. ugien . . . I ficti egrimonibus. .. I per patrem coactu. . . I p. len- 
tulo m. . aebio . . . i in agro l.nerylli sc. .. I a. postumio c. I cum l.gurihus 
his. . . I I. livius trihU12/lS plebis quo. . . Imagistratulll pete. . . I est I q. fulvio 
I. manlio c . . . I m lepidi et fuly. i no. . .) 



302 


FAC&nULE Ko. 96 


Am
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CHROXOLOGIC.\.L X OTE:::.-SIXTH C.E
 fLRY 


(A morte caesaris usque in consulatum theodosii .xv. fiunt anni cccclxxxiii I 
passus est dominus ieslts christlts . a constitutione mundi post anI/os .v. milia 
cC"\.xviiii I ab abraam autem usque ad passionem anni sunt .ii. xliiii I A 
passione domini usquc ad consulatum eustathii anni sunt ccc
ciiii et usque I 
ad consulatum domini nostri theodosii .xv. anni ccccviiii I Item ab Ildventu 
domini usquc ad consztlatum eundem quotiens persecutio I christianorum vel 
a quibus designat.is temporibus facta est I I a neronp qui sextus regnavit post. 
passionem domini anno xxxviiii I prima persecutio orta est an no imperii eius 
xiii in qua petrus et I paulus apostoli gloriose occubuerunt I II Secunda 
persecut.io a dometiano fratre titi qui nonus I regnavit. orta est allno imperii 
eius xiiii a quo etiam iohannes I evangelista in insula quae pathmos appel- 
latur relegatus I apocalypsim vidit. I III t.ertia persecutio facta est a traiano 
qui .
i. regnavit anno imperii eius x. I IIIl quarta facta est a marco antonino 
Yero qui cum aurelio com:mod , ) 
iiii regnavit anno imperii eorum -vi.) 



F .AC
DnLE No. 97 


303 


f\.p IN 1
"tU
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"T e-f-C -tt \.;
 r: 


PAXDECTS.-SIXfH-SE\-EXTH CEXTLRY 


(Papinianu:s quoque probat 
Idem libro tertio disputationum in potestate I man
nte filia pater sponso 
nuntium remit,tere potest et 
ponsalia dissolvere enimvel'o I si emancipata 

st non potest neque nuntium I remittere neque quae dotis causa data sunt I 
condicere ipsa enim filia nubendo efficiet I dotem e
se condictionemque 
extinguet quae I causú non secuta nasci poterit nisi forte I quis proponat ita 
dotem patrem pro eman cipata filia dedi sse ut si nuptiis non consen tiret vel 
contractis vel non contractis re,peteret quae dederat tunc enilU habebit I 
repetitionem: 
Iulianus libro sexto decimo digestorulU I sponsalia sicut nuptiae Consensu 
contra!hentium fiunt et ideo sicut nuptiis ita spon salibus filiam fmnilias 
consentire oportet: 
Ulpianus libro singulari de sponsalibus sed I quae patris voluntati non repugnat 
consen tire intellegitur tunc autem solum dissen tiendi a patre licentia filiae 
conceditur si ill,dignum morilJus vel turpem sponsum ei I pater eligat :) 



304- 


UREEK AKD LL\TIX P
\LL\EOnRAPHY 


CHAP. 


R!tpi,L. 1I1u
enm, Y. 301} are also written in mixe(l charactcrs. l These 
examples are so many proof:;, that 5ccular )IS
.. such as those relating to 
law and grannnar. were not always sul
ect in their production to the 
sallie strict calligraphic rules as ::\18S. for church use or of a specially 
sumptuous character. 'l'hf' scribe, writing rather for the scholar than 
for the public reader or hook-collector, allowed himself a certain freedom 
and adopted a style which he could writE' more rapidly; and yet at the 
same time the preponderating element remained uncial. 
In the following facsimile from the Pawlects of the Laurentian Library 
at Florence (Pal. Soc. ii. 1(8), prohaLl,y of the end of the sixth or hegin- 
ning of tllf' seventh century, it will tIe noticed that the minuscule cursi,
e 
forms are used at the ends of lines, gcnerall.r the weak point of texts, 
where innonttions make their first appearance. 


No. 97 
In other pages of the 
JS. the minuscule letters adapted from the 
cursive are mOl"e general, e...:tending to b, d, m. r, s, not only at the enclH 
of lines, hut promiscuou:,;ly with the uncial forms, and illm;trate a further 
stage of de,'elopement. 
But these examples represent the mixed hand in its simpler stages. 
A rpference to the earl
" l\I
S. in which it is emplo
"ed by the writers of 
annotations shows that the proportion of the uncial amI cursive minuscule 
forms depended a good deal on the taste or practice of the writer. He 
was necessarily limited in the space left for hi:,; notes, and was therefore 
constrained to use a more formal kind of writing than his ordinary current 
han(l would have been, somewhat in the same way as in annotating 
a printed book we, at the present da
r, often employ a half-print kind of 
writing, accommodated to the narrow margins at our disposal. He there- 
fore naturally used a disconnected, and not his ordinary cursive, form of 
writing; and the negligent uncial, referred to above, seems to have been 
generally found most suitaLle for the purpose, qualified, as alreadJ' 
described, LJ' an admixture of cursi,'e forms. It is the varJ"ing extent 
to which these cursive forms were admitted by different writers that 
here claims our attention. The marginal f lirections for the artist in thc 
Quedlinburg fragment of an illustrated early Italic ,'ersion of the BillIe 
(Schum. Tlleolo.l}. 8tltdien, 187{}), and the scholia and notes in such :\IS8. 
as the fragments of Juvenal in the Yatican (Z. \Y. E.c. 5), the Codex 
Beml)inus of Terence (Z. W. E.r. 8; Pal. Hue. Í. 135), the 1'Iledicean Virgil 


I The same mixcd style is found in Latin inscriptions of Northern Africa; e.g. the 
J\lakter inscription (Pal. Soc. ii. 49). It also appears in the more recentlydiscovercd inscrip- 
tion of Diocletian's edict, 'de pretiis ,cnalium ' of A. D. 301 (Pal. Soc. ii. 12ï, 128). Even iu 
inscriptions in square capitals small letters sometimes intruded: see an instance of a small 
b in an inscription of A. D. 104, given in Letronnc, Inscriptions de l"Egypte, 1842, 1!:S48, atlas, 
pI. 31. 



:XIV 


THE LATIX HALF-CXCIAL BOOK-H),SD 


305 


(Z. W. Ex. ]0; Pal. Soc. i. 86), the BiLle fragment at Weingarten 
(Z. \V. E.t. 21), anù others, exhibit the han(l in yarious phases he tween 
the uncial and minuscule styles. 
At length in the scholia on the Bemhine Terence, we have the haml 
ill the fully de\'eloped condition, in which the minuscule element asserts 
itself so strongly that but few of the purely uncial forms remain. In 
this developed stage tllt' mi'\:eLl hand attains a recogniæd position. It is 
the H;llf-uncial haml which we fillfl employe(l as far back as the fifth 
century as a literary hand in the prolluction of formally written )[:-;S. 


The Half-uncial Book-hand 


This writing, as will afterwarlls be seen, pla
rs a very important part 
in the history of certain national han,ls. A modified form of the uncial 
:l
 just explained, and recolllmending itself no doubt from the greater 
ease with which it could be written than the more laborious pure uncial, 
it was quickly adopte(l as a book-hand: and the not inconsiderable 
number of examples which are still e
tant pro\'e how largel
y it was 
practised, at least within a certain area, chiefly comprising, it seems, 
HaIJ" and Southern France. The earliest example appears to ue the Fasti 
Commlares of the years 487-a1 in a palimpsest at '"erona (Z. W. H.i.'.30). 
Of more importance is the )IS. of 
t. Hilary at Rome, written before 50a 
10 (Z. \Y. E.I
. 52; Pal. Soc. i. 136; }'acs. 98, below). Other examples are 
the Sulpicius Severus of Verona of the year 517 (Z. W. E.c. 32); a list of 
popes to 523. and carried on to 530, together with a collection of canons, 
in a :MS. from Corbie (Z. \Y. E.,'. 40-2; .Alh. Pa[.1 11); a similar )1::;. at 
Colognc (Z. ,,-. Ex. 37, 38,44); a Bible commentary at )Ionte Cassino 
earlier than 369 (Z. \Y. Ex. 53; :Fac,;. 100, below); yarious )188. at ::\lilan, 
originally in the monastery of Bohhio (Pal. Su". i. 137, 138, 161, 16:2); 
a MS. in the Libri collection (Pal. Soc. ii. 10); a Hilary on papyrus at 
Vienna (Pal. Soc. ii. 31); and several )[SS. at Lyons, Paris, and Cambrai 
{.A lb. Pal. 6-a, 11, 13)-of the si:üh or seventh centuries. 
As in this style of writing a large proportion of the forms of letters 
which are afterwards found in the minuscule hand of the Carolingian 
period are already developed, it has also Leen called the pre-Caroline 
minuscule. This title, howe\'er, being anticipatorJ', it is better to give 
the hand an independent name, and that of Half-uncial is sufficiently 
.distinctive; unless, indeed, the still more exact title of Roman Half- 
uncial is prefera1Jle. 
The following specimen is taken ìrom the :\IS. of St. Hilary on the 


J .Album Paleographique, arec des notiæs explica'ires par la Sociili de I'i:cole d s Clu.rüs, Paris. 
1887. 


11"4 


x 



306 


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XI\" 


THE LATIX HALF-CXCL\L BOOK-HAXD 



 
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GREEK 
XD LATIX PALÂEOGRAPHY 


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XIV 


THE LATIN HALF-LXCL\.L BOOK-HAXD 


3m 


Trinity in the Archives of St. Peter's at Rome, which, as a note records, 
was re,'iseJ in the fourteenth JTear of Trasamund, King of the \Yandab, 
that is, in A.D. 509-10 (Pal. Soc. i. 136). 


Xo.98 


In this facsimile an almost complete minuscule alphabet is represented; 
and it will be seen that, while the round style of uncial writing is still 
maintained, there are verJ' few of the letters which are really uncials, 
X being the onlJ' one which prominentlJ' asserts itself. Several instances 
of the cursive 'L'-shapell u, written above the line, just as the letter is 
frequently placed in cursive texts, will be noticed. 
A carefully e-.,;:ecuted example of French origin is a )[5. of the works 
of St. Augustine in the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris pIS. lat. 13367), 
which at one time IJelongeJ to the monasterJ' of Corbie; of the sixth 
centurJT (Ke'lL' Pal. Sue. RO). 


Xo.99 


The style of writin
 is rather more calligraphic than that of the last 
example; and the )15. maJ' be regarded as belonging to the class" hich 
oòviouslJ' proviclell models when the reformation of the minuscule ùook- 
hand was being carried out under the authority of Charlemagne. The 
persistence of the capital form of 1\ in the half-uncial hand was no doul.t 
owing to a desire to avoid ambiguity which would have followed the 
sulJStitution of the minuscule n, a letter which might be easily confused 
with the short-stemmed r, as seen in this example. This persistence 
accounts for the sUr\'i,'al of the capital X, side by side with the minus- 
cule letter, in minuscule )I
S. Of the marks of punctuation only the full 
point appears to be original. 
But the most IJeautifully executed )15. of early date in this stJ'le of 
hand is the l.iblical commentary of :\1onte Cassino, written before the 
J'ear 36t1 (Z. \Y. Eæ. 53). 


x o. 100 


This may be accepted as a standard example of the perfect half-uncial, 
written with a full sense of beauty by an Italian scribe. 


Here, then, we lJring to a close the section dealing with the Latin 
majuscule, capital and uncial, literarJT scripts, and the mixed stJ'les imme- 
diately derived from the uncial; and we break off our examination of 
the furmal book-hands to take up that of the Roman Cursive writing 
which, as we ha\'e seen, essentially atiected the half-uncial, and which 
had an aU-important influence in forming the later handwritings of 
\Y estern Europe. 



CHAPTER XV 


L.\TIX PALAEOGHAPHY (continuc.l) 


The Roman Cursive Script 


TilE po,'erty of material for the early history of Homan writing, as 
compared with that for the histor
y of Greek writing, has alread
r been 
noted. Though we can now follow, more or less perfectly, in the recently 
recO\'ered papyri, the de,'elopement of Grcek writing from the fourth 
century B.C., very few Latin (locuments, and none that can be placed 

'arlier than thc Christian era, have heen found among them. \Yhile 
therefore there ha
 been so great an accession of material during the 
last ti,'e-aml-twenty 
rears for the study of early Greek palaeography, 
the condition of things in regard to Latin palaeography anel in particular 
for the histOQr of Ruman Cursi "e writing has undergone hut little 
change. 
3luch of the earliest material is found among the wall-inscriptions of 
Pompeii. These inscriptions ha,'c been divided into two classes: (I) those 
traeell with the brush, generally in formal and not cursi,'e capitals, and 
consisting of advertisements, recomllll'llliations of camlillates, announce- 
ments of public games, of lost articles, of houscs to let, etc.; and (2) scrawls 
and scrihLlings, sometimes written in charcoal, chalk. etc., but more 
generally scratched with a point (the so-called 9m.tjiti) in cursive 
letters, lJl
ing quotations from poets, idle wortls, reckonings. salutations, 
love a(ldresses, pa8quinadø;, liatirical relllarkli, etc. A few are uf ancient 
elate, lmt most of them rang'c 1 Jetween A. D. û3 and the year of the 
,lestruction of the city, .\. D. it!. Similar inscriptions ha,'e been fouml 
at Herculaneum amI in the excavations anel catacoml J s of Home. ::\lust 
of all these ha\"e been collected by Zangellleiliter in the COJ'jJUs IWJaip- 
tiOHUIn LotillW'U1n, vol. i,', which also contains a carefully compile(l 
table of the forms of lettcrs employelJ.I Home of those found in HOllie 
are represented in the RIJmtl slIbtl'1'j'UUCa ('!u'istÙuw of De Ros'ii. 
Contemporary with these wall-inscriptions are the waxed tablets 
found in 1873 at Pompeii, in the housc of the banker L. Caecilius 
.Jucundus,2 inscrihed with documents connectell with saIl's II,}' auction 


1 Reproduced, together with the table of letters of the Daci:m waxed tablets I'rÏntcd in 
"01. iii, by permission of the Hoyal Pru!'si'ln Academy, in Pal. Snc. ii. 30. 

 See above, p. IS. 



RO)L\S CCHSIYE 


311 


and tax-receipts, in cursive writin
, amI ranging in date chiefly from 
\. D. 53 to 62: e4litetl also, in 1898, by Zangemeister in a supplement to 
the C. 1. L. iv. Of similar character are the waxed taLlets, some of 
which are dated between .\. D. 131 and 167, founll in the ancient mining 
works of Yerespatak in Dacia,I amI published" ith a taLle of forms of 
letters in the C. 1. 1.. iii. With these also mUf't be g-rouped the tiles 
which haw heen fouwlon various sites. 
cratched, hcfore being baked, 
with alphabets, verses, or mi
cellaneous memoranda.S. 
Among the single papyrus document,> which ha'"e heen fouIllI in recent 
.rears in Egypt, and of which facsimiles are given in dittèrent works, the 
followil1
 may he enumerate,I for the convenience of student
. At Berlin 
there is a copy of an Imperial edict, said to he of the time of Tiberius 
(A1!JYPt. Ud,,:uHdcn H'U::, den l.:öni;;l. Jlubee/I, no. 6;28); and also a papyru::; 
containing portions of two speeches in the senate, ascribed to the rei
n 
of Clauùiu!', _\. D. 41-54 (Steffens, ElltwickllOJ!) del' [({teii!. &lll'iß. 
pI. 101). A papyrus at Geneva contains Homan military accounts of 
the first century (Xicole and )Iorel, A ,'chh'cs Jl il itaÏ"i"l's duo premier 
.si
cle). A similar papyrus, of the 
econd century, is printed by Grenfell 
and Hunt, FO!J{'un TOll"I::;, no. cv. From Oxyrhynchus there are a note 
of enrolment of recruits of A.D. 103 (O,t. Pap. vii, no. 1022), a frag- 
mentary military account of A. D. 20;; (ibid. iv, no. 735), and a declara- 
tion of hirth, \.D. 194-6 {il1id. vi, 110. 8941. A roll, now in Berlin. of the 
First AugusbUl cohort of Spain, when selTing in E
ypt, A.D. 156, is 
reproduced hy the P(l[({eo!J1'ajllÚml Societ!J, ii. 165. The mo
t perfect 
Latin document on papyrus is in the British )lusemn, and records the 
purchase of a slM"e l,y an officer of the Ruman tieet on the Syrian coast, 
A.D. 166 (Pal. Soc. ii. WO). Two letters of the tirst century are given in 
facsimile in 'Yes:-,ely.s Sell/'Iittaftin ;ur ((eUn'en l(ltl'ini
cll(,11 P({[tleo- 
!JHlpltiC, Yienna, 1898; one of \.D. 167, by Grenfell and Hunt, G/'eek 
POl,y/'i, ser. ii, no. cviii (now Brit. )Ius., Pilp. 730); amI one of the ,>econd 
century, hy the same, in O,t. Pop. i, nO. 32; and a declaration of the 
'ear 
237 anù a petition of 
47 appear in (J,e. Pttp. viii, no. 1114, an.l iv, 
no. 7:20. 
All the above examples of Roman cursive writing represent the 
or,linary writing of the people for ahout the first three centuries of the 
Christian era. The letters are e::;sentially the oM Roman letters written 
with fluency, awl undergoing- certain moditicatiuns in their forms, which 
cnntually lleveloped into the minuscule )HUld. The same original 
Roman letters written carefully became, as we h,l.ye seen, the formal 


I See above, p. 18. 
" Some of them are inscribed with memomnda of the brickfields. One found at 
Aquilei.l hears the "arning of a severe taskmaster to some unfortunate workman: 'Ca\e 
malum, si non m"e,'is lateres DC; si ras(-ris minus, malum formidabis. "-c. I. L. v, 
no. 8110 (l.G . 



...... 
o 
...... 


N N 
>- ""7' 
 
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>< X- X X )< 
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RO)L\
 CrRSIYE 


313 


capital alphabets in u&e in inscriptions under the Empire and in the 
sumptuous :\1:-,:;_ of the earlJ" centuries of our era. It is prol,able that 
the wall.,scrilJblings of Pompeii essentially represent the stJ-le of cursive 
writing which had been followed for some two or three centuries before 
their date; for, in the other direction, the difference between the style 
of the Dacian taLlets and that of the Pompei an period, although they 
arc separated bJT a long inter,"al, is not so marked as might have been 
expected. 
If we turn to the taLle of letters emploJ"ed in the gTu.(iil i of Pompeii_ 
we see how in the first centurJ" the original capital forms stand side 
by side with other modified forms which even at that date hall begun to 
tend towards minuscules. 


No. 10 1 


In A the cross stroke falls, so to say, out of its horizontal position_ 
and hangs as a short middle stroke or entirely disappears. The slurring 
of the bows of B, in quick writing, produces the form of the letter 
resembling a stilted a, the wa'-ed stroke representing the bows, and the 
loop the original upright main stroke. This is the most complete trans- 
formation of any letter in the alphabet. C and G exaggerate the length 
of the upper part of the CUlTe. The letter D developes gradually the 
uncial form, which afterwards produces the minuscule l.y lengthening 
the upper stroke of the bow, while the straight main stroke, like that of 
the B, turns into a curYe. The letter E is represented in two forms. the 
first being the capital more or less negligently written (later, worn down 
into a mere tick or hook. 
), the second being the òouble vertical- 
stroke letter, used al!So in inscriptions and in the Faliscan alphabet. F in 
like manner takes the form of a long and a short stroke, both more or 
less YerticaI. the short stroke graòually degenerating into a curYe. In 
the changes of H we see the origin of the minuscule in the shortening 
of the second main stroke. Besides the normal capital form, we llave )1 
represented I.J" four vertical strokes, 1111, the first usually longer than the 
rest: and so, too, X appears also in the form of three strokes, III. The 
hastilJT written 0 is no longer a circle, but is formed by two curves: 
and, the natural tendencJ" when writing with a hard point being to 
form concave rather than com"ex cun"es, the secoml cun"e of the letter 
also becomes conca Ye. In the letter P "e see the gradual wearing down 
of the bow into a mere oblique stroke; in R the slurring of the 10"" 
into a waved stroke; and in S the straightening of the lower cune aUfI 
the deYelopement of the upper one into an oblique stroke. 
This style of cursi,"e lettering, in vogue during the first three ceu- 
turiee;; of our era, was of course sul
ect to modifications arising through 


., 



314 


GREEK 
-\..xD LATIS PAL\.EOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


FAL'
DIILE No. 1O:? 


\
 \
\\\,\ \\\t\ (''' t \\'.\\ Q.,.

\\t> ( 
\ (:).,'\\\.t\,\C\ (\.'-.'U. 


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\!..l\ 0l 

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\t)( 
\ 
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 1.1:\1'\ Ie; \ '- 
'--\.\\
\\t
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\,- t't-.\\\\t\\ t 
\\
t.\\\.
\\\\. Fì\ .f\\r \..\
\\. 

lt
ll 
 t, G,\\..G 4\1\ \ '-I( """iy, 
r
\
nr1 \\\\II,I_lfrNì-Y 


PO'[l'EL\.
 "
AXEU T_-UJLE f.-_\. D. j!) 


(cn. pompeio grospho grospho I pompeio gaviano ii ...ü. illr die I vi idus 
iulias I privatus colonorllm coloniae I veneriae corneliae pompei,ianorlllll 
ser[ vus: scripsi me I accepisse ab I caecilio illcllndo I sestertios mille se scentos 



"\.y 


RO)L\N C"LRSIYE 


31;) 


progrl'''''' of time and from the nature of the writing material emplor ed , 
whether the smooth 1mt cling-ing surface of wax scratched with the 
point of the stilus, or the less impeding- paprrus or woo<<1 or vellum 
inscribed in ink with the reed or pen. 


\Ye will nOw turn our attention to specimens from the two collections 
of waxeù tahlets mentioned a1Joye. yiz., the earlier series found in the 
house of the banker L. Caecilius Jucundus at Pompeii, and the later 
Dacian series of the second centurr. 
In the tablets found at Pompeii we have writing on two kinds of 
material, amI ùiffering accordinglr: that of the deeds themselves, 
incise
l on the waxed pages with the stilus in decidedly cursive 
characters: and that of the endorsements and lists of witnesses, written 
in ink upon the bare wood of the pages which were not coated with 
wax,l in a generall
' more restraim
d strle and emplo
'ing other forms 
of certain letters. TIut at this moment we are considering onlr the 
writing on the waxed surfaces; and as a well written example a page 
is selected from a tablet of A.D. 5!) (C. I. L. i,', supp1. cxliii; ;:;andr s , 
('vll1panion to Lott,L t;tudieii, ;'68). 


.x o. 102 


The natural tendency, in writing on a resisting or clinging surface 
'iuch as wax, is to turn the point of the writing implement inwards and 
hence to slope the letters to the left. The letters emplored hr prefcr- 
ence, where a choice is possible, would usually be those which are more 
easil
' written in disconnected stroles, such as the two-stroke E and the 
four-stroke 11, as used in this example. ()n the other hand, we find 
here the ordinarr capital X, instead of the letter formed of three wrtical 
....trokes; perhaps to avoid am1 J iguity. The handwriting is that of a 
practised scribe, regular anù cIear; nor at this time is the lettering 
complicated Ly the linking and monogrammatic combinations of two 
or more letters, which occur particularly in the Dacian tablets. 
The forms of the letters inscribed" ith the stilus in the Pompeian 
tal.lets are gi, en in the Table of Latin Cursi ye Alphahets (Plate 1. cuI. 
:!) at the end of this chapter; the forms of the letters written in ink 
will ùe found in the Table (Plate 1, co1. 3). 
X ext follows a facsimile from the Dacian ta l.lets of the second 
century. It is taken from one ùf the pages of a tal.let recor.1ing the 
dissulution of a lJUrial clull at AILurnus 3lajor, or Verespatak, in the 
year 167 ()Ia:ssmann, LiI.. lHU'., taL. 2; C. I. L. iii. !)2ö-7). 


1 See above} p.l!J. 



316 


CREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


ClL\1'. 


F ACSDlILE X o. 103 


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D_\cI.\X W.\XED TAllLET.-A.D. 167 


(iulium iuli quoque cornrnagistrum suurn I ex die magisteri sui non accessise 
ad alburnum neqllc I in collegio seque eis qui presentes fuerunt ratio:nem 
reddedisse et si quit eOl'um abuerat redde,disset sive funerihus et cautionem 
suam in qua leis cave rat recepisset modo que autem lleque fu:neraticis 
sufficerent lleque loculum abcret nequc I quisquam tam -rnagno tempore- 
diebus qui]bus legi I continetllr convenire voluerint aut confer re fllneraticia 
sive munera I seque iùcil'cO per hunc libellum publice tesbmtur ut si quis 
defunctus fuerit ne lmtet se collegium abere aut I ab eis aliquem IJetitionem 
funeris abiturllm I propositus alh maiOl'i v idus febr imp 1 aur ver iii et 
quadrato cs act alb maiOl'i) 



xv 


RO)IA
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317 


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RO)IAI\ (TR
IYE 


319 


x o. 103 
In following the htructure of the writing, it will he of advantage to 
the student to haw before him the table of the letters of the Dacian 
tablets, carefullr compiled llr Zangemeister (C. I. L. iii. tab. AI. 
Xo.10-t. 


It will IJe noticed that the form of )1 cOlllpohed of four, as well as 
that of X composed of three, vertical strokes has disappeared: perhaps 
huch forms had been found to cause too frequent ambiguities in a script 
consi!'ting so largclr of detached strokes; and the or,linarr capital 111 
and X are not difficult in formation. But the two-stroke E was too 
useful a form, as against the capital. to l,e set aside: and it still pre- 
dominates. Among other letters we may note the growth of the flat- 
headed G, a shape which has a later historr in the mediaeval book- 
hanas. A system of linking also has g-rown up. which dismembers the 
letters anfl lea yes the initial stroke of a letter attached to its prede- 
cessor, while the rest stal1l1s quite separate, thus intensifring the natural 
disposition to write in di
ointed strokes upon such a material as wax, 
and incrensing the difficuItJT of reading. It is useful to examine these 
monogrammatic linkings, for some of them are the ancestors of similar 
combinations which occur in later cursi,'e scripts and are imitated even 
in l.ook-haI1l1s. 


x o. 10;) 
The typical forms of the letters of the wall in..,criptions or !froffiti, 
of the Pompeian Tablets, and of the Dacian Tahlets are set out in the 
'fable of Latin ('ursin _-\lphabets (Plate 1) at the end of thi
 chapter: 
afiònling the student a means of comparing the alphahets written with 
the stilus. There" ill be occasion for some ollsen-ations upon them, 
after tracing the de,"elopement of the Roman cursi,'e as written with 
the pen, when the whole series of cursive alphabets, whether produced 
I,y pen or stilus, as shown in the three plates of the Tahle, can l'e 
l'eyiewed. 


Turning to the Roman cursive script as written in ink on papp'us or 
plain wood or vellum. we find a more fluent strle naturally aecompan
 - 
ing the more easily 1ll0\'ing hand when using the pen on an unresisting 
surface. The following examples, limited in nmuhcr but usdullr sup- 
plemente,l by the Table of Alphabets, will, it is hoped. gi,"e a fairly 
g-ellPral idea of its deyelopement. 
A papyruh at Berlin (P. 8507) containing portions of speecheh 
deli,"ered in the Senate, which are ascribed to the reign of Claudius, 
.\-.D. 41-34, supplies the first facsimile (Stdtcns, L(tl. Pal(((Ü[Ji'., ed. UJ06, 
tal,. 101). 



:3;!0 


GHEEK AXD L.\TI
 P
\LAEO(;R.\.PH\ 


x o. 106 


The wonls are separated by a full point; and accents, perhaps as 
a guide in reaoling aloud, are numerous. It is noteworthy that the 
writing, although of a more flowing type than that of the contemporary 
waxed tal)lets amI YI'a,ftiti, is still somewhat restrained, and that the 
letters are generally unconnected, as though the writer's haml was 
influencefl bJ' a hahit of also writing with the stilus. 
Two of the few surviving Latin papp'us documents of the second 
century happen to fall in date close to the waxed tahlet of A. D. 167 
(Faes. 103), and as the three are written in three varieties of the Roman 
cursi,"e the)' otter an opportunity for useful comparison. The first (Brit. 
}Ius" Pap. ccxxix), written in a formal style appropriate to a legal 
instrument, is a deed wherehy C. Fahullius ::\Iacer, . optio' or adjutant of 
the trireme Ti!Jì'is, in the fleet of :Misenum, purchases from G. Julius 
Priscus, a soldier of the same ship, an Arab boy lUlmefl Abbas or 
Eutyches: dated at Seleucia Pieria, a mwal station on the 
yrian coast, 
:.!-t. 
lay, A.D. 166 (Pal. Soc. ii. 1!)0; .L1rdweologia, liv. 433). 


x o. 107 


There is no difficulty in this bold clear writing: and, if the eJre is 
carried along the lines, the general e\'Cnnes
 of the lettering is appre- 
ciatefI. But, though thus evenly written, the forms of the letters are of 
the cursive type, and in structure are ver.r close to those of the Dacian 
talJlets. The cursive B and the flat-Ileaded P are conspicuous bJ'reason 
of their height. The employment here of the cursi,"e type demon- 
strates the lasting intluence of the style acquired in writing on wax, 
which brought it into general use, to the exclusion of the old capital 
shapes, even in formallJ' written docUluents. 1 
The second papyrus of the two referrell to abo,'e is a fragment 
of a letter written in Yery illiterate Latia (Brit. 
[us. Pap. 730), and 
dated in the year 167 ((;renfell and Hunt, Gl". Pu.pyri, ii. 157, pI. v). 


x o. 108 


In this example, while the forms of the letters remain fairly con- 
Rervative, indications of an easier tlow lllay be ollserved in the curves 
adopted in certain letters and in their connecting links. 
To represent the Homan cursive hand of the third century there is 
a fragmentary petition a(1l1re:ssed to the Prefect of Egypt, Clam Ii us 
Yalerius Firmus, by a WOman named Aurelia Ammonarion, to appoint a 


1 The letters in the Table of AIJ,hahcts (Pi. 2, co\. 7) are those of the VeI'Y cursive 
subscriptions. 



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323 


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f.= g 


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324 


(mEEK AXD L}LTI
 P ,\LAEOGRAPHY 


CH.-\P. 


certain person her guardian, in accordance with the Lex .Julia ct Titia. 
in _\.V. 247 (Ox. Pall. i,'. 720, pI. vii; BOIH. Lillr., Lat. class. D. 12 (P) ).1 


So. 109 


The writing is in a well-formcrl cursive hand. sloping, aUll still 
remaining true to old forms. 
So far as we may gather from the few examples set before us of 
the Roman cursive in the first three centuries of our era, it seems that 
the influence of the style acquired from the habitual practice of writing 
on waxe(l surfaces hall a strong controlling effect on the handwriting 
with the pen on papyrus and other smooth surfaces. \Yc shoul(l, indeed, 
have expected the latter to ha,'e (levelopeLl earlier a morc flowing 
character than it dill; awl we must, it seems, attribute the restraint 
awl disconnectell fashion of inscrihing the letters. which was so long 
maintained. to the above influence, awl also to llifficulties in adapting 
forms of letters which had grown up under a rigid single-stroke system 
to a more pliant and current style. But. when we emerge from the 
third century, we fillli a gretl,t change: an enlarged and flowing hand of 
a rou11(ler type, as seen in the Latin translation of the fables of Bahrius 
in the fragmentary papyrus of thc Amherst collection (no. x'\:vi), probably 
of the fourth century; and in a lptter of recommcndation frolll an 
Egyptian official, probahly of the micltlle of the fourth century, now 
at Strassburg. The handwriting of the latter recalls the large style of 
Greek cursive of the Byzantine period; anll we may conjecture, as 
indeed would be natural, that Latin writing on papyrus passed through 
phases not very llissimilar to those of Greek writing on the same 
mt"tteria1. A few lines from the Strassburg letter (Pap. lat. Argent. i) 
are here given. (See H. Bresslau in .An.hi/' fiil' P(tll!JI'll.
f(JI'
cltltll!J. 
iii. 2, p. 16R.) 



o. llO 


By this time the influence of the di
jointed script of the waxed ttl,blets 
has ceased. The 'writing is quite fluent; the formation of the letters 
inclines to curves, aUlI the letters individually arc for the most part 
written off in connected strokes, and, although certain of them stand 
illdepeUllently, there is much linking and comhining among them; c, e, t, 
in particular, lend themselves to such comlJinations, with consequent 
variations in their structure to suit the occasion. \Ye here have prac- 
tically a complete minuscule alphabet. The letter a, like the Greek 
(llj)}ut in contemporary papyri, is often a mere pot-hook, connected with 
the following letter, sometimes 'with a tendenc
T to rise high in the line, 


I 
ince this WilS written, a more perfect document, of the yeilr 23., has been puhli,hed in 
(}". Pap. ,iii, pI. "ii. It h,,, "l'en made n,e of f..r tI,e '1'.11.1<. of L.llin Cur
i"p Alphabet-. 



"\y 


RO)L\X CCRSn-E 


3 ')- 
. 
a 


F,\(,
DIILE Xu. 109 


7\!.. ..1r- 
t' '\ , f I' 
.
i\, 
. _:i -;.; 
 
. 
.r J\ \ 
.( ";.' .f
 - ,j7'" -I., 

 1 6 , ." - . --' \ 
.. 
 'J.. )..vhi. p.m;
_ 
'''.<'41-Ç >91' '.:;,;, 

... /.1
)"-"p.. 
'4
 it_
. 
;
" 7 


'
' ) 
e"\.
'''i 
- - .. 

 1 
';", 
. f .. .. I - ..
.-; ( -... 
r It
' _," '- 

 õj 
' j,..J.. I J....I ' mt( 
7' 
 M;,- 1.,-\. 
 I 
..:... .... I u':.
 . I ,.-ß -'I . 
.,. aI' 1 r . ..). 
:;:- -.;:- 

\
., j ;;
 ;. 

 

 7 li2 
/ t ."'( (,I' "'
A: 

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.l( I7YJ.)

 
 
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içy;(;yi/?3 : 
-" .") ... 'I \þ
.

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 4 
.....
 


- '- 1 'j 

 
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. , 

. -j t 

, -1''' 
, 


.. 


l'.ETlTlO::-i.-.\..D. 247 
hC'I(audio) valerio firm
o praefecto Aegypti] I ab aureliae ammo[nario] I rogo 
domine des mi)li. . . .] I auctorem aurel(ium) p-Iutammonem] I e lege iuIia 
titia et. .. . .' I dat
um) dd. nn. 
dolllini,
 I/o,.-.fris) philippo aug(usto) ii let] I 
philippo ca",,,,a<e (?) consulilmsJ) 



326 


0' 
\ 
 
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E 


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:_t -2. :t .
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<L- ;... H L, 
 
ì0 
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çj' 
 
_. 
"ç: 
- ) ....---- "'" -- "-' <- 

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j \:r ': Z 
: 'I:; 

 
. 
 . 
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- 
1 C P \(:", 
.8 .\G
' 

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--- 

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o \:? 
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>1) 
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' ';;-:;:(-': 
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. .r-- a 
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. 
. "' ,\d:...}. q ., .-., : 
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u ( . -; -:
 ;
 
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._ <lJ - 

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:; r; :ê 
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R(nL-\
 Cl
RSIVE 


3 .)
 
.-1 


a po"itioll which i8 often found in later cursi,-e writing: h still keeps 
the 1'0\\ on the left (although it has become transferred to the right in 
the fragments of Babrius), hut it can he di
tillguished from el, in that 
it is linkl'tl II)" a down-
troke with a following letter, while d is not so 
connectecl: III is now altogether minuscule. while X appears hoth as 
a capital X a1ll1 as a minu8cule n: 0 ,-arie8 in size from a full letter 
to fi dilllinutin
 Q\oal or loop: u, always e-shaped, often appears as a 
small cun"e placerl high in the line. a" it is found in later cursive 
and in other scripts. The general style of the hawl i
 not unlik(> that 
of some of the Greek cursi,"c papyri of the middle of the fourth century, 
with which this document may l.p compared: c.g. the deed of sale of 
a sIan of A.D. 339 (\\ïlcken, T4eln, xvi). 

e,,:t in or(ler we ex:amine some interesting fragments of papyrus, 
in Paris and Leyden, inscribed in a character which is other" ise q nite 
unknown. bf'ing a mollification of the Homan cUl'si,'c. no doubt specially 
devised for official purposes. The documents containerl in them are 
portions of two rescripts addre<;sed to Egyptian officials: said to have 
l.een found at Philne and Elephantine. The writing is the official 
cursive of the Homan chancery in Egypt. awl is ascribed to the fifth 
century. Both <locuments are in the 
ame hand. For a long time 
they remaincrl ulHleciphered; and Champollion-Figeac, while puhlishing 
a facsimile (Cl,((I'l('
 et JISS. I'W' pUI'Y; lIS, 18-1-0, pI. 14), was obliged to 
admit his inability to read them. )Iassmann. however, after his ex- 
pcrience of the writing of the waxed tablets. succeeded in deciphering 
the Leytlen fragment {Li1Jelllls (Il I I'((}'Ïlt8, 147), and the whole of the 
fragments were suhsec[uentlypul.lished hy De Wailly (JIb". de l'In.-tilvt, 
xv. 3U9). 310mmsen and Jaffe (Jalu"n/(lt del:i gem. deut. BerMs, vi. 398: 
see aho Pol. Soc. ii. 30) have discussed the te:\.t amI given a table of 
the letters compared with those of the DacilHl tablets. The following 
facsimile gins portions of a few lines on a reduced scale (Steffeus, Lat. 
Palaeo[p'., 1st e(l., supp!. 6). 


:\0. III 


The body of the writiu
 is large, being abo,'e three-<Juarters of an 
inch high. The letters are tall amlllalTow. Their affinity to the forms 
of the gi'uffiti and waxed tablets is closer than that of the preceding 
specimen of the fourth century: an official class of writing is naturally 
more conservative than ind"pcndpnt hanrls. Thus wc go back behinrl 
the fourth century cursive and approach nearer to the form" of the 
waxerl tahlets in such letters as A. P, a1\(1 R. The looped form of E is 
pro1.ahly It fanciful variety of the wcrl
c-shaped letter of the earlier 
centuries; )1 and X are stilted; anrl 0 amI u (v) are on a minute scale 
awl are placc(l high in the line. 



32H 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAr. 


FAC
DlILE No. III 


:: 



 - 


(;. 


brrElU.\.L RE
CllII'T.-Fn'l'H CExTcnï 


(iniquos vero detentatores maneipi01'[mu ad eum pertinentium] 
pOl'tionem ipsi dehitam resareil'e 
nee ullum pl'eeatorem ex instrumeut[ 0 emptionali] 
pro memorata narratione per yim c[ oufecto l'raeiudicium pati] 
sed hoc viriblls vacuato 
possessiones ad iPSUlll pertinenLtes ) 



)., 


RO)IAX CCRSIYE 


32!) 


FAcsnlILE Xo. 112 




1f1}1Lf
t{&zt


 
 

 Ii fli;;r. 
,:: . L' L
't
 - 
 í ' Ie! 
,Jt: 
,
l 
1f?!i:i!
J?rr
I{'(,.t..l1J
1ýV
'ì l '4
b[\ 
4 t-ltfY
 
.., ,tv l . t ..oJ 
. I 
:
.f

;
f1!
tY<1;frn'4'm6 4
f7q r j 
f . . l . -ti . I /; " 
0
'
 dV

d }
h4?ry
 . 
/
1/
 
qH!m
17fYèð1<ttM<.rV /0Jrltlr J I 1Ylirq 
.J ) 
" 'Ii 
. mþ
o
'ql(
<"
" mrYJtdtt
 
Ý0 
.i..., -0'-' ,. " 
:- -
/ "/! /.... /

'J . ; 
(Ã1_IId/.

 m
&:..4',Uj(>11 ßM ; :J 1 !}Jßvfl 
 ì 
lt/J1'è
/'J;-JJ. 
f-'-i. ..,,- :'.'] I f - ..
),.,... "" ( 
-.. 
. 
. '/', .. 

 lot ß; tß1
4
YifY'rqVj
 
V
cWJf
Y
!i 


R\.YE

A DEED OF SAU:.-A. D. 5í
l 
(et successoribus eidem conpamtori sllprascripto eiusque heredibus [et suc- 
ces] sorihus cogantur inferre sed et rei quoque meliomt[ae iustruc 
 tae aedifi. 
cateque ta,-atione babita simili modo omnica dupla 
 riae rei se qui supra 
yenditor heredesque SUOS reddere polli:cetur yell I quantum sllpraseripto 
emptori interfuerit huic venditioni h[aditiulli
 I mancipationique rei Sllpm- 
scrÍjJtae dolum malum abesse [afuturum] que e
sf' yi metu et circumscriptioue 
cessante dLe quibusll unciis superius de
jgnatis siLi S/ll'ntSC1'ÍjjtUS venditor 
usum flructumJ) 



330 


GREEK AXD LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


F.\CSnIIU: Xo. 113 



 I req 1- tf
I"
J 0A-.lt.a-J rcc
 Ita...] o/"'[o1S] !Crl",....} 
4 {ç Ie/ /' 
 ? a"", cx0',.,' [!J'<$I, 
4//'/ f ./ oL fjAi'
.. 
lI
:/l'iH 
r ,,,,j ! /,." ') 7LlV!7t".J [$'''''] 
 fj"'" 
&711 ,....) 5Y' "., ;1' 
., h 1 A, / / !z 2"1 71 ì[ HI 
- 7/
 '-- 
" 2fh I 0 0/. Y'1 Vi? VJ7. rJ };' ,r ó ð (\/}}lon,l!YJ I,,,, 
1 
"- 
: 'J-'1,,"1 f' J 
? :-,' [-1"" VZ Or. q ::L: ,.,! 

",I 11 1,,1 'I 'Y.:,) ,,' H (
I '1/,:.,;4 
\ l J I 
 / 
ý' ý vi ('0]. 
 dIu! ý[>.. .J:1t[1....
 <<- rlat) 'C \......('[at.] 
/ 


tc.r
<l) 1 [at,: ce;, [...t
l 
tJ-/.'hl C',f" À Hl IJ 



rJ)) :31or1J mÊ-:.cto' l
 
r"1 
fi 
4' 'Í
[<-Ji lr: L '; \
.. 



/].-} 7 
/' \.../
 


I.r.TTERS OF R\ YFXX_\ DEFn.- \.D. ,j7;! 




, 


RO)L\S (TRSI\' E 


331 


It is remarkahle that thc"e features-tall and narrow structure, 
stilting, and small-scale letters high in thc line-are conspicuous in the 
Greek official hand of the Roman chancery in Egypt as far back as the 
bc
inning of the third ccntury (see abm"e, p. 170). Their occurrence 
. hoth there and in this Latin dee!l can har.Uy be accidental: and we may 
be entitled to fiwl in the fact, of their pre:-.('nce in (locuments so far apart 
a proof that the style of the chancery hand became Sf) trarlitional that 
it maintained leadin
 features for centuries. 
This official hawl, howevel', is exceptional. awl we turn tu the docu- 
ments on papyrus from Uan'nna, Xaples, and other places in Italy. dating 
from the fifth century. for examples of the less tnunmelled devclopClllt'ut 
uf the l{uman cursive, The largest number arc l'l"Ought together by 
Marini (l PUJliri n;plol/wtÙ-i); other e"X:amples will he found in ::\lahillon 
(De H,' lJijlomatica), Champollion-Figeac (Clwl't('." ct .lIS,';. 1-./0' JI((J}!JI'''
), 
)Iassmallll (CI",III/dell in Xcapel 
!IHl Ál'cz:O), Gloria (raleo!JI'((tÎa): in 
Fac
i/llile:; of AncicHt Cltal'fel's if/, B)-it. 11[us. iv. nos. 4:3, 46: and in 
Pol. Soc. i. 2, 2
, ii. 51-3. The following facsimile is frOlll a deed of RaIl' 
in Rimini (Brit. 
lus., Add. )IS. 341.2), rlrawn up at Ra, enua, A. D. :37:! 
(Pal. S.}(', i. 2). The writing, not only of the deed itself, but also of the 
attestations, is on a largl-' scale; here reduced. 


Su. 11:! 
This hand is a direct ,le,-elopement of that of the fuurth century. 

[ost of the letters ha,'e now assumed the shapes from which the 
minuscules of the literary hand of the Carolingian period were 
derived. The letter a is now the open u-shaped minusculc, the deri,"a- 
tion of which from tllP capital can 1.e tracerl through the intermediate 
form of thc fourth century; it is sometimes written in a small form 
high in the line. and, in that position, when combined with uther letters, 
it is also reduced to a diminutive cur'-e; and it is to be notic..d that it is 
always connected with the next follmyilJg letter, and on this account 
may be distinguished from the lettcr u, ,,-hich is never thus connccte(l. 
The letter h has finally thruwn away the open Low on the left in 
fa,-our of that on the right, an.] appears in the form familiar iu morlern 
writing. The rest of the lettcrs follow those of the fourth century in 
structure: but the capital form of X no longer appcars as an alterna- 
tiye of the minuscule. 



 o. 113 
A good knowledge of the structure of the Roman cursi,-e at this 
period is so important for a right understaI)(ling of certain points which 
ari<;e in the ,levelopement of the minuscule Look-hands of the mi,ldle 
ages, that it is useful to place Lefore the student a selll'me of the letter,; 
an(l of thcir coml.inations as thcy appear in the Ravcnna (Iced. 



332 


OREEK A
T) LATIX PALAEOGR.\.PHY 


(H_\P. 


The TallIe of Latin Cursi,'e Alphahets is arranged in three pla.tes. 
The first comprises alphabets written with the !'.tiluk, cumpiled from the 
Pompei an wall-im;criptions or fJ?'((.t/if i amI from the two series of waxed 
tal.lets of Pompeii and Dacia. The sccond and thinl plates exhibit 
alphahets written with the pen, selected from a series of documents 
ranging from the heginning of our era to .\. 1>. :372, some of which Iu\'\'e 
already pl'Ovide(1 onr Facsimiles 106 ] 3, 
The ditlerencc hetween the stilus-written and the ink-written alpha- 
l,ets is marked Ly the cessation in the hItter of those peculiar 
orms 
which wpre of special conwnience in plying the stilus, namely, the 
,'crtieal-stroke forms of E, F, 
l, and K. The best illustration of this 
ditlerenee is to he sought hy comparing the contemporaneous stilus- 
\\ ritten and pen-written alphallets which are drawn from the same series 
of rlocumellts, the Pompeian waxed tttl,lets, as shown in Plate 1, col. 2, and 
Plate 2, co\. 3. It will there he seen that tJw scrihe, on laying down 
the stilus and assuming the pen. abandons those special forms amI 
employs the ordinary capitals or direct modifications of them. 
Other minor llistinctions lJel\\"een the two classes of writing: will l'e 
obsclTed as the several lettprs, as represented in the three plates of the 
Tahle, are passell in re\'iew. 
The shifting of the cross-l,ar of the capital A from its normal position 
to that of a suspended YI-'rtical has already been noticed above. The 
next de\'elopement of this action was to attach the suspelllh'd stroke to 
the end of the second limh, thus producing a form which is found Ulllier 
l'oth stilus a III I pen in the first century; but thenceforward it is 
superscrletl by the simpler form of thc letter composed of only the two 
oblillue limLs, which appeared in the earliest period and became the 
prevailing letter of the second and thirrl ccnturies. TIll' change from 
this angular Rhape to the rOIlIllled letter leading on eventually to the 
minuscule was accomplished in the fourth century. 
The capital fOI"lIl of Ð, which appears aIuong the stilus-written letters 
uf Pumpeii, \"anishes from the contemporar
T pen-written alphal.ets; and 
the alternati'"e form, shaped like a tall Homan a or d, the structure of 
which has l'een explained, is consistently emplo:p.d tlown to the fourth 
century. when the minuscule letter of the modern type appears UlIller the 
influence of the flowing round-hand. But the letter with the lJOw on 
the left was not entirely superseded until the sixth century. 
The simple structure of C does not im ite much variety. 'Ve may 
notice the tendency in the earlier centuries to flatten the head of the 
letter; Lut that tellflency was naturally correetc(l when the rOUllll-hand 
fashion set in. The fantastic shape g-i\"en to the letter in the alphabet 
of the Imperial Rescripts of the fifth century (Plate 3, co!. 6) may lJe 



xv 


L.\ TI
 CCHSI\'E 
\.LPH.\BETS 


33
 


c lismissed, along' with other fanciful shapes in that alphabet, as an 
extra,'agance of the Chancery scribes-a class of officials who in all 
ag'es appear to have taken a pelTerse, though professional, plea
\ll'1' in 
sacrificing legil.ility to ornamental complication. 
The letter D, which, soon chang'ing from the capital to the minuscule, 
is umler the stilus a stifI' disjointed letter, gradually assumes, umler the 
pen, more pliant shapes wherein, tluring the third aUll fourth centurie<;, 
a tlistinct wlnwce towartls the later minuscule is visible. 
The letter E, as already noticetl, has uUlkr the stilus its special, as 
well as the normal, form. The normal capital passes naturally into the 
rounde(l uncial, <lnd, unller the pen, a modification of the latter is the 
wedge or tick-shaped letter which appears as early as the first, an(l 
continues down to the third, century. 
The capital form of F, which uwler the stilus divilletl hononrs with 
the &pecial cursi\'e, under the pen held the tieltl down to the transitional 
period of the fourth century, leading on to the later minu!"cule letter. 
The letter G, like its fellow-letter C, has an early tendency to flatten 
the head. In the Daeian tahlets a form is already de,'eloped, with 
flattened head and lengthened t.'til, which is practically identical with 
the later flat-headed minuscule. A similar, Imt less de,'elopetl, form is 
found umler the year 1:)6. and in the fourth century we have it again, 
fully developetl. leading on to the letter of the l{a"enna dee(l of 57:!. 
The growth of the minuscule form of H is to be traced frum the 
earliest examples under both stilus and pen, the influence of the latter 
gradually lengthening the shaft and rounding the hOlly. 
The lettcr I, long' amI short, and the little u!i'ed letter K call for no 
remarks. Nor need the letter L tletain us further than to notice that 
the scribe using the stilus often founll it easier to inllicate the base line 
by a short oblique stroke. 
'Ye have noticed the use of the "ertical cursi,'e form of )1 l.y the 
siile of the normal capital under the stilus. The capital, sometimes 
roundetl almost into an uncial, pre,'ailed, under stilus or pen. through the 
first three centuries. The minuscule letter is estahlished in the fourth 
century. 
So, too, in the case uf N, the normal capital (save the limitell use of 
the vertical-stroke letter in the !J,'uflìti) is eonstant in the first thrpe 
centuries, its modifications in many instances resembling those in the 
Greek cUl'si,'e; and the round-heal leI 1 minuscule appears in the fourth 
century. 
The letter 0 naturally recO\"ers its oval shape untler the pen, which 
it had partially lost under the stilus, as already descrilJetl. 
The how-less P, which had develope(l under the stilus, survived 
under the pell for a longer period than IIlight h.1,\'e lJeen expected. The 



334- 


GREEK 
\.xD LATIX PALAEucm.\PHY 


Table shows the revi \'al of the normal form only as late a,> the 
l'colHl 
century. 
Again, in the case of (L the letter sloping baclnntrds to the left. 
a convenient formation under the stilu
, continued in the firHt century 
under the pen; and not until the next century is the slope turned O\-er 
to the right. an easier position for the pen. 
The devcIopement of the bow-less R from the normal capital is to lie 
trë1ced in the stilus-written alphahets. It pre\'ails under the pen (and 
may oftcn he easily confoundell with the letter A of li1..e structure) 
down to the fourth century, when, under the influence of the flowing, 
connected stJ'le, it dpyelopes a shoulrler and thus passes into the 
minuscule fOrIu. 
So, too, the letter S, proceeding with little ,'ariety, but persistently 
exhilliting a tendency in the first three centuries to flatten the head in 
an oblÜlue strokf', only attains the roundness of the tall minuscule letter 
when the flowing style is established. 
The monotony of the stiff' letter T is only relieye(l by the intermittent 
appearance of the cun'ed hase, which at last IJecomes constant. 
The letter r or V, which uUller the stilus sometimes assumed a form 
not unlike the onlinary late minuscule u, keeps to the v-shape (with either 
pointed or round hase) under the pen, being sometimes, like the Greek 
cursi\"e letter, written in a diminutive size high in the line. The minus- 
cule form llevelopes again under the flowing style of the RavenIla (leed. 
The unintere:-;ting letter X. and the little useù, and almost foreign, 
letters Y and Z may Ill' dismissed without ohsl'n'atioll. 



LATIN CURSIVE ALPHABETS (/vOl) 
Written wtlh t.he stilus 
BEFORE A.D. 79. A.D. 15- 61. 
 A.D. 131-167 
Pompe/an J1Ia///nscnption3 POll7peìan Wa.xed Tablets. j Dacian Waxed ToUe!s. 


:A ^!:\ ^ Ì>- I') l\ ÎI I' f\ Î,\ /
 ,\ ^ >>)) Ì'> l' "1')" Ì' l' 
B ß 
 
"l J cl 1., 0ð.A
JddJd.J JJl\ô-2>.. 
{((rClCt (((("tC( (((ere C(C((tt-cC 
Dì)hb()òò ð n () i>bð 
ddè' 6ðDbd.<:> 
E r f" E f 'I \\. ,\. I \ \ \. (\. (I. L\. ( t l' \\ \\.."\"\ 
FFF)'j'tr I' ,... t / \. I' C" l' F (F f jt J< t 
G-CCcc; .,- cç 
 -çç 
G.. (, c r: 
 r:;. ç l.. (, G. 
1+ H (
 f-f ].{ tr 1r K[itrhj-tA-h- ttt-rhh. 
-, f } 1 } t [r,t(d 1 \ \l"\]I))rJ 
k
kF r f f I
 1< k J(7<t
 
llll. I, L l L L \.... L. 1 \. l\. 
 (., l, (, L L l.l '-'l
 l 
M /'^ A" )"\ (II' M /'^ (\,,)\\\. J l\,- ) 
 M 
}" K:\... ñ, ('I') 
N N ìi h\ ,,\ N Ni'--l N n N C'\ NNJ'{T\Jlll1l 
n r) (:-. (I. 
 (,1. (\. t\ è- C) (t C () (\.. (\ () () 0. t.'- c-- ,..... t\. L..... 
rtt' èl l1'Ì' i'l'l:t i'tì'r' e 1') r (' C' t c [c- ì' 
Q. 
 (\ 
 (
 (
 
<-\. '\. "'\. 
 \. 
 

 

(')c:) 
 ï 
RR
ì-Ì\
]\- ì\ 
 r.. T\f1- f( ìÌ\ í\^ }'.. Ì' r-. )t f' 
 I...... {'- 
S rrr/rff sffJ/fr 5fff Jfr.rr(ç(( r 
TTTL TlCt-cLT'LT TTILL C-C""\ 
v V V U Ll l! \..) L\.. "-.\ II \..\ II \.\. \.1 l\ L\ 
 \ v.. u.. u. 
xXX XX7<ffj'"f )<. XXf/JL 
yy,yyc.; 'I 
zz ZZt(( 



ABOUT A.D.1. A.D.27-6L !A.D. 41-54 A.D. 103. A.D. 156. Ä.D.166. 
Wessety Schr.-7ãf:, I. cu/r. Su!,!,/. jSteffrn.r. Lat.PaLIOI.! Ox. PClp vii.l Pal. SOc./ï. /65. Pe./.$oc.ii. /90. 
/) n j) J\
 
 A À 1\ ^)'> ^)-"h't) Ì'^)..}.. 7'Ì'^^ ^ l' Ì\ ,.. 

 d. t-l ð.-d.l J dJ.dl J.J. J ,1 J. cl d.JJG-l 
c c (({[Cd tC CC (" cc (C ( 

D
 ])ì)d dfð ð)d
 J
J è> ddð J 
 
éé Ef t t E t() fé'tt ff? Er:r- tf?J-. Y 
f fFffjf ff Çf ff t 
. 
& c:c. c: 0- c... c..c 6... v.- l.G. s--sr t... 6-.. (.ÁJ 
J-r h- J-t 1+ K h J1 'hh tr nhh/l h 
I 1 ) I l 1/7lj} 1 fc )Jt) j I J Z IJ J l 1. 
]< f f- f K
 
II 1 ZZ L L L l L 2..2.21 
 l Z(lL (ZZZ ( 

 
M
 l'A M M r-r... ,., /Y\.. /Y\. M fYL W\.. >v...MN Iv\. "^- 
rv)S NN NHhh /\J /ý rý f-/l1rJrr }J .u )-l)J N ",rrH 
() () o v.. 0- (( 00 u Co> 0 D 0 1r () 0"0 
è (' \' ['tìl'ccr i'l' Let {prr l'JCrr 
C\..

 " "" \. 
 '\. , 

 d 
1\}\} l' ) 7'- 7' f\ J\ I'- 1'- jl í'-J'J'1' T'l'r-j'-f\ l'f\j\ 7' 7'1' J' 
,(r rrír íjíírrr JJff jíjr [írr [r(Jýý 
"[T TTT TrCJtTT TLTr TTl TI:- II r -r T 
u1J vv1J \.I 
 V"
" 1..1 v...... U v 
 
 yv'Yv ..... 
v v 
y. xyf.y<. I xxx '7Y- 
771 .., 7 r y 
x 


LATIN CURSIVEALPHABETSf/Vo2J 
Written in ink 



LATIN CURS'VE ALPHABETS (;1(03) 
Writ ten In Ink 


A.D. 167 : 2 ND CENT. A.D.194-6.:A.D.137.Z4Z 4THCE
,T. ,; 5 TH cENT. AD 572 
B .. P ' 0 n . ',' 0. '"' '.1 ' v,;; ' J ' v. .,AmlJ.Pap.ll. Xl/VI...o,.. tÏ .3 0 o-.lSoc i 2 2.8 
""
I7IJS, :7p.734; " rüp, I. VI... A'. rop. VI, VI. : v",f'Q;:;"/II'>/I., .fI(pot). For:!cl ui/.16fJ,: ,.."oJ GC.. . r..., , , ' 


Ì\. ")\ Ì' }\ )', }\ ^ ^ 
J l cLlJ lJJ 
C-[ Cí {e-I: 
ð ð- 
ðdJ è> (>. 


(;- f" {,- &- f- V }r V {- t;- 
FFf{ ;:- f 
C ú-.. 
h hhf'. f1J-r. 
)1/ }// ll} 


L...
 

"-l( c 
 


/'ì')'}\ ð.,./ð- ò- j'-i}'- ú it q 
2JJà 6 bl,}J(}J ti{; 
_/,., .r r { f I?.P r' /' /' 
 
C {, l I L C 0- (,. 0 
 t. G '- '- L. 
jJJJf JJ'ðJ;)JJ JJ
 
f f It y e- L- é- ..! I f: i;f- Ul t <.' 
fif f!J
f !/ Ilff 
c.. ú- CC '? <;' ç t{L j1;)) 
J..'^t.L h
f-,. u t t 
2)f)7rjlz1)1 lLUJ 7ll{[ 
ZZ!:2 L L L L l L II t {ll 


/\^ "''''' M J'V\. /'I')V.,. M Ï'- r 'h7 7n m f-' jL þt IlJ m 
 
NyJ N N N "N T( rt ]-I Y r n I\.)}.J f-! Y n?1 
() ú ð"' (r 0 0 õ"""" 0 0 ð () 
 () 0 7) Ô '0 ð 6 Ô 
(' i' [ r r t> l) 
 [' 1'1'1' t' ? r j'J l t t ( (
 }') p r t 
i 
 if 90 if 9 Lj 
 LJ 
 ))) q 
l 
r '('- rt Ï']\ jl i'.l' l' f\. Ï' l' v.. r- yl í: 1'r r- r- V 
ý y-' r r / .r ) r 1(lv (,,;'or' r;rr p f Iff YÝVr 
L r T TT Tit r[LJ"T ['TT LLLt TèJ(" 
'U }.) lf lJ V V V V u l! c\. U V ""lÍv 2.J 01/ t.fi- v v L U u.. LA. lj 
X X /</7 '^'J<- ff X
 
yy vV'Y V 



 


2
l 


z 



338 


t ! 
 
 - () 

 
 

 
'
 t{:Y 
 .lJ
 

 

 
 
 i 5 
 

 
 
 
 :;:


 i' 

 
 
 
 \t (, -
 
 
.t




""t(J 

 .; ;> 
 .rf .
 t t' '.... 
{ 
.
 r\ 
 
 g 
 
 
. ... i-- 
 


 <;. - 

 '
 'r i -J t 
 f 
 
 () 
'; 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 f " 
J 
 -} 
 ì i i r't r 
:

lÈ t \
 
1{J 
 
, t ...
 
 
 (
- 
 t -.-!. 
I 
 X; 
.
 '" f) ... 
. 
 
' 
 

"
'
" N 

 
 
",. 
 
 ... 

.. 
<E <... 
.. 7 ",' r 
 \;. 
 
:i.
 

 
 
 :) d 
 
t r 4 
 t. 
 ( 
 
 
.J. 
:
,,

,-t-
.'1 {I 
I 
 È .
. (:. 
ti 
 t.:: V. 
e.-
- i. t J

 - 
 . 
 E' 
. . ' 
"11 " . 
. 
,. s: - 
 
'. ',-" -': ' ,
 
"'. 
_; <Þ 'Ir - 
.. 


9) 
 Q) rJ:J 
- - - - 

 en 
::: 

 
 9.= 
Q)


 
g.E- 9 
...-.4.""" = - 
_.....tJJ 
:=.g.;:: 0 
- c:;) 
 
 


=: 
;:: ët J=; a 
0: .- 
.... tI) c: 
::@]Q) 
æz

 
.':E 
-=.:':; 
.3
>tS 
"o
 
;.. 
,......j -= = 

 ê 
 s 
_.... Co> 
:::: = ::: :::: 
,... ,....1"'"4
 
-.... .... 
::> - Q) - 
._ 
 
 0 

 
 -0- t:) 
=.ñ
E 

::::::J
 C,) 
.- .... 
a å.S .: 
::::""a 11) 
J) 

 -- CJ ,.., 
... 

 3 
 
.5 
;.J 0""'.- 

 I""'"""'!........
 m 

 
;:; 
.= 
_.... C'.).:::-:= 
......J 
;.. 0.- 
rn.
.:-" 11) 
t::: r/) 0 ......- 
E-- ;..:: r-: 
d 

 ::: ;,...a.:. 

 æ:: 
 
.= 
to' 
 - 
 
 

 CD:'::;:_..=;1 
U2 0:- 
I ,..:.::;l.....::> 
c: 0 000::: 
.. _:.. Q) - 
Jl :-''''''''''' 
 
. - -"''''' Q) 
:: -d 0 Õ 
 

 ;.. 
 c:;) en 
...... c:.>.... 
;.< c:Ci)0= 
....... en,....-- 
::;i 
 ;: ] .g 
i ..:::=;;.. 
 0 
-- Q) - :::: 

 :...o..Q;)
 
-r 
 
 
 
IJ_ 
 Co) ..;: ...... 
::::: ',,1.1'_::: 
.
 _::: 
r.IJ.--- 

.::: ; 
 
==
 
 

 
.
 - 

c..::= :::
 
..E:::S;-;:;-
 


soo 
_ - 00 :::s 

."""':::S ::: 
01'1, 0)..... - 
- I"""! 0).- 
. 
..oJ "0 
::::: ."""" 0) 
;...j 00 - J..4 
.00 
:: c:J 
:::: 
 ::: 
 
a æ 0'" = 
;.. 
 
 
0: C) ::> Q) 
...j...oId-
 
æ 
 &
 
l';D -'" 0 -J'-" 
._........c.
 r/) 
ê
s....Tr 
:-' :::: ::: 
 
 
9 
 
.3 ::: 
;;; c:J ã
.
 
::: 
 
 85--;; 


 
 
 
 



RO)L\X l TR
IYE 


339 


The general application of the Roman èursi,-e hand to the purposes 
of literature would hardly J Ie expected: but a few survi \"in
 instances of 
its elllployuH-'nt for annotations anc 1 e'"en for entire texts are found in 
the notes written, probahly in thp fifth century, hy the 
\.rian bishop 
)faximin in the margins of a )[S. at Pari" containing: the Acts of the 
Council of Al1uileia; in a short Graeco-Latin HJcal,ulary on papyrus 
Ithe Greek worrls being written in Roman letter
), perhaps of the fifth 
or sixth century (Xut. d E,I'(J'. des JISS. x,-iii, pI. lR); in the gram- 
matical treatise of the sixth century in the palimpsest )[
. of Licinianus 
in the Briti
h )lu<,eum (Cat. ..d It(. JIsS. ii. pb. 1. :2): anrl in the texts of 
the Homilies of ...;t. A,"itm; at Paris, lwrhaps of the sixth century (Pal. 
0U('. i. 6
), the Amlorosian J(lsephus on pap.'Tus. ascril,ed to the se'"enth 
century (Pal. Sue. i. 3a), aUfI the Homilies of St. )Iaximu'i of Turin, also 
in the Amhrosian Lil'rary of )lilan (\rs.l'. !l8. P. Inf.), of ahout the same 
period (Pul. S Je. ii. 32): and in other )IS8. From the sun-i,-al of com- 
parati,.ely 
o man
r literary remains in this style, it may be inferred 
that it was u
ed as a IJlIÏck al1l1 convenient means of writing texts 
intend ell pruhahly for ordinary U5e rather than for the market. A" an 
example, we gin- a few lines from the )1"';. uf St. )Iaximu,.;. 



 o. 114 


In this handwriting We See the Roman cursi,"e in course of being 
moulJeJ into the minuscule script of the pre-Carulingian periorl and 
alreaJy developing characteristics in forms of letters ancl in thickening 
or clul,I ,ing of tall main strokes, which continue,l to mark the '''estern 
continental I 'ook- hanrls for many generation,... 


The connexion of the Roman cursiw script with the national hands 
of continental '''estern Europe will he describell in the next chapter. 
In direct descent it was employe,l in tIll' le
al dOCUlllenÌ!; of Italy for 
somc centuries. e'"er llecoming more and more corrupt and cumplicated 
anll illegible: see Fumagalli, Delle Istitllziuni diploliìatiche; Sickel, 
Jlo!Lumenta Gmphictl,; Code.1.: Di,ilf)/JI.ati.cu8 CW'I.IIlW:', vol. i; and 
Paleo[Ji'ufia (lì'ti
tica di JJonteC((,,
ilw. The illegible scnnd into which 
it finally llegenerated was at len
th suppresse,l by ,ll'crees of Frederic II 
in l
:!U awl 1231,1 


I In the thirteenth century the Romiln cur
i,e wa
 unintelligible. Simon of Genoa, 
Claris Sanetio.lÍs (1;';14, f. 3i', 5ays: . Ego vidi Romae in gazophiIaciis antiquorum mona- 
steriorum Romae libros et privilegia ex hac materia (se. charta) 5cripta ex litteris apud nos 
HUn intelligibilibus, nam figurae nec ..x toto Graecae nec ex toto Latinae erant.' And 
again, when "peaking of papyrus (f. ! i\ he u,es these worùs: 'Ego vidi Romae in aliqui- 
bus monasteriis antiquis_ima volumina ex eisdem Iitteris semi-graecis scripta ac null is 
modern is legibilia.' See De ROS5i, Codd. Palatini Latini, 1886, Introd. ci. 
Z
 



CHJ..PTER XVI 


LATIX PALAECH.mAPHY (continued) 


:National Minuscule Book-hands 


". E ]u1\'e now to ill\-cstigate the nry interesting l:iubjeet of the 
formation of the national handwritings of ". estern Europe, deri,-ed 
from Roman writing. As long as the Roman Empire 'nlS the central 
pO\"er dominating" her colonies and suhject nations, the Roman script 
in all countries where it was emploJ'ed, anfl howe,-er far apart those 
countries lay, naturally remained the same, \Yhere,'er the Latin 
language was adopted, the Roman form of writing accompanied it as 
a matter of course; and, whether it was written hy an educated Italian 
or Gaul or Frank or Spaniard or Briton, in all cases it remained the 
Roman script pure and simple. But when the Empire was In"oken and 
independf'llt nationalitief, arose and began to mh-ance on their own 
independent paths of ci\'ilization, the halHlwriting which they hall 
learned from their Roman masters gradually assumed distillcti,-e 
characteristics, alHl in each country where it was used it took the 
complexion of its sUlToun(lings aUfI finally de\-eloped into a national 
hand; unless from some particular cause the continuity of the effects ot 
the Roman occupation 'HU; interrupted, as it was in Britain by the 
Saxon invasions anel con\luests_ On the Continent the cursive hand 
which has been describe. I in the last chapter became the basis of the 
writing of Italy, bpain, anll FmnklalHl, and from it were moul(lefl the 
three national hamls which we know as Lombanlic. \ïsigothic, and 
:Merovingian. The common origin of all three is sufficientlJT e\-ident 
on an inspection of the earliest charters of those countries which. dating 
generall
r from the se\'enth century, remained fairly close to each other 
in the character of their writing. Something will be said in a future 
chapter regarding the cursi\-e hands in which these documents are 
written. In this place we are dealing with the litenuJ' scripts, 
In the book-halllis elalmrated lJY professional scribes from the 
cursi,-e, with a certain admixture of uncial and half-uncial forms. we 
shall find the lines of demarcation between the three kinds of writing 
more clearly defined, But it was only to he expecteJ that, particularl
' 
in the earlier l:itages of the growth of the national literary halllls, there 
shoulJ be example.., which it woulJ. lIe difficult to assign Jetinitely to 



LATIX X.\.1'IOX_\L HOOK-H.\XD
 


341 


either one or other of these national di\-isions; amI, as a matter of fact, 
the difference between a }IS. written in Fmnce amI another written in 
Italy is not always so strongly marked as to enal.le us to call the one 
decidelIly )lerovingian or the other decidedly Lomhmlic in its style. 
For this reason it ,.,cems the hest course to examine the \Tio.;igothic script 
first. as 1.eing more independent of the other two national h'lIldwritings: 
Rnd afterwards to take up the history of the LomLardic and the 
)lerm-ingian hands, resen-ing to the end the consideration of the mixed 
hands which lead on to the pre-Carolingian series, and thence to the 
minuscule 1.00k-haml resulting from the Ctrolingian reform. l 


Visigothic 
Yisigothic is the title given to the national writing of Spain derived 
from the Roman cursi\'e. It de\-e!opell a hook-haml of distincti\'e 
character, which is well estalJlished in the eighth and ninth centurips 
and lasts down to the twelfth century. Its final disuse was due. as in 
the case of the other continental national hands, to the advance of the 
Carolingian minuscule hand, which, howe\-er, a'i wa" to be expected, 
could only flisplacc the native hand by degrees, making its presence felt 
at first in the north of the Pellinsula. 2 In the collection of photographic 
facsimiles E.rempl(( :)criptut'((C rit!iyutinl{" edited by Ewald and Loewe 
(Heitlellwrg, 1883), the course of the Yisigothic writing can be fairl,}' 
well followed. In the cursi\-e haw I of the se\-enth century there 
is little variation from the Roman cursive; but soon after we find 
a half-cursive book-han(l (IJjJ. eil., tab. 4-) which has already assumed 


I Dr. E. Â. Loew, who h.\s made a particular study of the continentalnationdl scripts, 
has recently described in his St"dic, P"laeoymphica (SitzlI"ysher. d.1.-yl. Bayerischen Akaclemie, 
1910), the employment in !;outh Italian, or Benewutan, and in Visigothic I1ISS. of the 
i-lotlya or tall i, :md of the ligatured ti, for special purposes. 
,i) In Visigothic :YSS. the i-longa was employed initially for conyenience of marking 
the beginning of the word (in fact, as a capital initial), as Iam, III, Isle. But, if the letter 
following the i happened to be n tall letter, then the use of i.lollga was not obligatory; 
thus ihi, id, iile might be prefened to Ibi, Id, Ille. It was uuployed medially to represent 
the semi,\'ocal i, as maIas, aIebaf, pIus. In Benev('ntan )1::;::;. the 'ame rules obtained, 
with this difference that the i-long<< was not used initially, if the 
econd letter of the word 
was shafted either above or below the line; thus. ibi, We, ipse, not IN, Ii/e, Ipse',. 
\ii) In both Visigothic after about A. IJ. 90õ' and in Beneventan ::IISS. the scribes 
.Ippear to have consistently written Ii in form of a ligatm'e .a-< found in the cursive hands) 
to represent the assibilated sound: it being the general I'ule that before a vowel ti has 
the Ibsibilated sound; but, if preceded by the letter s, it has the unassibilated sound. 

 , Dans un des volumes acqllis par nous se trouve Ie cat.,lt.gue des Ih'res que Ie 
Illonastère de Silos po

édait au commencement dll "III" siècle . . .. Le rédacteur du cata- 
logue a pris soin d'nvertir que plusieurs des livres de "on abbllye etaient écrits en lettres 
fran
aises. . .. C.e"t line allusion à ]a rew,luliûn qui s'introduit au xu" siècle, at peut- 
ëtre dès ]e XI", dans les hahitudes de'! copistes e"'pagnol
, pro!J8IJlement "ou" l'influence des 
colunies fr.lllçai
<
 lIue notre gmnde abbaye de Cluni enW'J8 dans plusieurs diocèse
 
<l'Espagne.'-De1is1e. Jh/rmgfs de Pal'oyrapltic, ;'9. 



34:1 


GREEK A
]) LATIX PAL,"EOGRAPHY 


l'H.\P. 


a distincti\"e character, as will he seen fr01ll the followin
 facsimile. It 
comes from a treatise of St. Augustine in the Escurial (H. ii. 18) \\Titten 
apparently in the first half of the eighth century. 


Xo. 115 


In this specimen the forms of the later Homan cursive letters are 
treated in a peculiar method, the inclination of the writing to the left 
imparting a compresse(l and angular character. The high-shouldered 
letter l' and letter t are already in the shapes which at a later period are 
prominent in Yisig-othic 
ISS., amI the letter g is l.eginning to take the 
q-form which makes it the most characteristic letter of the "isigothic 
alphabet. It is interesting to notice the shapes of a, fre([uently written 
abO\"e the lil
e, a11' I of u (the linking of the a, which lli
tinguishes 
it. as in its Roman prototype, from the illliepenilently written u, still 
being ohservell), the forms of p. and the different changes of t when in 
combination with other letters-all referal.le to their Roman ancestors. 
Further there are instances of the use of i-loH!J(t (see p. 341 note) anll, in 
line 6, of the ligature for assil,ilatell ti. 
In many of the specimens of the eighth and ninth centuries we find 
a small e\"enly-written hallll, in which the light and hea "y strokes are in 
strong contrast, the inclination of the letters being still rather to the 
left. As a fine example of the writing of the ninth centUl'
". we select 
a facsimile from an Orationale Gothic-um, ur prayer:" for the selTices in 
the early 1\Iozarahic liturgy, in the British .Muo.;cum (Allii. 31S. 30832) 
from the munastery of S. Domingo de 
ilos near Burgos (CIIl. Allc. 
11[S8. ii. 58). 


Xo. 116 


The letters of the Yisigothic hand are here fully tlenluped: and at 
the :-;ame time the thickening or clu1.bing of the tall vertical strokes 
seems to indicate the influence of the French school. The 1\18. l.eillg 
for liturgical use is written on a large scale. 
Advancing some humlrell years, our next facsimile is from a 
l\1artyrology in the British )Iuseum (Adtl. }1
. 236(0), which was 
written in the monastery of S. Pedro de CardeÙa in the ùiocpse of 
Burgos in the year 919 (Cat. Ant. .JISS. ii. 65: Pal. Soc. i. 95). 


No. 11 ï 


It will be seen that this specimen tlitfers from the last one in being 
rather squarer in form of letters antl in ha\"ing the vertical strokes finer. 
There is, in fact. a tlccitled loss as regards act.ual beauty of writing. 



xn 


LATIX X
-\TIOX
-\L BOOK-H.\SnS 


1!: 
- 



 
--<:: .. 
 
.Jv- . k '
 
", Y "f' } 
 .q 
--:;'
 



.. 
Si 
I--
 $-i

 '
 1 
 

 
 
 'r
! _ -.1.- 
 
I 
J 
"1. - 
 44 

_I-:;' J !' 
 
(E 1 
 
. &t1 
 { t).. 'f
 -r:. 
ij
 $ 't-}] 1 J 
E " - *- & 
1 cJ;--
 

 bJ ð'4 \1..-; 
 '> 
 
b- 
 
 
 
 
 . (5.-1 
; 
 i 1 
 
 1 
 " f 
';
--r: 
 'l z. Ii 6 
. 
 
" 
 
 ,
 'S" 

 

 1 -{ .... 

 {....; 
 
 
-;, 0. 
 ., t 
 
 
-'? s'.., $--t 
 t l, 
1i 
 
rí 
-;; 
 
:- 

 ('j'!-
, 
, 
"1'" 0'" 
 'd s:
t 

 "" 
 0-<; , 0 -
 3- 

 
 ., 4 

 --:: 
 '$ 

 ., 11 ' 
]; J.' 
 .; ,J- 
1 
 . <; ;./ 1':
 
 

 
 - r9l q <r6 $
 
.-

-'
 _ __ 
 \1_ , 
l . .' - 
 , - 
<: ... {. u 
I 
 
 0) 1 -'
 

 
f & \J. 
........r 
 
I 
 '2 

 
.

 ct. =:i. 
 
J
t



.,
 
1
 i
 r} 




 

-t
 
 

r' $ :z' 


c 
z 


'":: 


.... 
'- 
..... 
J_ 
t,.) 
-< 

 


3-t3 


-o..-;....
 
Õ C) èE: J.,. :: 
,.....- ...,j.,.J 
- r-:J-,.- en 
o



 

 -;5 

 
H c: :: .....if, 





 
- C,i- 
.
::::
= 
=-
-= 
Z.-õ t,. . c: 
-.;I ::: 10.....;:: 

 :: - .

 
I =- : 
 
 

;
(s = 
,.... ,.... ...... c - 
::.= J' 0 
 
(1.1_ ___ "" 

 
.
 5 
 
o 
::;:; 

E%

 

 

=E
 

 
.- . :..- 

 
 
 
 
 :
 

 - -- 
- 
 0;:= t; = 
=-=.= æ 
 
 
=' c,') --::: 
 ::: 
;.... = (I) 'Z 
 


g
U' 
_.....-::: 
S 
=
::
 

 
 s :; 
.s: 
"1 5
c:
= 
7. 




 
X. 
 t.
 \l) 
 
tJ: C) :2 
 
s: StI)
s- 

 E __0:: :5 
 
-< 
 oa . 
 
:z 

 cì5.$:= . 

 
'l:. :::<P.E::::3t 
ë; :::: 02 
:;:; 
 
:=;=-:
-; 
z - rn -:: 03 ::: 
â)=:::!::=S
 

ro::; =..:::: :::; =- 
c: =0= :> Ul 
 
-
 > ..:;:: 
Cf.!


:,::-, 
Sc:-:::;::<; 
:n
 Q.,

 '"' 
D'l - rn._....... rf) 



; è.; 
:: :.,. iT. 
 ;::: 
8 
 
 
 
 .:: 
- -...... ........-- 
-C)r::-"=:cn 
OC


\l) 


 := C 'õfJ- 
;
..::.

 



j.l
 


:::;;!S
 
_C,i ::"J..""=:: 



314 


l;REEK 
.L\D LATIX P.\L\E( )(m
-\PHY 


CHAP. 


FACSDIILE :NO. 116 


-"Ute 
P

tf
n 
, t\'\
nt'
me-H
ctU
 
( 
nc<ffl

o
eaLu 
- ,e-
Jet,â1
f
tctU.- 
, mbt

lcdu\t"f
]Ct '. 
tt\c
m,#dtíntcm.. : 

"p8Utn f

1'û;. 
\1(( 
"t iffu<IC!1e--"'
;t 
"''-\..n
 
U""c
n
1"f1cn 
m
m

'tr
 


On.\TIOXAI.L GOTHIC'lT)I.-XIXTH CE
TURY 
fIlIic a te percipere In munere mererentur. I fac nos splendore et Iu'cere de 
beneplacita I tihi dulcedine proxi morum . et dig-nita te operum perfectorum . 
ut etsi effusione saCl"i I sanguinis coronas non I meremur accipere.) 



X\l 


LU'IX 

\TIù
_\L BOOK-HA
DS 


345 


FACSDHLE Xo. 117" 


J J 1 
_A.,
e-étttO 9tlQ
C
1fm. Uír111-1C-tp o f 
 
v_ií1<r..CLun tl\roFl
'1.êtLt(lf1": : 
· - h
1e-hén1'f1ltcntff iLu lw:Drtf' 
C C C 1.t 1fû "ð . 
 _['1 U11 C ({, f cru.c 1 tt.{ 
tnê(. 
11\ {{tee eu m w. r'u.t:-rl<<m: 9tl1î.f .' 
"Jwtt,'.a:uféfft\;.b(t
fproml ' 
___ft tti' 
 frjOfetu Uf:\:r r l1t ,L fP 1if 
- :llbfaultctt1nrho

 r:
' 
" tlOC.tt'ú1;901't l {c<< ea-b.Qjf\o 
Jnå.l Jo {o
 atr
lnlfmL {toft<<. -1 
fU-}:å.deyJ1UL' Cfedfuftn
 



 . 


t 

 
" 


)I-\.HTYROLOGY.-A. D. 919 
I,Age ergo llUO<] ct'pisti .' ut mici pos sit cum 111eo fratre gervasio : I hodie be- 
nignitas salvatoris I occurrere: 'Tunc astacius comes I Iussit eum capite plecti: 
quulI/{l'(( I decollatus esset beatus prota sius : ego sen'us christi })hilippus I 
a1Jstuli cum filio meo furtim I nocte corpora sallcta : et In <101110 I mea cleo 
bolo te'-te . In Ista nrca I --axea <;
peli"i: credens me' 



346 


(mEEK AXD L-\TlX PAL-\EOUR_-\PHY 


L'H_\P. 


The 
IS. is one which may be cla
sell a:; a specimen of calligraph
-, and 
therefore rather in adyance of others of the same period which still 
retain much of the older character: awl it is flominatefl hr the increasing 
influence of the French hand. In passing. the use of the conjunction 
'lllll Hi in our specimen may be noticell. a practice of Yisigothic scribe
. 
while those of other nations usuall.r employ the form cll,m. l 
S'luareness and thinness of type increase in course of time, and 
are most characteristic of later \ï
igothic writing of the elennth and 
early twelfth centuries. In this change we may trace the same inflw-'ncc 
which was at work in other hamhniting"s of \Yestern Europe of that 
periOlI. 
In illustration of this more meagre st
-le, a facsimile is giycn from 
a 1'1:-;, of the Commentar
' of Heatus on the Apocalypse, in the British 
l\Iusel1m (Add. )1:-\. 116D3), which wa:; "Titten in the monastery of 
S. Domingo of Silos in the year ll09 (Pal. SUI'. i. 48). 


x o. 11 R 


In lines 3 anll 4 are instances of medial i-luH[la in CIllS, aUlI in line 
 
of the ligature for the assiJ,ilatell ti in CIJIt!j,'c[I(diu; and attention may 
he called to the use of the al.l,reyinte(l furm of pCI' (or P(Ij') peculiar to 
the Yisigothic hand, which in other countries would represent PI'V. 
The few examples of the Yi
igothic 1100k-haUlI which lun-e heen 
sulHnitte(1 may suffice to show that the Spanish scril'es. in forming their 
literary haUlI, fastened on certain prominent features in the later Roman 
cursiye aUlI manipulate(l them in a fashion which to our modern ifleas 
might seem affected. But the same remark, as will he presently seen. mar 
IJe appliell also to the methu( Is of other national hands. In this script 
the Roman cursiye u-shaped a of the Rayenna deells becomes the open 
Yisigothic letter; g assumes its characteristic ll-shape: the shoulder of 
l' is inclined to exaggeration: the incipient loackwanl cun-e of the cross 

troke of t, as seen in the later Roman cursive, is here brought right 
down to the ha!oie producing the a-shape(lletter, which. howenr, like its 
prototype, takes other forms in combination with other letters. In 
certain signs of abllre,-iation, too, we find a sun"i,-al of the cursi,'e u 
written as a cun'e abm-e the line, a
 in terminations 1lC and 1lS. But of 
course at the same time there i5 alsu the national character inherent 
in the script, which. fluite iwlepewlently of any peculiar forms of letters. 
re,-eal!oi the nationality of a handwriting as clearly as personal hand- 
writing re,-eals the illdi,"illual. 


1 To quote an exception to the general rule. the forms qllllm and quills occur in 1\ Corbie 
MS. of St. Augustine, ascribetl to the fifth ct"ntUl'
'. now at St. Petersburg.-Chl\telain. 
encialis Sc,'iptum, iii. 



xn 


LATIX X.\TIOXAL EOOK-H.\SDS 


34; 


FACSIIIIILE XO. llR 


&7 




.l,c
1utn1nc;1.fu,c J 
tnU1tf' <<Jn1C
U.;fo1tJwc1uruoru1d11(;7 
e15. .
u
u0 flJ1C
'tnUL

('au:) 
fol
 &tn

futftJtÞeb. .omw ðu
 
1
aíaw .f. . 
t->wncltclct?f
 1ùW 
f.J,rð!II,'\U
 JfawF


 
f
lt7ercr

 uibfuur
cnn6t-'. . 
..s J
 noner
.
U1lVrofUj*9
O mw 
L1nw<<
 jutH<<ufð{'w
 f
 cum 
J
ntYJ:
oL,&ruofffubOr 
 . 


\: 


BEATUS O
 THE ApOCALYI'SE.-A. D. 1109 
(est c
lum. hoc templum In c
lo. hoc InlUJier 3micta sole: hoc luna sub 
pedibus I eIus : Tamqu311! si diceret mulier amicta I sole: et mulier sub pe- 
dibll." eIus : omllia enim I hipartita SUllt : 
cclcsiam dicit l)artem suall! ! sub 
pedibus habere .f Ista pars qu
 sub I pedibus est ad 
cclesiam yidetur pcr- 
tinere: I Sed 
cclcsia non est. quia congregatio ma ligna est. qu
 desuperiores 
stellas cum I dmcone diabolo et suo pseudo profeta 



348 


<:REEK X:\1) L\TI
 PAL\EO(;R.\PHY 


CHAP" 


Lombardic 


That the national handwriting of Italy, fouwled un the old Roman 
cursi\"e, shoultl not have develope(l un the same lines throughout the 
country is nttriImtaI.le to pulitical causes. The defeat of the Lombards 
in Northern Italy I,y ('harlemagne suldecte.l it there tú new influences, 
and checked its de\"elopement in the direction which it continued to 
follow in the Lomllard duchies of the south, and particularly in the 
lIlo11asteries of )lonte Cassino near 
nples amI La Cant near Salerno. 
Therefore, although the title of Lomhu'dic is applie(l as a general term 
to the writing of Italy in the early micldle ages, that title might be more 
properly re:,trictetl to its particular developement in the south, to which 
the titles of Beneventan is also gi ven, con
ring the periOlI from the ninth 
to the thirteenth century, awl reaching its climax in the ele'"enth 
century. 
In the early specimens of the Italian literary hand the l1Iarkefl 
chanècter which it developed at a later time is unly incipient. In an 
e'{ample uf the I.uok-hand uf :\ orthern Italy in the seventh century, 
the \. erona Augustine (Sickel, Jfull. Graph. iii. 1), we find the half- 
uncial element \"ery strong, awl what wunl(l he termetl the Lomllartlic 
element, the peculiar adaptation uf certain cursive furms, rather suL- 
onlinate. .\gain, in the Saeramentarium 0[:-;. 348) of 
t. Gall, which 
belonge(l to Remedius, Bishop of Chur (A. 11. ROO-'!O), and which may 
therefore be phtee(l at least as early as the heginning of the ninth 
eentnry, if not at the end of the eighth century, the writing is rather of 
a type which we should prefer to call incipient Lombardic. In the 
facsimile here given, while the descent of the writing fmm the Homan 
cursÏ\"e can pretty rea.lily be traeed, the national character of the hand 
is not as yet \"ery marked (Pul. ;:)OC. i. 18;)). 



o. 119 


In this hand, as in the Visigothic, the letters It ,tIl(1 t are character- 
istic, the latter letter being cunstructe(l on the 
ame lines as the 
Visigothic letter: ùut it will be OhSl'ITe(1 that it is not universally 
l'mployed (see cun<lit-iul!i
, l. 5). The letter a, opl'n and in the form of 
douIJle-c, marks the Lomhn'dic hand. The occasional use of the high- 
shouhleretl r, and its cursi,"e comlJination with i and 0, will also ùe 
noticell. 
Th
 next fac
ill1ile is from a :\I
" of Alcuin D,' l'ì'i/
itatc, of the 
year 812, in the IlIolJastery uf )lonte Cassino (Pol. ul'f. !Ii JI. C. xxx\'ii). 



XYl 


L\TI:\ .:\ATIu
.\L BU()K-HA
l>" 


34!) 


F_\('SDIILE XÜ. ll!) 


en(- ftllu
ufJtif'f1r:fc
r
 cA<<It) (4. 
I 1.

!u
rlI 
"unOl", 1nue-ntC
"r mcc-nfion('-.! 

.'"!ßç 
ð 
c
c,rcttut1mL, cine: ,MrccttJum'r
 . 
- <<C
'1\f 1tHITl1de--. Þ au"d ea-nOf c
uron(ñþ 
.. 
I 
 
d - ,. I' 
con mOtUf rnlundt"å-, e-ú'-TU O nomtt11 

J ('('a;-_ACCC-ra-t'f'--r clnm nm? 

 
'1
i..!
 f an"m '1ltcW1 m,<<>>mt'1141f 1:(<<1 

) tntf"n' 1
,","ru<sLorum. c!t'r.e-tlf<=1f m<<Û' 
t"<r'"'"1
O
f "'" L. mt'"mf 1 bumcrnoru m 
>f'uff 'nc
t'n
 .r

m:' JÕl1
 
. "Ii" 


.. 



A('fLOIEXT.\RInL-AllÜlT \. D. 
U() 


I ens fiIiu's' hIlls dominus noster. palatam sibi I in nobis in\-eniat mansionem . 
per' qui tecum vivit' Super o
hIationem 
 I 
acrificium tilJi domine celebran- 
dum _ pIa catus intende .' quod et nos a viti is nostrii I condition is emuDllet 
et tuo nomini I reddat acceptos. per dominum nostrum. I () 'rtel'lle d/'u>;' filii 
u 
nos tamqU3l11 nutrimentis in."ti tuens parvolorum. dispen<;atis mfl1ti<; I et 
corporis alimentis . pcrhumanorum I foves incrementa profectuum : dunec 



350 


GREEK _\SD LATIX PALAEuGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


So. 120 
In this example we spe the characteristic shapes of the lettera a aud t 
now tjuite denloped; and the growth of the tall e, with indented back- 
curve, which also llecame a characteristic Lomhardic letter. Instances 
of the use of the ligature for as
il,ilated ti are to Le seen in lines 5 and 7. 
And e\-en at this earl.r period there is discernible the tendency to give 
a finish to short vertical strokes, as in m, n, and u, by atIding hea\-y 
ohlique heads and feet. which later became so marked a characteristic of 
the LOll1hanlic Look-hand. 
In a script which thus early displa.retl a partiality for extreme orna- 
ment. it is ol)\-ious that the tendency to artificiality would strengthen, 
a
 
crihe after scriùe sought to maintain the tratlition of the standartl 
thus set up. This we fiml to ùe the case; and, as time proceeds. the 
artiticiality is intensified. 
The next facsimile, taken frum a )IS. of the Adtillcif-: of Statim; in 
Eton College Library pIS. Bl. 6. 5), :-.hows the Lomùanlic book-hand 
at the entl of the tenth century, having made comparatinly small 
l'rogre"s on the style of the previous example; the inherent consena- 
tism of any extremely artiticial form of writing naturally running in 
a narrow groO\"e ami re!>i!>ting changes from outside influence (..LYC1 1 ' Pal. 
Sue. 110). 


x o. 121 


The haml is here in <;ettled form, with its characteristic letters quite 
.letined. The doul)Jt..-c furm of a is generally so cluse-set that it more 
nearly l'esemùles uc coml,ined, amI it occasionally runs a risk of COH-. 
fusion with letter t. The memory of the varieties in Roman cursi no 
!-.till finds expression in the changes of letters l' and t in ,litferent 
positions. 
The style of ornamental finish noticed abo\-e was carried to it" 
height in the course ot the elennth century, and had the result of 
imparting to LomLardic writing of that period, by the strong contra!>t 
of the fine and heavy strokes, the peculiar appearance which has gained 
for it the name of vrol.:en Loml'arrlic. The facsimile which follows is 
h handsume specimen uf this type. It is from a Lectionary written at 
:\lonte Cassino hetween the years 1058 and 1087 (Pal. al'i. di .ill. C. xlv). 


Xo.122 
It will be oL
en-ed that in the structure of the letters, especially in 
the case of the short square letters i, m, n. u, amI partially in others, the 
natural methods of writing are in some measure im.erted: a fine stroke 
often taking the place of the hea\-y stroke of the ordinary hand, and 
a hea \-y stroke the place of the fine stroke. l- sing a brmltl-pointed pen, 



xn 


L\.TI
 
.\TIO::\_\L BO()K-HX
DS 



it 
 -i

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
.. d1 .t '.J 
 

 
 j t ; 
 
r 
i 
 î i 
 
,;
 
.... · 

 
 j E 
 
1 oR :ii 
 .
 f 'ij 
t
 '!'
\JT 

-ftrf

 

 Sdi
9-J
 

 Jj 
 f ; 
 ö1 
z

 H ò
u
 
= JQ 
-i.; 
 

 


:1 Ç. 
 p,...j 
J. 
 
(, u t1:: s 

i'

I
t
 

1
e'hÇ
 
a:t å s: 
 
 
 
t: {: 0 
 ; 
 

t ! a{
2 
:s fI C _ 
 
 
E
' 
 1

 

 
, ç...
 


:1'S

t 
t
i2t

 
cr



t.<ÎJ 


.- 



 == ..: .
 
; g ê 
 
.8 Z :: 
 

 ::: - 
 
== -Si 
 
 

 
 ]D
 
::SZS 
<:.> 
.... 
;.;g=ë;; 
--..- 

-,c.;:::U1 
.-" 0 
.... :... 
Q) C 
.... 
'"" 0 :" 
U1 .....,.J 
 c:) 
o::g
 

:: \J) 
...... - Q) 
:.> <:.> 
0::"" -- .- 
=:: 
 rg UJ. 

 - - 

"'7 
 rn 

 
 

 
- . -'....... 
- - - 
-z- 
 .: :: 

 .... Q) ::: ..:: 
'XJ ::: r-:::: ::: ;:::: 
;; -> ;:: :; 

 
;.a.
 
 
-< ;:I ",;:..U1 
I .
] rv == 
.- Q)- 
i ...: 
 _ ;n 
- ..:,).. - 

 :.-. 
 
_ :..2 
 
 '-' 
. 
..:: g Q) 

 ;::::: 
 :::: 
a -S"r. <;) ..=: 
S:: ç:
.-'ü1 
""3";:;C::
 
_ 
 w t) 
::::: 
-- 
- ....-4
 \I) ""':í 
\l) '- ,:) Q :.... 
!:::
=
 

::m=-- 
;.:: 
 
 
 3 

 c.. 
 .:;' ::: 

)

 
 
 

 -. ::: ::: ::; 

 .;: -rD ;; íf' 
Q -- ;:- 
U' :J > 
 ,.- 
=:


c: 
a
;
Q 
r:: 
 ::: = rn 
U1 -" r::: rn r::: 
:: .
 a C'S:z 
::CJQJ
= 
.::: 
 
.: 
 
t) - ....., t.o-- 
-5 tJ -;:: .::: '"0 
__ ;.;a æ 
U1"tJJ 
 
= :::: ._-
 

s>""Zõ 
d ........ ..... ,..... :.... 
- ;... - - .. 
;'c::=
; 
_..... 
 
 U1 t) 


331 



3 _') 
;J._ 


GREEK AXD LATIX P
-\L.AEI )(HL-\.PHY 


CH\P. 


FAl'SDIILE X o. 121 


S,C æmcr-'M- k
 æuåJr. fCh'tcq
 Ur.
cñIm 
Outlêi11(C
 ren
 au
.nfoC't1h
ccof+ at<<Cd'Ð 
g t
. (



 t



 
uC
 
\<< 
1" "m.øf,u 

tfr 
sn,,
t*,tmuf h.rufhs 

 <<
f&
1\cuøffon
occ

 f
ëfã: 
"
4i!-Otm<<Cn&,.,fnT æUt1u1 n
;
u
æpul4Ø 
11 
m
nunc 
m

u
cun.z..'!i'
 Ut
C1.)f 

"""f- 

C1a"
t.tCM cr
 mfq; tuã=pþf
 F
au't11 
n øtnt.uæcumq;ruo t1t.'tn
nLau"
nl'h,one.ch
 
JI
=q 

 

'

U"-Gu
 t
 Uttauf 
G -t<< \"''1
 CU; 
"
i!-Uo
 u<<m.;q., 
ucum'1j 
":I: fi 
 aJl<<utu
 ø
U\ 

 <<Lrfttr UtnC' 
r b øcu'b't-t.J./crc 
1'
um F

 Ju,c4h
1X'-,ttl
 
P Ut-U
.
1øt19D nDbtl.,,
ae- F
 
,"ø
m-. tncr
ufq; '9bt flu.bfer" ",chdUf 



TATICS.-ExlI OF TEXTH CEXTCRY 
(Sic amor est hero avelis . schiroquc latentem 


CU//l 
Dulichia p1"Oferre tuba . nec In hectore tracto 
id est integTa. achilelll. 
Sistere . sed tota Iuvenem dedncere troia 
Tu mo si Vf'teres dig-no deplevimlls haustu 
0' 
Da milti feve noyos fontes ac fronde secunda 
Kecte comas' ne'luc enim annium Ilem/lS adyena pulso 
Nec mea nunc pril11is augescunt timpora yittis 
S
it dirceus agel' . meq IIC Intcr prisca parentul11 
Komina CUl11q//c suo nUl11erant tuo anphiolle the[he
 
oLta\-ine '7,d domitialle i.1 est multulI1. 
At tu qucm longe pril11U1/1 stupet Hala virtus 
Graiaquc cui gemine florel1Ì vaÌlllll'p'c ducumqllc 
Certatilll laurus . olim dulet aItem vinci 
Da veniam : ac hepidum patere hoc sUllare pal'umpcr 
Pulyere . te longo nO/ilIum fidente paratu 
:Molimur . l11agnusq lIC tibi prcludit achilles) 



xn 


LATIX X_\TI()
_\L BOOK-HX:\DS 


333 


FACSl'IILE Ko. 122 


<<bi nuX fl'/'lut t1 F 

fß

frfìmo 
#ntm1f m
/ 

 P'ìncfpf tàJum 
afflt y(t m 

1a- 
ncf iJ.læuU't"' ncf 
(rr
cm-:fn
tt1 
fa:t1

1n
 fU"./
ft- 
- 
':
ntm
um 
f<<c
aff 
 
 
Fd;'f UC .lp1î 
 

\mp
um ( n{t . 


LECTIOXARY.-A.D. 1058-87 
(ah iesu christo qui est I testis fidelis . primo genitus mortuorum I et princeps 
regum I terr
 . Qui dilexit I nos et Iavit nos I a peccatis nostris In I sanguine 
suo : et fe cit nostrum regnum I sacerdotes deo et I patri suo. Ipsi gloria 
et Imperium In sf: cub:) 


118< 


Aa 



354 


UREEK XKD LATIX P AL\.EOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


F.\l'
nIlLE ISu. ]23 



 r
rf
tt
tt
 
t}
û'<<
-n:-f
.

.
fe- f

 f 
\\
 ,

.1ibt f&}f
 f
 fct;. fih tt<<!,_ 
fim. 

 ttrufrf

 ß:ymfUcr 
f
ftro;-
 út'
& f
u

F 
fum. 
 i-.,,
 ,-p 

,
 
n.: 
f
 ffrw 
 U

 f
" u,
tb; í 


f
ï
 rf

.11U
1 

 



.
'\

 



 
ßt fh

. 
 tr".? r
wetV 
Jl
 / 


CmnlE
TAHY O
 )IOXA:-õTlC Rl7LE::;.-.\.]I. ]26-1-S:.! 


(integra nUll1erum psa]ll1orum nUll1erum lee tionum agant sibi. ill est. apull 
se seereto I sine cantu. sibi solis si Sillt soli. sibi vieis sil1l dieendo versus 
psalll10rum et Yll1pnorum I si sunt duo vel plures . et servitutis pen SUIll . id 
est. tributum quod ex debito debellt I sieut servi domino viùelieet septem vieio 
bus ill I die et semel in node psallere. nOn nf'gli gant reddere. id est. reddant 
diligenter I et studiose . debent enim habere a blihioJhecaJ) 



xu 


L-\.TlX X_-\.TlOX
\.L BOOK-HAXDS 


355 


the scrihe turns his hand inwards and thus gives full breadth and 
solidity to oblique strokes drawn from left to right, while the vertical 
strokes of the &hort s(luare letters named aùow, and the oblique strokes, 
from rirrht to left , of others are little more tIum hair-lines. It is this 
,.., , 
im-ersion of the customary practice of penmanship that lel1fls to l,roken 
Lombardic its striking aspect of ornamentation. 
After this period tlw Lombanlic hand declines in beauty, though it 
still maintains its artificial character. A &pecilllen of the later style is 
found in a cOlllmentary on monastic rules hy Bernard, <"tbbot of :\Ionte 
Cassino from 1264 to 128'2 (Pul. ad. dt J1. C. liii). 
So. 1:!3 
There i<; an instance of the use of the ligature for the assibilated ti 
at the 1leg-inning of line 2. 


In the ahove specimens the tlevelopement of the Lombar(lic book- 
haml has been followed only in tho 
lirect line. leaving out of account 
those \-arieties. to which reference has been l1la
le, lying on the l,onler- 
law I l'etween Loml,ardic and Frankish styles of writing. It is more 
convenient to place them in a class which may he styled Franco- 
Lombardic, to be noticed in succession to the purely MerO\oingian 
literary hand which has now to l,e (lescribe(I. 


Merovingian 
The many hands which ha\'e been cla!'>sed as )lerovingian, practised 
as they were through the wide extent of the Frankish Empire, were 
necessarily of different types; and. as we have already stated, the 
boundary lines between the several national hands are not always to 
he accurately defined. The style of writing to which the name of 

lero\"ingian may pUI' e.I'C'elleltce be applied, is been in its cursive form 
in the diplomas still existing of the )Ieroyingian so\'ereigns; but this 
official cnrsi\'e writing aUfI its later de\-elopement in the scripts employed 
in the Imperial Chancery will lIe considered in a later chapter, in con- 
junction with other official cursive hands of \Yestern Europe. It may 
<.uffice in this place to state hriet1y that there is nO difficulty in tracing 
the descent of the various forms of. lettprs employed in these documents 
from the parent stock, the Roman cursive. But, besides shapes and 
nuieties of Roman cursive origin, to be found here as well as in other 
national hands, special notice may he taken of the narrow double-c 
shaped a, which is characteristic in the )lerovingian hand, and, in a less 
degree, of the u, worn down into a curved or sickle-shaped stroke-a form 
which is also found in Frankish literary writing, not only as an over- 
written u, hut also as a letter in the body of the writing. 
Aa2 




 
C\! 
...... 


o 
Z 
>.J 
,..:; 
..... 
::-; 
..... 
u 
ç 
-1. 

 


3j() 


(mEEK AX!> LATl
 P.\LAEOU1:L\PHY 


()) 
.... 
 :È g 
 


;BJ)a
 -f 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 ð.,.,.". 

 .i 
 :t.
'i.
:i 

 o.r, S '3 Ö ......-B 
 
 

g !.J 
{ Æ-Ç' 
: 

 U-:i 
þ 
 m 
 $ 

f
ï; 
 .

- 
V<p::J
"

k::t 
a 
 u- 
!t
 :!1: 
 (jj 9 

 
 J:J .!5 -r5 
 :3 

 -g 
 c-- rJ "l. J. 0.- u:. 
u- 
J: 
 g--i1-g 
. A 
{f .6 if. 


 Þi 
 
 
P ? æ 9 
 fI Ç-dI' 
 

 


 


 n
 


J1 u-

 
:ì-a_ 
8
 i; 
'\ 
 !led Q- ã 

 
 ç 
 w- 
--q ..- ið cr. 


CHAP. 


.(: 9 
 .;; 
s:: - -' .:.,.. 


:5
 
- - 
"=' ....- So- 
g 

 
 
::" ::: .
 Q. 
 

 cJ:: <:.) ;::... 
.
 s 
 OJ 
 

 
.
 ê 
 

 g 
- 
 
 
.. __ ,...I "'::: 
 
f;
&..=
 
..= .......-4.;:.;:: 

 
J2::; 

 .:
;:; 

 

 '= 
 g -= æ 
-:.:; 
 
.:: 
 6 
-J .-
....=
 

 .:: i:: <:.) ....... 
= "& S g 
 
 

 
 55 
 ú-= 
; 
 s 
 
 
 
;,: 
.
...... õ ...
 
:r.:. ;;.;..::: 
 
 
P_" -=- 
 == E 
 
::- --
C)r-..; 

 0 <:.) ............. 

 ::;
s

 
_......... .... Ul 
 
I ^,.- - Q) - 

 - 
 - 
.- 
 =- 
 
 
." :::: - <J) <J) (.J 
".. l::JJ .. :.> u: u;: 

 Q,) 
 - 
-< ;.... Ul -:: - 
:or. ::: Q) - .. 
 
o = <:.) 
 
 ::: 
8 .5:'=-oo
:E 
;? @ .Q);..=ê 

 >
t)

 

 
 -'.- ;.... 
:.õ ":î --'= Q: 
 
::: a>-U\ =: 

"? .:::
 
"a õ 
 
 
 
0' <:) <J" ... Q) 
,.... c:: > 
.
 H 
 Z ;.... 
::: .. 
 ::: J:; 
:=........


 
o ..rJ..::: 
 0 
.. CJJ := Q,) ::0 
-- -. - 
Ü1 Q; "":: 

:::::Ul:: . 
......... <:"00 _ Q.i 
ê E S :::: ; 
sã
g:= 


"
-=.. 




 I t -1= 1-:1 
1 

 l&-f 11 j 
t %1--ú
- ð l 
. 

 t: i--:V 
 
 
 
:J Q::. S a 
 5 
-E j.. r'J I!- 
 ç 
a t). . 
 
" 
 .J 
 1 
 j 

J! 
 S 
 
* 
,- - 
 .: 
..9 a i" Í-4i 
.. '. 



n 


or. 

 
..... 


è 
it'. 
y 



 


..... 
::< 
.... 
.L 

 
-< 



 


LATI
 ,ATIOX AL E()()K-H.\
DS 


.. 


.. 


357 


:::rh-
 .- 
- -....a..-....... 
 -- 

.
 = 
 :: 
 
en :::..c::: 5
 ::j 

_ c. _ - 0" 
Ð -;:=: 
.
 . 

 
r;: a 
..s 
. .. 
 

 ã 

 --- - 

 Of ":; 1 
 
 

_
U)U)..... 
.
 ë5.2; :; 
 Õ 

:.....=

t) 

 
 

 ;:- 
 .å 
:.> c:) 
 :J :... 0 
=
 .. 
 
 
 
ë5 
 ;.
 rn :
 

,,;=:
.Ec::: 
o :... :.J U) en . 
::"1 
 
.::: g; 
 
;.; 
 :J) "_.
 
...... -:= 
.
 rl\ a :::-" 
:::: 
"Q)::::
 

 w'" ?"t-- o =
.2; 

 "9 
 =..
::::.
:= 

 c;:::.::: 5lJ......""tj ;; ... 
c:) ::1 -.S 
 -;; .3 
"- 
 Q) .- _
 0 
rn .""::: r-:;:: 
 Q 

 .. 
 r:/" 
 rfJ 
 
;:;z5Z 

 
 
.-::; 
 
.:::: 
:'3 ëD 
..
., 
o ã) - 
 
..o 
I =
:::.ræ

 
. :.5 pO ":;:: "; Z S :; 

 
-;r.r
C:<:) 

 W'J) ....Z. 

.....,::;Ir.r 
 
.E"> 
 
 æ :...-.ï:: 

,-4 g-:=z
 
:J 
ê
Q)


 
<l).=H
.::::'=:.
 
c.: :J _,......( "-' -.J :... :... 
'l:.r-::::
 
Q)O 
-=; .rg-

 


:';::::;:"3.-
 
Q,) c:) C'" <D <II <:.) 


:.::=....

S 

 ë;..s.
 
 "a 
 
ã) .- 
 z 
 
 
 
> Ul....
 
.:::..c: 
 

::" _ -rn"'=:,-Ig 
.. - - Q) ,.... -- 
ê3<Dt)
2eJ 
_._ :.> _...... t,) =' 
=' t.r)_":;: 
"ë 
 
:;:;"if.J--:j
 

- 
 
 .. r.n 
 c: 
:S
àSËS
 
.
 ::; .-I.
 -::: f: 
 



g;
t 

 <D 
... 
"õ 
 
 
-:=..,.....-" 
s .
 :; 
 
 
 S 
- - 
 
' - - .- 

;'

2
g 



35H 


Gl{EEK A:\l> LA'lT:\ PALAEUUILU'HY 


CHAP. 


The l\Ierovingian lJook.haml, inlInediatelJ- derived from the official 
cursive writing, is, in fact, that hand moulderl into a set calligraphic 
style, an(l appears in certain, not very numerous, )ISS. of the se\Tenth 
and eighth centuries. Professor Trauhe has classed this book-hand as the 
Luxeuil script. 1 \Ye select a specimen from the Lectionary of Lu'\:euil 
AbLey (Paris, Bibl. Kat., fonds lat. 9-l2ï); late seventh century.2 


Xo. 1:!4 
The puint,. to be noticed are: the charncteristic open a, formed by 
two curns like a double-c, but generally with thin pointed heads. and 
wanting the dots or thickenings seen in the Lomhanlic letter; the letter 
t having the hinder curve of the cross stroke joined to the main stroke at 
the ccntre, instcarl of, m; usually in the \ïsigothic awl Lomhardic forms. 
at the base; the varying shapes of the same letter in different comhina- 
tions; and the long and high-shouldered l' under certain conditions, in 
place of the more onlinary letter-all of Roman cursive origin. Especially 
is the cluLbing of the main strokes of tall letters to be noted as 
influencing the character of the later. Carolingian, hanel. 
Another example of the Luxeuil type, but of later date, is tnken 
from a 
IS. of Pope Gregory's lfIomlia, of the eighth century (Brit. Mus., 
Add. MS. 31031; Cu.t. Â/
('. lfISS. ii. 51). 


Xo.l:!5 
Here are the same features as in the pre\'ious example: the same 
style of letters, combinations, amI cluhbing of the tall main strokes. The 
.'itrol1gly-defined angularity of the two limbs of a has been noted as 
characteristic of this later hand. 3 
These two specimens may suffice to show the 
Ierovingian book-hand 
as normally developed from the official cursi\-e. 


Franco-Lombardic 
The mixed styles abon referred to, as used \\ ithin the limits of the 
Frankish Empire, we have, for convenicnce, classed under the general 
title of Franco-LomLardic. For this particular section the material is 
f,till far from complete, and it is more prudent to await the result of 
special re
earch before venturing on a more dcfinite classification. To 
give a general idea of the (liversity of these handwritings, we must he 
content with a few examples. 


I VorleslIngcn, ii. 22-27. c,ee 1\ li
t of 1I1
ð. in Loe\\". Stl/dia Palaeogr. 31. 
2 See Notice slIr un },[annscrit de l'Ab/mye de L1txellil, I.y L. Dl'ii
le, in Notices et Extraits des 
.1. SS.. tnme xxxi. pI. h. 
s Loew. ;13-4. 



Àn 


L\.TIX XATIOXAL BOOK-HAXDS 


339 


FACSDlILE X o. 126 


f1'tr.-J
:l'1K' ,lrr'
 lrot
 '-IUI '" 11l'llJII!
U&'T10'" 
r:C4tW Cb
ftUfl{" S1qu:tJldlttffl
"Yærtæ p


'" 
'ÍlfUI
 1\IS'I Wt lumt' S Ie \
.r...,' p.r (.not\'( tlÍ'" 
1n

b1tt f'tU
ta:fU
 
\t
rçpuhJ'f1m 
i\1
J1ol 
",uæ't1nu(ttletf ðc

 '1u
'Ut
mf pPul4ð1'ltæ 

tJtfl"uæ

 \tN4
lt
t fCf\

:}- 
C unlfftL<'<< 
Þ\>tl\\\tu, 'mól1õ\'ti qU\a:'II
\'-i't.\,: 
\ U
1a:x: f\,(1
1'I1 n.'i" "<1 cp' '1 u hr \f 1'<'-1 u
rc....: U'1'I14 
QU'
Pl P 
tûX't1
t(fUf
ft
 
 a:l'tl'fU
'UIC:" 

l

tf.

cJf
 
\\:l1fà.
 tS
,.t 

U\11
t cmt"\tf1
1
r4 
V
 lra:n1
á160'
'l"" 

 . I I I 


HmnLlES.-
EYE
TH OR EIGHTH CÐ1TL"RY 


praedicatio dispicitur quia dum delin'luentium I fada corripiunt Si tamen 
eis necessaria praesen tis vitae non tribuunt Sic itaque past ores erga I interim'a 
studia subditor:uu suorum ferveant I Quatinus in eis exteriora quoqlte vitae 
pro,-identia non relinquant Unde alihi scriptum est I Cum praees hominibus 
memento quia tibi est dells I iudicans homines scito quia ipse iuJicaveris 
a cleo I Qui locum prcdicationis suscipit ad altitudme I boni actionis ad 
excelsa trauseat et eorum I 'lui sibi coul1uissi sunt opera transceudat) 



360 


<-mEEK AX]) L.\TIX P.\LAE()c;RAPHY 


CHAP. 


FACf'DIITÆ No. 127 


:'(!dm
' 
L; JomtnJ
r
' \ 

an,,"c:tU
 ft
a-.B.znøn.utñ
..
 

tr.1è-eü- 
""t
.ttØf1J&&uae- 
Pli e,6t..xv-c.u:PJUf; . " 
JhmW,...J... 
&""......; . 
uthfNr 1MT1Ut1nl
.t1OnJfJt
 
,..+."-". eo.,............urc..,.., H 
bfLU
'S' f.:11
""U\.(."t"
 
."''' ',. 
· 1'(f"
'" 
cdln J
run"
 i 
r.ctlk ðZit.fr<r
fJL
. :r 
m;t. f
ttmne- c
æk. yt4<tb a.t. III " ,tj 
cutt
-vli;<f
t'
C]
t1ì .j 

".
ø"C". 
e..'fpr.
 j 

'

'n1

. tõT:l. c.-i1ur 


LEX :3ALICA.-.\..D. ï9.J. 
(!:5i quis ad maIlum . legilnts dominicis. I mannitus. fuerit . et non venu erit. 
se emn . sunnis non detenue:rit . sulidos. x\. . culp,,'Úlis iudicetur . I Illi vero. 
qui alio manit et ipsi nun I venerit . se eum sunnis. non detenuerit . I solidlJs 
xv. ei. cui. manuit . conponat . I II. DE FVRTI
. PORCORVlIl ; Si quis. purcellulll . 
lactentem de cranne I furaverit . et ei . fuerit . adprobatum I malliety chranne 
chalti rechalti . solÙlos . iii. I culpaliilis iudiccfur Si quis purcellu1n furaverit 
qui si;ne matre vivere possit. et ei. .fuerit adpro bahun . manClYI himnes 
theca. solidulII . i . culpabili.'l Ïl1l1ic('(lIr) 



XYI 


L\.TIX 
.-\.TI()X
-\.L EOOK-H
-\.XDs 


:x, 
=-t 


. 


;

 

 

 ;: - c:' b' -- 

 
 - 
 - cd s=: 
:1 --= 3" a
 
 : 
t:r 
 
 
 
 
 --t- 

 :2- 
 t:.=: E' 
 - 
 

:g 
- ; 
 
=j 
... --g H 5 

 
 
 

 
 
o-.. 
 
 
- 
 
,... \.. 
 .A - 

 1 :: t-b- f J5 

 
 ê-
 -d 
 
:J 0- - - ---u- S 
ç.. . t.....::!..:J b' _ 
cr: - ç"j 
 0-- Ç$ ;:: 
a 
 
 
 
 - 9 
g:::;-g :J 
 
 t 
E
 c- u- 
 --u- 


--v ç
 B
 

 
 - 
 
 
 '
 

 -t:1 
 

 

 fI:-


O-'t 
c-
 q 2 
 · JQ 
E 
. 
 - " L
 f 

 ç 'i 0 :j
--;a- 

 _ 3 
 
 
 -
 

o-....G-
 
 __.,._ 
 


 - O--........J - 
....'. - 3 -1 - - 

 ,=!- 

 :b.
 0 
. - 
 
:OL t - 5 
 
. t 
,..ð' 

 
 5' 
Q- 
, 


,..: 
z 
w 



 
f. 
-< 
;::... 


361 



 }-l f 

 
: 55 
...., - ::::;.e 



 
== 
-:: == 
-:-'
C 

......- ""'" 
C)=
- 
- . :: <D 

-.IJ""'" ::1 
_ æ ._ 
::Q.)
::::: 
- --- 
Q;) ::: c: 

;
:a 

Þ-!= 

 .
 ::: ..3 
::> s =:: - 
.:: UJ -= a> 

-=="":i 

=-!:: 
- - "'" 
-.... --,--... 
C"'
::'>""'" 
>- ,... -- -- 00 

 =_;o.
 Q,;I 

 :::5- - 

 -=
s= 

 C"'"_ J) Q _ 
..=.,._ <J)
r-:::; 
&C
::::
 
t 
:; 
.. t.o 
g 2 
5 
 
:.- n 
.::::::::
 
._ c:.:>
_ 
"1):) -.n --- - 

 
 j.
 
 
 
'I' en 
 =' =rJ'- 
i S
'.2 Q; 
..=., rng


 

 r.n - -:;: rn.:: 
;:: g.
;.
 
 
c ":: 
 H == 
 
"ê -=- ê ::) 
 

 
::::=ð 
rn_
:>UJ 
; --=
;: 
_ ff' - - 
;=z
 
 
;;.- --z 
;...c:.:>

-....J 
c."S==-3=> 
;, - = Q) = 
-= .:3 
 :; 
:: -::: -= "- 
 
:;:;

Q,) 
.
; 
 5: 
-
--- 
:) (f) 0_ - 3 
-= ::: 
 :> -- 
5
::_.": 
::::15:::=; 

":; ;.: :; 
l 
a
 
 
L
 
 
---- - 
 - 



362 


(mEEK _\XD L\.TIX l'AL-\EOUR -\PHY 


CHAP. 


The following specimen is from the Harley JI:::;. 50-1-1, in the British 
Museum, containing theological treatises and homilies, uf the spnnth or 
eighth century. 


1\0. 126 
This :\1
. has been grouped with those of the Lm::euil type,I hnt it 
can hardly claim a close affinity. A characteristic i
 the hent or hroken 
stem of h antI I; and other letters to be speciall,y noticetI are the a, 
which is of a type neither decidedlJ' Jlero\'ingian nor deciderlly LOlll- 
bardic, though rather inclining to the latter: and the sickle-shaped u. 
Next, we select a facsimile from an interesting 
IS. of the Lex 
Salica, at St. Gall (Cod. 731) written in a mixed hand in .\.D. ,U-1- (PIll. 
Soc. i. 184). 


No. 127 
Here, although the writing has heen classed a!'> Lomhanlic. the style 
is mixed. awl the test letter a appears in Lombardic, .MerO\'ingian, anll 
Carolingian forms. 
Above all, there is a class of )[58. of the eighth anll ninth centuries 
of a cOl1\'entional type, which Professor Tmnhe has identifiell as of the 
Corbic script,2 but which has hitherto heen usually tIe:scrihetl as 
Lombardic. Among other examples:3 are the Paris JI8. 3R36, containing 
a collection of Ecclesiastical Canons, of the eighth century (PIt!. t:Joc. i. 
8, 9) ; some lea\'es of the eighth century allded tu a 1\1S. of Homilies, etc., 
written at Soissons; 4, and the HarleJ' ::\1S. 3063, the commentary of 
Theodore of ::\lopsuestia on the Pauline Epistles (Cat. AnI'. 
lISS. ii. 33), 
of the ninth century. We select a few lines from the Soissons ::US. of 
the eighth century (Brussels, ROJ'al Library, )IS. 9"50-
). 
1\0. 1:l8 
The characteristic letters to be notell in this hallfl are: open a. forme,] 
as if a com hi nation of u and c, the first limh straight, the secollll cun'ed : 
and b with an abnormally small bow, aUlI a connecting stroke proceeding 
at right angles from the shaft. \Ye may also ol,sen'e the letter e 
generally ri
ing aho\'e the line; loope,l 0: long r: antI loop!:" I t. changing 
in shape according to its combinations. 


Pre-Carolingian 
But it must not be forgotten that the Lncial amI Half-uncial styles 
were still emploJ'ed in the Frankish Empire for the production of the 


1 Loew, :J4. I Ihid. 36. s Loew, :36, gives a li,t of seventeen l\1
"". 
· See lI'otice sur tin Manus,:rit Meroringien de la Bibliolh .que Royale de J3l!/gique, by L. Delisle. 
in lI'otices et Extrails des MSS , tome xxxi. Delisle clas"e
 thf"
e leaves as Lomh.I1'die, and 
remarks: 'II nous fait voir combien I'emploi de l'écritUl"e lombardique, importée chez 
nou. par dps moines italiens, devait ètre ordinaÏre dans les aLba)cs fnmques.' 



XYl 


LATIX XATl< )X
\L Bt IUK-HAXD:-\ 


363 


greater numher of literary 
l:-;S.: anll that the professional scribes, who 
were of course expert both in tho
e formal hook-hands and in the more 
cursi\'c characters of the )lerovingian, woul.l naturally, when writin
 
without special care or in a rough amI rea.ly style, mix the 
characters of the different han.}s. Thus we are prepared to tiwl thc 
influence of the uncial and half-uncial showing" itsclf in mu.lifying the 
extrm"agances of the cnr!-ive 
lerO\"ing"ian, anti. on the other hawl, 
the cursi\-e hreaking out e\"en in lines written in a more formal character. 
First we seleet an example of writing which may he 
ai.l to form 
a link with the mif.;ct>llaneous class which we have named Franco-Lom- 
hardic. This is in a 'IS. of the Epi
tles of S1. t 'yprian, written in several 
hands of the eighth century. which in the fifteenth century was in the 
abl.cy of 
lurhach in .Alsace: l,ut there is nothing to show that it 
was written there. The )1::5. now helongs to the John Rylands Library 
in 
Ianchester (
IS. Lat. 15) (Xe1/' Pol. So('. 160, 161). 


Xo. 129 
It will be ðeell that the letter a if.; usually. lmt not always, of the 
Lombardic pattern. But the general style of the hand is quite different 
from either the standard Lombardic or Jlerovingian tJ"pe. It is, in fact, 
a good example of the Look-hand which was gradually being constructed in 
the eighth century umler the influence of uncial and half-uncial literarJ" 
scripts, comLining, hO\ve\"er. elements from the cursive and national 
hands. Regarlling it simply as a specimen of writing, its bold style and 
well-rounded letters. amI the ornamental thickening of tall main strokes. 
all give promise of the e\'olution of a fine literary script. when once it 
had been subjected to !'yMematic calligraphic treatment. 
Two very interesting 
ISS. written in a variety of hands ha \'e been 
described by Delisle: Xotice .-u/' 1l it Jlu /l"lt
lTit Mérot'ingien d'E'/ÆgYl/pi'/18 
(1875) written early in the eighth century, and Toti('e 1>111' un Jlanuscrit 
Jlérm'i11giell de lu Bildiot1,è'l,/e d'Épilllll (I8i8) of the Epistles of 
St. Jerome, written in the year 744 /f.;ee also 
Yel" Pul. Soc. 20ï. 208). 
The following facsimile repn'sents one of the nHmy hands employed in 
the )18. of EugJ"ppius. 


x o. ] 30 


Here we have a haml cast into a fairly 
imple lJUt uncultured form. 
in which are to be traced the elements of the refined l,ook-hand which 
eventually emerged out of material of this kiwI under the correcting 
hands of the new schools umler Charlemagne. 'Ye :-.ee still the lingering 
influence of the Roman cursi\'e, l.reaking out here IUId there, as in the 
tall c (in line 2). the open a written alJove the lille \ in line I). the high- 
shouhlered r. awl the van"in" forms of t 
. ... 



36-1- 


UREEK AX!) L\TIX l'.-\L\.E()( ;lL\.PHY 



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a 


CHAP. 


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xn 


LATlX X.-\TIUXAL B()UK-H_-\
DS 


r-E. L 
 
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365 




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366 


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LATIX XATIO
.\L EOOK-HAXDS 


367 


I n the ne"t example, taken from the Épinal :-It. Jerome of A. D. 744, 
there is It rather h:òtter attempt at uniformitr, in which the influence of 
the half-uncial style is more e,-illent. 



o. 131 
It will he ol,sen-e.l that the note of emendation at the end is written 
with a larger proportion of cursi,-e forms; proLalJly having ùeen incor- 
porated in the te"t from a cursi,'elr-written marginal note. 
31SS. of the pre-Carolingian style. such as those whieh have been here 
submitted, arE' still sufficiently numerous to prove that during the eighth 
century there was a growing effort tu mould into a serviceable form 
a minuscule book-haml which should be free from the difficulties and 
intricacies of the national hal1l1s. The finishing touch was now to be 
applied. 


The Carolingian Reform 
The reign of Charlemagne is an ppoch in the historr of the hand- 
writings of \Y e
tern Europe. 'Vith the re,'i,-al of learning naturallJT 
came a reform of the writing in which the works of literature were to 
be nl<1I1e known. A .1ecree of the rear ï8D callcli for the revision of 
church-l,ooks; and this work naturally hrought with it a great acti,-ity 
in the writing schools of the chief 1Il0lHlstic centres of France. Awl in 
nonE' was there greater acti,-itr than at Tours, w]wre, under the rule uf 
Alcuin of York. who was al.hot of :-:t. )lartiIÚ
 from i!)6 to 80-1-, was 
specially tleve]oped the exact hawl which has rccei,-ed the name of the 
Carolingian )linuscu]e. Delisle, in his useful .lUllwire sw'l'Écule cfllli- 
gmt,hi'Jue de TUUl"8 an i/ si;"'lf' (] 81"3) 1 enumerates as many as twenty- 
fixe )ISS. of the Carolingian periOlI still in existence which, from the 
character of the writing, may be flscril,ed to the schoo] of Tours or 
at least to scrillPs connedetl with that school. The genera] practice 
followed in the production of fine )1:-;:-;. in this bchoo], and no douLt in 
other contemporary schools also, which set the fashion for the future, 
was to empluy majuscule letters, either capitals or uncials, for titles amI 
other ornamental parts of the ,-olume: for the general tcxt, minuscule 
script; ùut for special passages which it was desirell to ùring into 
prominence, 
uch as tables of chapters, prefaces, and introductory 
sl'ntences or paragraphs of sections of the work, a handsome stJ']e of 
writing was reservell which was adapte.l from the old half-uncial script 
of the fifth and sixth centuries. 
Delisle has cite. 1 an excellent example of the reformed Carolingian 
I,ook-hand in a 31:-;., now at Quedlinl,urg. containing collections relating 


I Extrail des lI,lIIoird lie I'Awd,mie illS Illscriptiolls et Belles Ltlt,'es, tome xxxii. 



368 


GREEK A:\T> LATIX P
-\.LAEOURAPR\ 


CHAP. 


FAcsnnLE Xo. l::t
 


audlre-
m de1êÏma-r 
--a NIU t r--rUCl bu rloet.n:u c-o 
U btpucUam duodccCNNem a.b 


ULer'Omura..n) CUra.utr 


UbJoleun1 htbC1UîbCNe--dtcno 


Ne-Cret1tr L'Ca.mpuLla...cumo 
Leo quod bCNedt
fùper-- 
CoNfi:rct.-cu mmar--mor-ernp CL 
111mCNn.rm cCLCCtdtr e--r fN 
--c:e- 5 ( -a.. efi: f N uCNra.. 
U bt tpfÎu(Ñom1Ne--tNuoca:ro 


SCLPICICS :-:E\ Eltcs.-E.\RLY :\D;TH CE
TCRY 
(audire gallum de sancti mar,tini virtlltihus locuturo I Uhi puellam duode- 
cennem ab I utero mutam curavit I Ubi oleum sub eills benedictio,ne crevit 
et ampulla cum oleo quod benedixerat super I con
tratum marmorem pa1 
vimentull1 caecidit et in tegra est inventa I Uhi ipsius nomine invocato) 



XVI 


L_\Tl
 XATIO
AL BOOK-H_\.SD:-> 


369 


F.\CSDIlLE Xn. 133 



u bCï1 b: CApr

rum -ÅU-c ou tUrn pA/
 
-rOr-u1"1 mÂl1upraerfi( l.ol1
n
 
COptofìLAcrz (Lr(l.U ere-.tpU
 fur-' 

tr tncolcmt(:'J'J ofòbfruPeficq 
--ran
mtrM.:uLo. fdquod tpfl.. 
CCyb
\r U Cï1rAf(i:æbArn u,-; Non 
- 
ee--fZtbcad.o. qUlmar--anUmp"rfìr 
tmtTAM-) 
CO
SEgUE
ì-J JTJðEm 
TEO')PORÇ-ITERCUO'1eOO e 
dumdtoa-fe{'ht(ìú\.:-r:. Á?A.mUr 
110 bl Tn era 0 qUÅn ea:1(ìrAIc;-erno 


SrLPlcn-s SE\ ERCS.-EARLY XIXTH ('E'HI'Rl 


(ex uberibus caprarum . :mt ovium pas torum manu praessis . longa linea I co- 
piosi lactis effiuere: Puer. sur rexit incolomis: Kos obstupefacti I t:mtae rei 
miraculo . id quod ipsa I cogehat veritas fatehamur . non I es"e . suh caelo . 
qui martinum pos5it I imitari . I Consequenti itidem I tempore. iter cum 
eOI]em I dUlll dioce,.,..s visit:tt ageLamus I nobis ne,.,cio qua nece>'sitate remo) 


11S4 


Bb 



370 


UREEK 
-\XD LATI
 PAL\EOGRAPHY 


to the life aUll cult of 
t. )Im.tin, aUlI inc1wling epistles anrl dialogues of 
Sulpicius Se\"erus: written in the al,1lcy of :-\t. )[artin of Tours in the 
early part of the ninth century. Thi;: )18. shows the Carolingian 
reformeù haml brought to perfection; amI, when we cite it, we do not 
forget that there is a wide gap between it aUlI the pre-Carolingian )I

. 
notieell aho\'e. But here we wish unly to place uefore the student the 
cunsummate result of the reform; ami we reserve for a later chapter 
i11ustratiom; of the Carolingian ùook-haml of the nint.h century in fu11er 
detail. 'Ve reproduce specimens of the hand adapte,l from the half-uncial 
style anll of the minuscule script of the text. from tllf' Quedlinhurg )I
. 



o. 132 


If reference is made tu the Facsimiles of half-uncial \\Tltmg allove 
(noH. a8-100) it will he seen how in the >;pecimen hefore us the senti- 
ment of hreadt h in the older haml is maintained, as P.g. in the H\\ eeping 
strokes of rami s and in the willth mHI curves of a andm. The Hhape 
of tlat-headell g is also to be noticell; and not less the employment of tllf' 
capital X. 
The hallit of copying tllè fine 1'0111 type of the half-uncial uncloubtedly 
contrihutell to thf' elegance of the minuscule l'ook-hallli ,le\'eluped in 
the French schouls. This is conspicuous in the fo]]owing facsimile 
selected from the text of the :\[
. 



ù. 133 


How the l'(.furmed Carolingian minuHcule hook- hawl farell in the 
suh-equent period will be Ilescrilled in a later chapter. Here we mUbt 
lea\'e it for the present aud de\'ote the fo11owing chapter to an eXllmina- 
tion of the early Irish and Engli-;h schools of writiug. which followed 
a different line from that of the continental national hamls. 


Sun'eying the facsimiles, although limite(l in numl1er, which ha\'e 
!teen suùmitted jn illustratjon of the \'arious styles of writing Plactiserl 
in the Frankish empire and here classed under the heads of ::\lerovingian, 
Franco-Loml'ardic, and Pre-Carolingian. closing with specimens of the 
perfected book-hand of the Carolingian Reform, the student will appre- 
ciate the wide fielll over which the national hanlÌs of that empire ranged, 
and the difficulties to ùe confronted jn their study. The outline which 
has been sketchell may serve as a general guide: a more intimate 
knowlf'llge of the \"urieties of these scripts must ùe songht Ü1 special 
investigation. As we have already noted, the su11ject still offers a field 
for expert research. 1 


I .A WOI k hy Dr. E. Å. L'Jl'W, Scriptum Latina Minuscula An/Ù/uim', is announced, but is 
not yet publi
hed. 



CHAPTER XVII 


LATIX PAL-\EOltR
\PHY (coldiwued) 


The Irish Book-hand ,Half-uncial and Minuscule) 


THE origin anò clenc>lopement of the early hantlwritings of our 0\\"11 
Islands difter from tho
e of the continental nations of \Yc"tern Europe 
which ha\-e heen examined in tlw last chapter. While on the Continent 
the Roman Cur!'.i\-e hand forme.l the 1.a<;is of the national forms of 
writing. in Ireland awl Englawl tlw l'asi
 was the Ruman Half-uncial. 
The foundation of the early Church in Irelanò and the con::;equent 
spr!:'ad of civilization naturally fostered learning and the deniopelllent 
of a national school of writing: while at a later perio,l the isolation of 
the country pren'nte{l the intrOlluction of new ill pas and of the changes 
which contact with nei
hllourin
 lIations invarial,ly eftècb. Irelal1ll 
borrowed the types for lwr handwriting from the )ISð. which the Roman 
mis
ionaries hr()u
ht with them; and we BlUst a
sume that most of 
those )J:-;S. were written in the literary half-uncial chamcter, and that 
then- was an unusually scanty number of uncial )I::'ð. among the work-; 
thus il111wrtpd: otherwise it is difficult to account for the denlopement 
of the Irish hand on thp line which it follO\wd. 
In writing of the COUrse of Greek Palaeography we had occ1lsion to 
notice the nry 
radual changes which came onr the handwriting of 
Greecl', confined as it was to a cOlllparatin..ly slllall district antI to 
a single language. [n Ireland this con
enatism is still more strongly 
markl'd. The hand which the modern Irish scholar writes is essentially, 
in the forms of its letters. the pointe.l hawl of the parly middle ages: 
awl there is no cla"s of )L
ð. which can I,I" more pcrplexin
 to the 
palaeographer than Irish )1::,:3. Having once ol,tained their mOllels. 
the Irish scrilJes de\-eloped their own style of writing and went 011 
1'I"Rctising it. generation after gl'neration, with an astoni:-hing uniformity. 
The En
lish conqnest (li.l not distllrh this even course. The ill\'aders 
concerned themselns not with the language and literature of the country. 
They were content to Use their own style of writing for grants of land 
and other oflicial {leeds: but they left it to the Irish scribes to produce 
::\ISð. in the nati\-e characters. 
The early Irish handwriting appears in two fonus: the round and 
the pointed; and it is necessary to state that we have to do with both 
forms only as litprary hands. There an' no early Irish charters in 
B b '
 



3 _') 
I
 


(
BEEK AXn LATIX PALAEOt;RAPHY 


CH.\P. 


existence to show us positi,-eIJ' what was the style of the legal and 
official cursi,-e writing- in Ireland in remote tillIe
. althoug-h, judging 
from the practice in Eng-Iand. we nut
- h-' pretty confi.lent that the 
pointc. I hand was emplop'ò. 
Of pure uncial writing we ha,-e to take no account. There arp no 
ul}llisputed Irish )lðS in existpnce which arc written in that style; 
although the copy of the GOfopels in unciab, which was found in the tomb 
of St. Kilian and is preservcd at \YÜrzhurg, has been quotell as iHI instance 
of an Irish uncial )IS. The writing is in ordinary uncial characters anù 
bears no indication of Irish nationality (Z. aUlI "T.. EæmjJ!(/, 58). 
The round Irish hand is half-uncial, aUlI in its characters there is close 
relationship with thc Roman half-uncial writing as seen in the 1\ISS. of 
Italy and France dating from the tifth and sixth centuries. A comparison 
of the earliest sun-iving Irish )[ðð. with specÏIlIens of this style leans no 
room to doubt the origin of the J rish roul1ll-hand; and, without accepting 
the traditional ascription of certain of them to St. Patrick or St. Columlla 
or other Irish saints, there can he no hesitat.ion in dating some as far 
back as the sennth century. \Ye llIay therefore place the period of the 
first de"elopement of the Irish rouUfI-hand somewhat earlier, namely, in 
the sixth century, the Homan half-uncial )ISð. of that time aUfI earlicr 
eviùently sen-ing as models. 
Among till-' oldest I-'xtant Irish ::\LSS. of thi:,,: character is the frag- 
mentary copy of the Gospels, of an early version, in the lilmu'y of Trinity 
College, Dublin, which may be placed in the latter part of the fo.eventh 
century (Xat.11/SS. hel(lwl, i. 2: p(lZ.SU('. ii. 33). 
X o. 134 
The writing hpars a very close resemblance to the continental half- 
uncial hand, Ilut at the same tilJJe it has the distinct impress of its Irish 
nationality, indicatell generally inu certain angular treatment of Some 
of the strokes which in the Homan hRlf-uncial1\IS
. are round. Among 
the letters it will be noticed that the capital X is more conllnonly employed, 
the minuscule appearing 111lt rarely. 
The ::\IS. may lIe cite(l itS H speciulI-'n of a !Otyle of writing which was, 
no doubt, pretty widely used at the time for the pro.luction of 1\188. of 
a good class-a careful working hook-hand, which, however, (lill not 
compete with the sumptuous style for which the Irish scribes hall by this 
time become famous. The same kind of writing. but more ornamentaL 
is found in a P::;alter (
Y((t. JIBS. heland, i. :3,4) traditionally ascribed 
to 
t. Columba, but probailly also of th
 same date us the Gospels 
just descrihe.l 
No school of writing developed so thoroughly, and, apparently, so 
quickly, the purely ornamental side of calligraphy as the Irish school. 
The wonderful interlaced designs which were introduced as decorative 




\II 


THE IRl-;H EOOK- H_-\SH 


373 


F_\C
DIII E 
 (I. ] 34 


t-t\t\-\Cm
daxumt-touUU1 dOu.a
1C 

 t\-.t\U
 ti
,
ua'C 
U
 
F'C\\4-U\' \

ocæ\.
Gm

 
dt'CCtpt.dtm'etetnC 1'i 
'L..l'-au "a.b 
fu". 
 
t
'(Ìmo

\.UC cJ
eubtÚ4Ji 

c\n:'l!.4 t!t;-Ub1.
ua.c!o 
G't--tp
 

 U1. 1'
u..
U' a..U
t) fQft
 .d\.Ctrl\ 

U
O\04p
_'\moJo
 
 
mmð:unp
c
a...m 

c!éhcd 

 
F a.\-t.\ ",
a.tt\ p1'-'1tt\ epG14tt' ..Au, 

 d\Cauh\ CJUOt--t\cnu
o

'\"'c 
1-.4h' '4 . 
'C dot4ec-w.
e a..b\-t 
 et"; 14o 


GOSPELS.-J_.ÙTE 
E\'FxrH CEXn-RY 


(0 nunc mandatum noyum do vobis ul t di 11 gatis invicem sicut dile'i:i YOS ut 
et vos ldi)igatis invicem in hoe scient omnes lj,uon ia-m discipuli mei estis 
si caritatem habea_tis ad I invi cern. ait illi simon petrus dom-iDe ubi vad:is 
resl'Jundit illi ies1lIs ubi !c'go vado non potes me mod 0 s'equi seqlUleris autem 
postea dicit il[li I domin]e quare non possum te sel/ui modo all
i ma'm meam pro 
te ponam res])OndellS ie[ðus I dici:t an imam tuam pro me ponis amen I [am-en 
dico tibi quoni:ull nOll cantahit h[o die 1 gallus donee tu ter me almeges non) 



374 


GREEK .\XD L.\TIX P
\LAE' )GlL\PHY 


(,H \P. 


mljuncts to Irish :\IS:-;. of the seventh anù eighth centuries are astonishing 
examples of skilful drawing amI generally of hrilliant colouring. And 
this passion for ornamentation also affected the character of the writing 
in the more elaborately executed )ISS.-sometimes even to the verge of 
the fantastic. Xot only were fancifully formed initial letters common 
in the principal decorate/I pages, hut the strivin
 after ornamental effect 
also manifested itself in the capricious shapes gi\'en to nlrious letters of 
the text whene\'er an opportunity cOlIl,1 he fouwl, as, for in'itance. at the 
end of a line. The ornamental round-hand, which was elahorated under 
this influence, is remarkalile both for its soli(lity and its graceful outlines. 
The finest )IS. of this style is the f,Huous copy of the Gospels known 
as the. Book of Kells', now in the liln'ary of Trinity Collpge, Dublin, 
in which both te,,-t and ornamentation are brought to the highest point 
of excellence. Although tradition declares that the :\18. belonged to 
St. Columba. who ,lied in A.D. 307. it does not appear to be earlier than 
the close of the seventh century (Xllt. JI:::;::). he/aml, i. 7-17; Pal. Soc. i. 
;;;;-8, 
8, HÐ). 

o. 133 
In this hand (reducl'd in the Fac"i1l1ile) there is ,t departure from the 
strictly normal forms of some of the half-uncial letters. Both forms 
of s are used, the roullll capital awl the tall half-uncial, varying in 
pre\'alence in llitierent parts of the )1:-;. This scribe also prefers the 
capital R: hut there is a return to the orthodox half-uncial form in other 
parts of the 1\18. written in other. lighter styles. The capital X, too 
(here in its characteristic Irish form). in other hands is replaced b
r the 
minuscule. These shifting uses of these two letter::; in particular seem to 
indicate the presence in the milHl
 of the scribes of a desire to 
n-oid the 
risk of confm;ion between the minuscule n and the somewhat similar 
half-uncial r. The letters I, and I with hent main-strokes shoul,l be 
noticCll as characteristic or this hand, as practised both in Ireland amI 
in EIlg-Ialll1. 
It was a \'olume of this ,l"scription. if not the Book of Kells itself. 
which Uiralclus Cmllbrensis, in the twelfth century. 
aw at Kildarc, and 
which he declare, I was so wonderful in the execution of its intricate 
ornamental de::;ign::;. that its pruductiun was rather to I,l' attributed to the 
hand of an angel than to human skill. The oftener and the more closely 
he examined it, the more he found in it to e"-cite his a,lmiration. l 


I 'Sin autem ad perspicacius intuendum oeulorum acicm inviwvcrb et longe pcnitius 
ad artis arcana transpcnctraveris, tam delicatas et suLJtiles. tam areta
 et artitas, tam 
nodosas et ,inculatim colligatas, tam que reccntibus allhuc coloribus illu
tratas nota.'e 
poteris intrieaturas, lit \'ere haec omnia potius angelica quam hum:ma diligcntia iam 
a
se\'eravpris es
e composita. Haec equidcm quunto frequelltius et diligentius intueor. 
semper quasi novis aùstupeo, 
emper magis ae magi
 admiranda conspicio.'-Topograpltia 
Hibernwe, ii. 38. See Nat. JII

. Ireland, ii. 66. 



)"YII 


THE IRI
H BOOK-HAXn 


375 


FM'SDIILE K o. 133 


.. 




 
>,(I11 ùLeR. 
p
apcs S([Ce1IDb'tI9 
-l1JwdebU J'fL t"u rn WTI1SCRlbis 

enl0Rlb; d1cerrces crllossaluos 
fÅUC - .8<91psum1Jo1-1pmrsc--
l 
uum 

lSRIT11eLesc:rà1s 
cen"O L(L 1J UllC1)earn

C# 
musa. ÜJupdTCì1-J chJO (bluncu 
beRfi-euTn slUU ù.., 
 lm qm aDl 
t=---IÙUSS
 


G(lSPEL
 (BOOK OF KELL
).-E,m OF SFn'XTH CFXTCRY 
_
imiliter et principes sllcerdotum I inludebant eum cum !;,cribis I et seniori- 
bus dicentes aliv
 sah'os I fecit. Se ipsum non pot est !;'1l1 vum facere si re
 
israhel e!'-t di!-- cendat nunc de cruce et crede mus ei. Confidit in domino 
et nunc Ii beret emu si vult di'\it enim ljuia d, i I filius sum 



376 


<:REEK 
\XD L.,"TI
 P
\L","E()rjRAPHY 


t'H_\I'. 


Another 118. of Irish style hut of \\T elsh origin. of the same character 
1mt not nearly so elaborate as the Book of Kells, is the copy of the 
Gospels of St. Chml. at Lichfield, fornlPrly helonging to the church of 
Llandaff (Pal. Sot'. i. ::0, 21, 35); amI an imperfect Anglo-Irish copy 
of the Gospels at Durham (A. ii 16) may also I,e compared (K('I" Pill. 
Soc. 30). But the gran, I style of round half-uncial writing which is 
used in these )1
S. was not adapted for the more ordinary purposes 01 
literature or the requirements of llaily intercourse, and, after reaching 
the culminating point of excellence in the Book of Kells, it appears to 
have quickly deteriorated-at all e'-ents, the lack of suniving examples 
woulll appear to indicate a limit to its practice, 


XII. 136 


The :\It;. of the Gospels of 1IacHegol, written ahout the year 800, 
now in the Bollh..ian Li11rary (Au ct. D. 2. 1 Ð), is a late specimen, in 
which the comparative feebleness amI inexact style of the writing 
contrast very markedly with the practisell exactness uf the older 1ISS. 
(Pul. Sue. i. no, Dl). 
The pointed Irish hand was llerived from the ijllllle ijource as tIlt' 
rouml-hand. On the Continent we have seen that the national cursi,-e 
hands were hut serluels of the Homan cursi,-e su1decterl to ,-arying 
conditions, and were llistinct from the litemry OJ' I ,ook-hands which 
were used contemporaneously hy their sille. The Irish scrihl-'S hall. or 
at least followed, hut one 1U00lel--the Homan Half-uncial. The pointed 
hand is nothing more than a modification of the rouJl(l-haml, with the 
letters subjectell to lateral compression an. I llrawn out into points or 
hair-lines; it is a minuscule hand. I There cannot l,e much doubt that 
this style of writing came into e>..istence almost contemporaneously with 
the estaLlisllluent of a national hand. The rouml-hand may have 
prechletl it: hut the nece:òsity for a more cursive character must imme- 
diately have m
llle itself felt. The pointed hand, of an ornamental kind. 
appears in some of the pages of the Book of Kells, a fact which )Jl'o'-es 
its full estal,lishment at a much parlier period. The Book of Dimma 
(Tat. N S8. l,'ell' IHl, i. 18, 19) has hecn conjecturally ascribe,} to the 
period of about the year 630, but can scarcely be older than the eighth 
century. The first dated example, of native origin, i:ò the Book of 
Armagh (Nat. .lISS. I,'cia wi, i. 25-9: Lindsay, BII rl!J Il'tl5/' .11 i nltl5cllie 


1 This seems to ùe the proper place to) mention the c1a,sification which has been 
made of the Insuhlr Irish and English, or Hiù('rno-Saxon' lllinu
,'ule scl"Ípt into fOUl' 
types: Irish. Anglo-Saxon. 'Velsh, and Cornish. EX'llnpl..
 of the last two types. which 
naturally 
hould be associated \\ ith the Irish type. :Ire rare; of the Cornish type, indeed. 
there appears to be only one, or pos
ibly two, recognize,l at tIlt' present time (se(' letters 
in The A/hen(le/rlll, Dec. 23 all.l 30, 1911). 



"\:HI THE IRl:-;H B()OK-H.\XD 3ï7 
ê tb ,.. 
 j .;:
a 
:t 
 - 

 3 .f' 
 
 
Q) - - 

- - 
0 5 
 :::l.'" 
.... 
 - => 
..... 
;....
 
.... 
 Q. 0- = ;:..;;: 
E CI' 0- CIJ-....... 

 g >-.... c: 
-' , ';<JJS'o 
- Þ- - 
 
'8 6' .. i.= = 
 
;:3 - '-<lO_ 
g 0 B 0.. > 
s 
.... ,- ,... ,... . =.:.::: 
...., ,... G 
 Có =
= 
"'\i 
 E 
 ..... :J 
- ........... 
& t1 ,.. ::


 
8 E 
 
"=<lì;; 
e s::::

 
. 0-::,- ....-I. 

 
 
 -=::
;) 
a. ,...J 
 
 5 := - ....... 
. ;? -ä; == (1)-:-" 
E 
 0 ðB :is E:;;"OÕ 

 ::I 
 

i
 
- R ,... E c:t - 
- .... .g --: 
=.
 
 

 c 
 
 ;0 '- 9-- 
 ;; 

 
 
CI;) 8 8 8 - -
 ......- 
...... 
 ú, 
 - 2 -c; 
 
 
g - 
å ... -< -....a,j - - 

 
 ,... 0 0 
 I ::: :;) 
 g 
;r:; 5 
 -- _ CJ .... 
ÞOOo..t 
 .- 0 ::: ::: 7J x 
;;r: 
 - = ;:.::: 
 
- .-..,; 
 ,... 
 ë) 5 
 /"' 
;;;: ...J .- ...... G .... ....... .- 
.... N 
 ..... 
 
 & 
î.c;j 
 
L 

 
 ,...- 
 è :::ro:::__ 
--: E 
'j 
 B 
, t:: :;;;; 

-5S
 
- .ê..3 2 
 
..... :.. 

 
 Q. """" 
 
? 
C)
5 

 -- - 
.... - 


-; 

 0 
 ,.. C'"' """ -': 

 ,.. 
-.3 ::: 

 ... c-- 
 
 :::.::: 

 - Uì !::. == =---= 
8 iJ 8 d ..... -
 -
::...:: 
] 

 -' 
 
 .:J ... 
0- ,... 
 
r- 
 
 
.... .. ;... ..... C 
c.. ::: ::>.- 
C.t) 
 8' .- - 
e 
 Q) 
a tfj 
 
 
-;- 

 B 
 t;t:: - - 
,.. ,- G 
.
]{ 

 5 ....... == 
 
,.. ,.. ,... - -'- 
- l- .. - 
E 
 51 t:: ....,&..;I -ëñ Q) :... 

 ,.. 
 .... c. .::...::: ::... 
..... ,... 
 - :;)-....-.... ...,I.J 
- 'ü 8 .... ;...

 
 
:z ; ê 
 ,.. ::: c.. ::: ::: 
=' 
 ::: 
 
 
 
- 0 c 
===
 
Û 
 
 Ç!. - 
.

 :::: 

 Ç! - 
 
;J .... 
 
 '0 : == .s .
 
,- 5 = a. 
 ,... 

1
 
,.w ..... ...... 



378 


GREEK A:xn LATr:x PALAEO(;RAPHY 


FACSDIILE :x o. 137 
I},in .\:i"r 
 rM'r..,' .\1....; n mol 
 "if 
Ihf r;.ø ".1:'11'1 LC'(\';urri,,,,,,,,rn.\, r.,.' 
rMrJ1
u, :r!T)',:.I
': 11",""r
' ./11.. 
Jmr III.',. l.'fJumIlJllr 
 ,".'. ..1.-.. [.'(1' 
:lIr(Í'''''j
1'7I1,
rt)r !'1h"'
'r' "f
I(' 
y .
,-.:u, .h..'I,nll,,,r'r/l.' 
...l':"rrï 
'T'fir .,,'(rIH' P'''"t 4 .',,.'14\,," st' 
 Ir 
(I..,,
;c U.,ur.....'fir:lhr'7l'r.r n ..'''- 
.',,11. ..z..p."" 'J1í. "
r r'l '\""I
.'''' 
r..tmf'(' t'#"';,'fr f,m.tU 1,'(\1;.,,- 
TV", *mM1lum r'''' 1.;t.'nJ1.1 f.. I:'; 
'h-t, mhpll:''''h ñ1 1p mJ rjirñ"" .\" 

oI.f I,,;"'n,,".
.,.-"frrt'; F,.,,:-tf l . im 
,!
n- f,I'I'I'
rth1('
rntnr'1"'''rr.' 
,!i"rrr . \I'MUTI:-t "'""m."".'.h" 
.'Jr
 If fJ
.atl/; 11ti1<.'9'n
rul"..Ý 
1'"!If fr mm rr:'f1 tr r (',,
., :i1r 

 (n", r.1Jrn"'t ftb1trr .1 11 91 1 ("t.,,,, 
""fr.". 
 III.', )T1QJUt'c"mlll" lñlm 
i:. fJt;:"m' ,' tmur1 t mm ("'Ut,,..
1'1 
ruu;r 
:- :h'''n"
 
 ,,,.,, .,-' 
"rh"\Ti ï 
l
I\llIm âl
 m ti ni': ' T'1ì ñi;J"'I
 
,1Irnr If' f.1'tIf\I&lJ'I..u:-ñ GMYrdmilM n 
mi tm.\"
tlr.1NRt-f-'
 e\'/lI1
 
( pr!.t.r'Mf \.o"kr ;1ra1'1
}"./1I'\I1J-'(" 


CHAP. 



)\cr''''' JrriM"'r:.,')j .'hi, .1" .,:" i 
":\
lInt .'it'rtr "Rr. r" :.I:l'r"lí'f l ':,\ 
''";;,é'' 11I
.,I'!"'f
'''' 
BJ.\ T''''':' t:'k"l' 1- 
d, 

\lI.,r;r "11'; 1 ul .' fti"'r.' ntf ,""j' 
'.
"
II..
 

 .),:t; "1''"''''1;:'' 
 
-;':,' 
If p/,;""111,nm ntr,r.'l1 ":'-1: .'r.""1r.1 
t',.,:= urii01.1.'rjll-i, lu'
"'r ",J.-" r
" 
U1"
;;.
 .,,"( :',.tnJ.):A r
t.l:i.,. 
5ttt\'lf:" ,,,;:,t;y ;v:l,,'r*t1f\" P"" 
r.,.. '"
 ".&turr i ,,,., 
 .\
'; "';" ,nhi' ,"'or 
:'111m \I: .'\)':>1'1'""111'" yrtt
." ú,rP.:, 
C"""':}IIE ".it:-õl.r .n'-',f,,;m IIft'4;" 
:': .... r ,.fJWI".)II'.\-: illr.J,' ..","" 
 
,. 
':nm :"illl: t',,
,lr .\,'!N'-"tÍ1';;'!.Ær'. 
r:.,.' rJ.,tL1m IJlII,nl<' III," i.II'1)' .&In 
 Jr.' 
f'trr:II.'Ic .':UIII/", IlInc :rí ,"",m"" ñ
' 
['If J,'f-.1rI"l1.\ "lIln,. i.'r..
 ."m,
ri"'". 
I.,,: ,,":'.h!III,'.''''nlì ..1:1';'.lli"n: tun) 
. p,,,,, ,om.. 11.',,"é f 

lfI..
ht,i rttl\c\r 
!..tt"I!+.lr I.u,\c :\In.-(.

h,;."1t. 
F"!"
I
Ihm,,':I'I:"lrt.
:- run' m,It:n' 
': !.<<:::
Il' ,
.
 II't
.1:,; 
I' f.1 f11j'IIJ",'(iI,.;,r 

 .: tl l ,'..;": "I
 r.'nF"IIr.tM 1,,.Ùi
,: 

 ml/m nn

I1:"1!r+.tnr "
n",,"J,,'t 


NEW TEST.UIEXT (BOOK OF AmL\cm).-.-\. D. 807 



XVII 


THE IHbH B()()K-H_\XD 


379 


(iesum de discipuli.<; eills suis ef de doch'ina eius respondif I iems ego palam 
locutus sum mundo ego sempl'r docui in "ynago!7o ef in templo quo I omnes 
iudei conveniunt ef in oculto locu tus sum nihil quid me int. rrogas interro ga 
eos qui audierunt (luid locutus sum I ipsi" eccl' hii sciunt que di"erim ego hee 
aufCln I cum.dixi.s,"'f unut;; adsisten!'. ministrorlllll dedit alapam ie.'l1 dico/!'. sic re- 
spondes I pontifici respondif ei ie
lIs si mall' locutus I sum testimonium perhihe 
de malo sill' allfeln hene quid me cedis ef mi!'.sit emu all na5 ligatum ad caifan 
pontificem ! erat allfelll symon petrus ",tans d calefa ciens se dixerunt I'rgo ei 
numquid tú ex I disciplfli.
 rillS es negavit ilIe (ot dixif nOli sum tlicit !lIllU'> 
ex servis pontifici<; cognatus I eiu.
 cuius ahscidit petrus aUl'icolam I nfJnne 
ego te vidi in o1'to cum illll Iterum I ergo negavit petru!'. ef statim gallu!'o 
can tavit Adducunt ergo iesllm ad caiphán in I prrtorium emt aufem mane et 
ipsi nOli introie runt in pretoriulll ut non contaminar entur sed mauducarent 
pasca exiYit I ergo pylahl" ad eos foms cf dixif quam ac cussationem 
 
et respondif ie.,us a temet ip'>o hoc dicis an alii tilii dixerunt de me re"p,Jl/dit 
ei pylatus numquid I et ego iudaeus sum gem, tua ef pontifices I tmdiderunt te 
mihi quid feeisti resp01ll1if iesus I rt'gnum meum nfJlI e.
f de hfJC mundo si e\. 
hoc mundo I e.,..u t regnum mcum ministri utiqllc decerta rent ut non t1'aderer 
iudaeis nunc ((Ilfcm regll um mcum nOli e.,f hine Dixit itaqlle ei pylatus I ergo 
rex es hi respondif ie.'us tu dicis quirt rex sum I ego in hoc natus sum ef ad 
hoc vpni in lutlle mun dum ut testimunium prrhilJeam writati I Omnis qui 
est ex vcritate audit meum vocem I dicit pi pylatus quid c.,f writas cf cum hoc 
dixis'cf lUcrum exivit foras ad iudae05 ef dixit teis I ego null:Ull 1Il\-enio in eu 
eau!'.sam e.
t Gllfem con suitudo ut unum ,inctulII tlimittam YO his in pasch a 
vuItis ergo ego dimittam YO, his regem iudaeorum clamaYl runt rU1',5um omnes 
non hune sed harahhán erai Gufnl/ I hamhha<; latro tunc ergo. adprehendit I 
pylatus iesul11 ef flagellavit cum milite!'. I plectentes co1'onam de spinis in- 
posuerunt I capiti ciug ef vet;;tem POI"pOl'e:Jm circUlI/de derun f eum cf veniehant 
ad eum ef dice hant', 



380 


(;REEK .\.XD L\TfX l'ALlEOUR.\.)'HY 


Sr1'ipt, pI. ix), a ::\IS. containing purtions of till' Xe\\" Testament and 
other matter, writtpn, hy the scribe Ft'l"Ilomnach, in .\. H. 
Oì. 


Xo. 137 
Thi::; very delicate anù minutely written )1:-;. is a g-oo!l instance of the 
patience and facility which the Irish scril)es of the ninth century coulcl 
bring to their work. The principal o
iect of the prpsent 
cril'e appears 
to have been to pack into the page as much as possible: and this 
perhaps may explain the lateral compression of the writing, for a rather 
wider-spread script might haw hecn expected so early in the century. 
The large number of ahl,rpviations and contractions is also to Le noted. 
Little la18r than the Book of Armagh is the )1:-1. of Priscian in the 
C"niversity Library of Leytlen (COlI. Lat. 67), written, prot,al)lyon the 
Continent, in various hands of Anglo-Irish type, anù having- at the begin- 
ning Priscian's Periegesis in hexameters, written hy the Irish scribe 
Dubthach in A. D. 838 (XI/I' PI/l. SO". 3:2). 
X o. 138 


This beautiful haw I is notable for tlw easy formation of the letters 
and the ample spact' allowed for the flow of the writing, which we 
missed in the compressed style of the prece!ling .:\18. The scribe had 
complete comm:u}11 of his pf'n, anll while forming his letters gracefully 
must at the sallie time lU1\"e written with considerable speed. The 
prevalence of open a is to I,l' rt'lIIarked, a forlll of the letter which is 
not so much employeel in the Irish 1,uok-hand of this period. Perhaps 
the style of tIw Carolingian minuscule, in which the open a was a leading 
feature, may ha,"c IUllI sOllie influence upon the practice of the scribe, 
if the ::\IS., as :-mggeste,l, was writb-'n ahroall. 
The l\lS. of the nospels of )lac1 hunan, in the LamLeth Library (.Kat. 
J1SS. Ireland, 1. 30,31), of the ewl of the ninth or heginning of the 
tenth century. may l)e referred to a:-. another sp p cill1en of the '"ery 
delicate and rathpr cramped writing. \\"hil'h the Irish scriLes at this time 
affected. 
In the ele\'l'nth aUlI twelfth centuries the }Jointe,l hand took the 
final stereotyp,.d form which it was to follow in the future, and had 
assumed the angular shapes which are henceforth characteristic of the 
Irish ham!. A::; a good example of the early part of the twelfth century 
we :-;eleet a passage from the (:os}lpls written hy the scriLe )lælbrigte 
(Brit. 
\lus., HarL )[S. IHO'!; J
d. .lIS"':. I,'elfilld, i...HJ-,!: P,d. :Soc. i. 212). 

u. 1:39 
In the writing of this )l
. the 01.1 forms of letters have undergone 
but little change, Imt at the salllc time it has assumell the essential 
character of the Irish lIIl"tliaeval hand. 



F-\('SI\lILE 
(). 138 


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(divoIvellS hippallis tmhit rapidusql/f' mflgireus 
quosliuC f'apit modu misos gangeitiea monte 
tell us . porrigihll" quae ad tCl"raf' eoleidis austros 
oeeeani tangens peIaglls suh eolliJlus :lItis 
quos volueres metuunt eeleri cnntingere penna 
unde graii posuerllnt nomen oronis . 
hie via 'iltall! eelphrat nUlle dionisia haehi 
cui statu as dederat victoria finihl/8 illis 
hie teIllls est !'>UP( rans va!>Ìfle miracula trrme 
iI/sola nanqlfc viret eUllctis ill partihu8 flnni 
nee foliis nudat ramo-; alltulllnus in iIla 
assidullSfiuC tenet flos germcil arboris umne 
hie adama<; fulget limphantia pf'etora !>an:lns 
et prohibens misf'ris oeeuIti damna yeneni 
quem minime valeat ferrulI! supemre nee ignis 
frangitur hireino maeeratus sanguine tantu/II 
Rcd tepido . fraetis lUultis inelHlibus ante 
hie iuxta positus lUfigniten vil'iLus al'cet 
oeeu1tis . ferri raptu rf'l traetiLlls ante 
ammotulU retrahit defendens robore miro) 


381 



382 


(;HEEK AX]) LATIX P.\L\.E()(;RAPHY 


CHAP. 


FAC!"DlILE No. 13!) 



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GOSPELS OF 1!.ELl3UWrE.-_\. D. 113
 



XYII 


THE IRI
H BnnK-HAXD 


383 


(eris potestatem habens super decem ci\itates . et I alter venit dicens domine . 
mina I tua fecit quillque minas. I Et huic ait esto ,..ujler v. civitates. Et alter 
,"enit dicens. dOll/ine I ecce mina tua quam habui repositum in sodario 
Timui enim quia hOlllo austerus es . tolIi-,; quod nOli possu isti et metis quod 
non seminasti . Dicit ei de ore tuo te I iudico serve nequam. Sciebas quod ego 
austerus I sum homo. toll ens quo,} non posui et metens quod I non seminavi . 
et quare non dedi:"ti pecuniaw mf'am ad I, m( /lsam . I:t ego veniens cum tIssuris 
UtiqlLC exegis'sem ilIum 2 . et ad:stantibus dixit. Auferte ab illo I minam . 
et date ei qui decem minas habt't . et dixerunt I ei domine halJet decem minas. 
Dico autCin vobis quitt om IIi I halJenti daLitur . ab eo (wtem qui non habet. et 
quod habet au ferf'tw. alJ eo . YenUl1talllen inimicos meos illos qui I nolllerunt 
me regnare super se . adducite huc I il1te1"Ílcite ante me . Et his dictis præe- 
debat as cendens in hiHusolimam . Et factum est cum appropinfFlas:set ad 
hethpháge et bethaniam ad ll10ntem qui I vocatur oliwti . mi",sit duos disci- 
pulos I dicens . ite in castellum quod contra ,"os cst in quod I introeuntes 
invenietis pullum assinae alIi gatUlIl . cui nemo un1luam hominum sedit . 
sol vite illum et adducite rnihi . et si quis vos intenoga verit quare solvitis . 
Sic dicetis ei . quia dominus OP"l"a1ll S I eius de:siderat . A1Jieruilt autl/n qui 
ll1issi erant .) 


I The i erR5cd, as elsewher{', b)" the corrector. . Correction: I I )lI=ud. 
. In n1:lrgill: l"tI or s. 



38-!- 


(mEEK AXil L\TJX PAL\EOURAPHY 


l'H \P. 


'Vhile the writing of Ireland remained untouched "y external influ- 
ences, and passed on from gPlwration to g-eneration with little change, 
the influence which, in revenge, it exercised allroad was very wide. \" e 
shall presently see how Engla.nd was almost entir!'ly inrl..I,te,1 to In'land 
for her national hawlwriting. In the earl
 mifldle ages Irish mission- 
aries spread over the Continent and founde,l religious howips in France 
and Italy and other countries: allll where they scttle(l there the Irish 
form of handwriting was practised. At such centres as Luxeuil in 
France, 'Yiirzhurg in Germany. 
t. Gall in Switzerland. awl Bohhio in 
Italy, it flourished. At first. naturally, the )[88. thus pro(lucerl were 
true specimens of the Irish hawl. But thus distrilmtell in i
olate,l spot!o., 
as the bonds of connexion with home "ecame loosenctl awl as the 
influence of the nati,'e styles of writing in their ncighhourhoorls malle 
itself more felt, the Irish writers woulll grarlually lu:--e the spirit of their 
early teaching amI their writing would Ilecome traditional and siBlpl,}' 
imitative. Thus the later _\lSS. protluced at these Irish settlements 
have none of the heauty of the nati,-e hand: all elasticit.r elisappears, 
and we ha"e only the form without tllt' lifl' 


The Early English Book-hand (Half-uncial and Minuscule I 


The history of writing in England previous to the Norman CUIHl uest 
has a wiùer range than that of writing in Ireland, although, at least 
in the earlier perioùs, it runs un the saBlc lines. Here we ha,-e to take 
into account influences which had no part in the dl'stinies of the Irish 
script. In England there were two early Rchoul:-. of writing at work: 
the one originating from Irl.land, in the north, from which emanateel 
the national hand, holding its own and resistin.!! for a long time foreign 
domination: the other, the school of the Roman mis!o.ionaries, esscntiall.) 
a foreign school making U:-.e of the foreign styles which they brought 
with them but which ne,-er appear to ha,-e hecOlllc naturalized. 
'Ve llJay commence with stating what little can III' gathered regarding 
the foreign school from the few relliaillS which it has left behiml. That 
the Roman Rustic capital writing was matle use of hy the missionaries 
and was taught in their school, whose principal seat must have heen at 
Canterbury, is proved by the occurrence uf such ðpecimens a'! those 
found in a Psalter of al lout .\. D. iOO, in tIlt' Cottonian coJIection (Vespa- 
sian A. 1), which belonged tu 
t. Augustine's monastery at Canterbury 
(Cat. Ánc. NSS. ii. 12, 13), and in one or two charters, or, more properly, 
copies of charters. The Psalter just referred to also aHanl" an example 
of the character which the foreign uncial assumed in this Canterhury 
school-an unmistakably local character, of which. however, so few 
specimens have sun-ived that perhaps no ]Ietter proof, negative as it IS, 



XX II 


THE E.\RLY EXGLI8H BOOK-H.\SD 


385 


could he founll of the failure of the Homan m!1juscule styles of writing 
to make their way in this country. \\Te must suppo,.;e that the Canter- 
hury, foreign, school of writing ceasell to exist at a comparatively early 
period: amI, as it had no influence upon the nati,
e ham!. its interest for 
us is I1lerel

 academic. 
The introduction of the foreign Caroling-ian minuscule haud in the 
tpnth century was ùue to later political causes aUlI to the growth of 
intercourl:le with the Continent; and if is altogether unconnected with 
the early foreig-n school which has just 1,een referrcIl to. 
As to the nati '
e school of writing- 
St. CohuIlùa's settlement in lona was the centre from whence pro- 
ceeded the founders of ll1ona,>terics in the north of Eng-Iawl; and in the 
year 634 the Irish migsionary Aidan founded the see of Lindisfarne (Holy 
Isle), which became a great centre of English writing. At first the 
writing- was indeed nothing more than the Irish script transplanted into 
new soil, and for a time the English style is scarcely to he distinguishell 
from that of the sister island. But gradually distinctions arose; awl the 
English school, under willer influences. developed more graceful forms 
amI threw off the restraint':! which fettered the growth of Irish "riting. 
We have, then, first to follow the course of the English script on the 
same lines as that of Ireland, amI to examine the two styles, the round and 
the pointed, which here, as in Ireland, were a,lopted as national forms of 
writing; hut it is proposed to contine our attention in this place to the 
employment of these hands for literary purposes. and to postpone what 
has to be saill regarding the charter-writing of the Anglo-Saxon perioll 
to a later chapter where it will he more con'
eniently considered along 
with other forms of official and legal cursive writing. 


The earliest and must heautiful )IS. of the English round half-uncial 
IS the copy of the Lindisfarne Gospels, or the 'Durham Book', in the 
British )Iuseum (Cotton )IS., :Nero D. iv), said to have been written, in 
honom of :-it. Cuthbert, hy Eallfrith, Bishop of Liwlisfarne. about the 
year 700 (Pill. SOl'. i. 3-6,22; r'td. .Ãnc. .J.WiS. ii. 8-11). 


x o. 140 


This very beautiful hand lea,'es nothing to be desired in the precision 
anll grace with which it is executell, and the :\[8. fairly rivals the great 
Irish codices of the same period. How nearly it folluws the Irish mOlleI 
needs no demonstration. The remarks made on the forms of the letters 
in the specimen from the Book of Kells apply gencrally to this example. 
At the same time, a llifference is lliscernible ùetween the two }ISS., which 
seems to indicate the Ilitterence of country of origin. The letters of the 
Linuisfarne Gospels, besides being of a more solid type. are rather hroru.ler 
liSt C C 



386 


GREEK AXn LATIX PALAEOGRAPHY 


and the curves are even more symmetrically drawn than in the Book of 
Kells. The glosses in the Xorthumhrian dialect were added 1,y Aldre(l, 
a priest of the tenth century. 
The round-hand was us cd for books, amI, less frequently, even for 
charters, during the eighth and ninth centuries; IJut, although in very 
carefully written MSS. the writing is still solid, the he!1xy-stroke style 
of the Lindisfarne Gospels appears generallJ' to have ceased at an early 
date. 'Ye gi,-e a specimen of a lightcr character from a fragmentary 
copy of the Gospels (Brit. l\Ius., Royal )18. 1. E. vi) which llelonged to 
the monastery of St. Augustine, c.mterhury, though nut necessarily 
written there. It is probably of the end of the ei
hth century (Pal. Soc. 
., i. g: Cat. A ne. 11/::;::{ ii. Ii, 18). 



o. 141 


In its original state this I\1S. must have been a volume of extra- 
ordinary magnificence, adorned with paintings and illuminatell designs, 
amI having many leaves stainell. after the ancient metho(l, with a heautiful 
purple, a few of which still remain. The general structure of the letters 
in this lighter style is the same as in the Limlisfarne Gospels: but the 
greater prevalence of the half-uncial l' and the minuscule n is obsen-able. 
Other Rpecimens of this hand are found in the Durham CasRiodorw.> 
(Pal. Soc. i. 16-1-), in a )IS. of the Gospels at Durham (Xew P(1l. 
Sue. 56), in tho Épinal Glossary (E.I1'ly Engl. Text Suc.), and in some 
charters (Ffes. A ne. Clt. i. 15, ii. 2, 3: Pal. Soc. i. 10). One of the latest 
l\ISS. in which the hand iR written in its best form is the 'LilJer Yitae " 
or li:;t of benefactors of Durham (C(lt. Ane. JISS. ii. 25: P(/l. S,JC. i. 238), 
which was compiled al,out the year 840. 


For study of the pointed En
lish hand there has RUlTived a fair 
amount of material, ranging' from the eighth to the tenth century: latcr 
than this time, the changes effected in itf> structure l.y contact with 
southern influences mark a new dcparture. In the oldest specimens the 
writing generally exhil,its that hreadth of form and e]e
ance of shape 
which we have noticed in other handwriting::: in their early 
tages. Then 
comes, in the ninth century, the tendency to lateral compression and 
fanciful variations from the older and simpler tJ'pes: but the script still 
retains the sense of grace and fineness of touch. 
Our first example shall ]'e selected from the remarkaUy hamlsome 
copy of Heda's Eccle
i((.",ticul lIi
lol'Y. in the eni,-ersity Library of 
Cambridge t1\lS. Kk. '-. 16), written probably not long after the year 730 
and, it has been conjectured, at Epternach or Echternach, near Luxemhurg, 
or some other Anglö-S.lxün colonJ' on the Continent. The 
[S. iR also 
famous as containing the original Anglo-Saxon of the song of Cædmon 
(Pal. Soc. i. 13!), 14U). 



FAC
DlILE XII. 14') 


381 


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LIXDI
F-\RXE G(lsrEL
.-ABOL"T A.V. 700 


(Beati qui lugunt nunc I quoniarn ipsi I con>>olaLuntur I Beati qui esuriunt 
et sitiunt iustitiam I quoniam ipsi I saturabuntur I Beati mi"ericordes I quo- 
niam ipsi I misericordiam I consequentur I Beati mundo cOl'de I quoniam ipsi 
dcum I videbunt " Gloss: eadge Li
on ca te gemænns nÚ I forcon ea I gefl'Oe- 
Fred bieon I eadge bit'on ca 
e hyncgrað I and cYl'sta,> soHæstni,>se I fOl''0on 
ea ilco I gefylled bit-OIl rcl geriol'ded I eadge bi('on miltheOlte I for
'on hiora 
nl ea I miltheOltnise I him gefylges I eadge hicon claene of î'el from hearte I 
forõon ea god I geseas eadge bicon ea ce 'ðyrstas alld hyncgras æfter soc. 
fæstnisse fort-on ta gefylled bieon in ece lif. II eadge bit-on t-a clæne heal'te 
hute esuice (!)ul eghwoelcum facne forêon hia geseas god in ecnise) 



388 


FACSDIILF. No. 141 


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. socLuoc]ie quod peTu61lcrG .. 


CA
TElmLUY OO..,PELS.-L.\TE EWHTH CEXTCHY 
(et proice abs te lJOnum e\"t tibi I ad vibm ingredi debilem quam I duas 
manus vel duos pedes I habentem mitti in ignem aeternam I Et si oculus tuus 
scandalizat te I erue eum et proice abs te. I bonum tibi est cum uno oculo I 
in vitam intrare quam duos I oeulos hahentcm mitti I in gehennam ignis. I 
Videte lle contemnatis unUll1 I ex his pussillis dico enim vobis I quia angeli 
eorum in caelis I semper vident facicm patris I mei qui in cae lis est I Venit 
enim filius hominis i salvare quod perierat.) 



THE EARL\"" EXGLISH BOOK-HAXD 389 
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en c:: S:;::: = 
 
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= 
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890 


F \CSDIILE X o. 143 


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p 1 r4' tm r r
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rr 
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r m
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rð.

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fr 



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W: 

 
k+
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t1'" 
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1

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BETa's )LUtTYUOLOJIDr POEflcnr.-.\.D. 
1l-14 


ITempore posterior morum non flore secundus 
IacoLus Servus domini pius atqllc philipp us 
l\Iirifico maias venerantur hOl1ore kalcndas 
His hil1is sequitur pancratius idiLlIs insons 
Tel' quil1is marcus meruit pausare kalcndis 
I ul1ius in llonis mundo miratur adel1ltal1l 
Et SUllllllis tatberhti al1imam tran sidera vectam 
Atq IIC die vincens eal1del1l hOllifatius hostes 
)IartYl'io fortis lJelIator ad astra receBsit 
IllqllC suis quadris LarnaLan idihlls aequat 
Gerbasius denis patitur ternisquc kalcndis 
Protasius simul in regnulllquc perenne vocati 
Estqllc iohanlles his quad lis haptista colelldus 
Natalis pulchre feste plaudente corona 
.ì.\Iartyrio et paulus senis ovat atqllc iohanlles 
Doctores petrus et paulus terllis sociantur 
l\laxima lJ.uos palma elm'at sibi lumina mundus) 



F_\.(:
nllLE xu. 144 


3m 


tto
 
m

tuðtU:U.-. 
fb 1,1.- .-
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t
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P_\SCHAL Cc))IPCTYno
s.-MIDDLE OF XI
TH CE
TLRY 
(foms limitelll . excludatur . 
",d hii .iii. dies I indueantur intra tcrminulII . 
et desubtcr ; retrahantur. Con"titutulII c.st ergo. in I illa sinodo. ut a1> .xi. kl. 
Aprilis. usqlle in .
ii. I kl, 3Iai. Paselt delJeat observari . Et I nee . antea . nee 
postea. CuiculllqllC consti tUtUIII limitem transgt.ediendi esset . fa'cultas . Simi. 
lite1' et de luna prcceptulII di vinum tene..'ltur . mandatum cst per moS'sen I sit 
vobis. observatum . a .xiiii. luna. usque I "{
i. Has ergo .yii. lunas. similiter. 
in I pasea. tenendas constat fuisse . conse eratas . Qando ergo fit . intra illulI! I 
limitelll. a .xii. kl. AI)}"iIi.s. usquc in .
i. kI. I ::\Iai .v. Dies dominicus et luna. 
Ex illis I viii. sillietifieata fuerit pasea . nobis I iusulI! cst c
lebrare .) 



392 


GREEK AXD LATIX P ALAEOGR.\PHY 


CHAr. 


It:> 

 
...... 



d- 
 4 

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Þ-
 
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:: ... 
 
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S n. ;

 
1- 
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1- ç 

 
 
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pO 1= 
 
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I :-
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t:
 
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.

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xn[ 


THE L\HLY EX(
LISH BUOK-HASD 


3H3 


Xo. 142 
Xothing coultl be finer of its kind than the IJl"oad, Lo]d, style of this 
hand, carrying on the I,est tra,litiolls of its ancestor, the Roman half- 
uncia], and coml,ining silIlplicity of form with 
ymmetr:r in the structure 
of the letters. Although the )I
. may ha\-e been executed aI,rOlìfl. the 
writing is purely nati\-e without any mark of foreign influence. 
For the next f'peeimen a )[
. if' 
e]ected. containing chronological 
notes and computations, with lists of kin
" and bishops. etc. (Brit. )[u
., 
Cotton. Yespasian E. yi). The lines here giyen come from Beda's 
.i.lI01.tyj'olo[jíUJ/I Poeticum. The )[5. \nlS written in l\Iercia between 
the Jears 811 and 8l-l (('at. .A ilL'. J[S..... ii. 79; Pul. f',flC. i. 16;')). 
So. 14
 


The writing. being some eighty J-ears later, is more laterally COlII- 
pre"'
eù than the preceding example. and is of the refined amI elegant 
f.tyle which is founll in many )[ercian document:- of thi
 period, prO\-ing 
the existence of an adyancclI :-choo] of penmanship in the )lercian 
kingdom. 
In contrast with this elegant style of writing we find a hand 
practi
ed chiefly in \\?essex, alHlless widely in Kent, ill which the letters 
are roughly formed and a{lopt in f.ome instance,.; peculiar shape::.. The 
following specimen is taken from a )[S. in the Bod]eian Library (DigI,y 
:\[S. 63), which was written at Winchester, apparently I,efore the 
year 863, and contains collections relating to the pa
chal cJ-cle amI other 
computations (Pal. Soc. i. 168). 


1\0. I-H 


It will he olJsen-ed that ill this )IS., although the writing i!> cast 
into a fairly regular mould a" a hook-hand, the letters are rather 

tragg]ing in shape: as for ex.unple long s amI r. amI particularl
- 
t, the l,ow of which is rather contracted amI terminates in a short 
thickened :<troke or dut. The,..e characteristics ,..how thplU"eh'es more 
prolUinently in the more cursi \-e writing of the \Yessex charters. 
A )[5. of the Ang]o-Saxon Chronicle in Corpus Christi College 
Li!Jrary (no. 173), Caml,ridge, the text of which wa
 taken up I,y 
different hands at successiH intena]s, aftur,ls a good example of 
a careful hand of aIJout the year 8
n (Xe1 1 . Pul. SIC. 13-1). 
X o. l-l;,) 
This again is a W e
sex )15., written at \\Ïnchester, IJUt showing 
none of the rather rustic peculiaritie!> of the preyious specimen, except 
in the heaY
' dot tenninating final or disconnected t. Otherwise the 
writing is well formed and regular. such as a trained monastic scrÏlJe 
would write. 



394 


GREEK AXD LATI
 P ALAEOURAPHY 


CH.\.P. 


The change which took place in the English pointed hand in the 
course of the tenth century is very marked, and towards the close of 
the century the influence of the Carolingian minuscule hand lJegins to 
assert itself, and even, under certain conditions, to usurp tbe place of 
the native hand. Characteristic is the disposition to flatten the top 
úf !<uch letters as a and q, and. so to say, cut it off at an ol,liclue 
angle. This is well shown in the following specimen from the col- 
lection of .Anglo-Saxon poetry in the \Y essex dialect in a volume 
known ws the 'Exeter Book', lJelonging to the Chapter Library of 
Exeter (no. 3501), written in the middle of the century (Xn,' Pol. 
SJr. 9). 


Xo. 14.6 


The large scale on which the text is written rewJers this )[:-:. of 
particular value as a :-.tandard example of the Anglo-Saxon hand of the 
tenth century. The advance upon the writing of the ninth century is 
conspicuous in the growing squareness of the letters, in contrast with 
the more elegant pointed style of the older period: and yet something 
of that elegance remains in the lJalance of light ami heavy Rtrokes in 
the formation of the letters. 
A little later is the next specimen frum a Latin Psalter in Salishury 
('hapter Liln'ary pIS. 150) of about the year 969, with an interlinear 
Anglo-Saxon gloss (Pul. Soc. i. 183). 


No. 147 


The text is written with regularity in well-formell minuscules; but 
the influence uf the fureign school can lJe Iletected in the fluctuations of 
certain furms, as e. g. in the letter s, the round shape lJeing more 
generally used than the long Saxon letter, and the tall Carulingian letter 
also appearing (lines 1 amI :l). 
The estal,li:,;hment of the foreign minuscule hand as an independent 
furm of writing in England will engage our attention when the history 
uf that script will lIe treated as a whole and its progress throughout 
the different countries of "Testern Em'opiJ will he taken into one view. 

ut here it should lJe noticed that for
ign minuscules generally take 
the place of the native haw I in the course of the tenth century for 
Latin texts, while the Saxon writing still holds its own for texts in the 
vernacular. Thus, in charters of this lwriod We find the two styles 
standing side by si,le, the budy uf the document, in Latin, being written 
in the foreign minuscule hand, amI the lJOlmdaries of the property con- 
wYf'd, expressed in Anglo-Saxon. lJeing in the nati\'e hand. This foreign 
invasion naturally made its chief impression in the south. 
To lJring the tenth century to a close, we select an example from 



XVII 


'rHE EARLY EXGLISH BOOK-HA
D 


P:E . tL$.;t 

 
 


 
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\.Ö..f- .-:3 <;ti....r: ...... I 
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Å ß;:: ..\r--. o E e 
 

l i;
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t 
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c Jf 
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..; '# \r. P....E 
 
"e- 

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rß- 
 
 
 
r- r= r-.- b' ;:: 
 
 
e:-JJt:: 

-
 
 

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g 'Í! rE 
 
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)g 
 
 
 
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F-- 
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395 


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::>.!:-."":= C) 


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-æo"õ"'s 

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396 


CREEK AXD L\TIX PALAEüGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


F.\CSI\IILE Xo. 147 


".\. ,-,,, · 1_gv
\ - t1.t - 1". ø
 '1\Am'I
_ 

Ul
htl
 VonU..l1ot1.
.Ulq: CWUUUl 

jf ð
;í; '''''è;
XW 
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 T...... - ""' F .F' 
-.. SOf If:f "P.;;-ætt m 
nomlnUm.. 1WU1ð
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"tni\(' ,*ð'
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'1.'t"1\ J,.. J"thC\."11 
(r-ns. cl1tV
rJ"ffiS -
f-um 

tr 
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h.tLI,\\\ Q'T S""Jl"1": r 
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nyr f __ 
mT ðecunauf-J11!ITV- S1mu lntrnlt'5 

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 '1"" \1"'" ,,' - J1a ",,' 1 p/J _ 
T:acn
Um;;!nOll 
 
1 f'1'1atJ' QOJ1U 
1\4.- ".. 
1t. 
11 A.t1Lt 
1\011 t'S1! U T au
 a.ðunum 

r

 um f
Z;;r 

 
 


PS.\LT.EH.-ABOL"T .\.I>. 9()n 


(qui faciad IJonulII . non e.
t usquc ad unum I [DomiJllus de c!;'lo prospexit supe1' 
filius I huminum: ut videad si est intelh. gens aut requiren<; deum I [O:mnes 
declinaverunt . !;,imul inutiles i facti sunt: non est qui faciat bonum I non est 
usque ad unum I :S:epulchrum patens est guttur eorulIl. " Gloss: þa do god 
na oþ on anne I drihten of heofena besceawaþ ofer heal' I manna þæt geseo 
gif is ynderstan,dende oþ'ð'e secende drihten I eaIle fram ahyldan ætgædert' 
unnyt I gedone synd na i., þa do god Ina is oj) on anum I byrigen opengende 
is celo heam) 




nI 


THE EARLY EXGLISH BOOK-HAXD 


-:IJ 
"od' 


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t 0 
t
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t
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;:: P-:: 
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i.) 
;:: $:: '"' e. ;: P-:;: ;:: 
E g 
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.... 
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i-J p...10 .' ,.... 
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r
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fj;; ,... 
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p- 0 'J,J" 
 

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g- f; 
 
 
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f,j) tL _ 
 
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p- f!'ì d \oJ 
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a 
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r. 
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ç: P P I..i .....,
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397 


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C)
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-+:;I . _ oo-::: 
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3 


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3!)8 


GREEK AKD LATI
 PALAEOGRAPHY 


CHAP. 


a pontifical, apparentI
' of the church of Sherborne, in Dorset, now in 
the Bibliothèque Xationale pIS. lat. 943), Paris, which was written 
about A. D. 992-5 (",,-Yew Pal. SOl'. HI, 112). 
No. 148 


This \"cry handsome writing, executed with the precision required for 
a voluille intended for public service, maintains the characteristics of 
its century unimpaired, and might pass for the script of some tifty 
rears 
earlier, church service-hooks being naturally conservative in execution. 


The beginning of the eleventh century is an epoch of decided change 
in the native minuscule hanc1. It cannot any longer be called a pointed 
hand. The body of the letters increases in squareness, the growth of 
which we IHwe noticed in the tcnth century, and the limlJs extending 
above and below the line hecome longer than before. In a word, the 
writing has hy this time lost the compactness and graceful penmanship 
of the earlier periud. 
The change is to be attributed to the exterior influence of the foreign 
style which is marked in the eleventh century by a meagreness of form 
contrasting ver:r decidedly with the calligraphic fullness of the earlicr 
script. 
In a spccimen taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Corpm: 
Christi College, Camhridge, described above (no. 145), we ha\'e a very 
good illustration of the new style of the eleventh centur
r. It is from 
the portion of the Chronicle written up in the year 1001 (Sew Pal. 
Sue. 136). 


Ko. 149 


In this hand the general meagrencss of the script, the departure from 
the pointe!} style, the lengthening of limlJs above and below the line, 
referred to atJove, are all fully present, although the :MB. has only just 
tUrD!:;ll the century. It is protJatJle that in this example, written in a 
lJUsy centre such as 'Yinchester, we may see the work of a scribc practising 
the newest style of his time. )Jan
' ::\JSS. of actually later date are not 
so adnmce,1. having perhaps 1 J een written in places where life moved 
more placidly. 
Another typical cxample is a ::\IS. of the Latin-English granmmr of 
..:-Elfric, Abbot of Cerne in Dorset, now in the Cam1.ridge Lni\'ersity 
Library (::\IS. HII. I. 10), written in the first half of the eleventh 
century (XCI" Pal. Sue. 137). 


Xo. 150 


This is an instance of writing in two alphabets, the scribe 1Jeing 
equally versed in the contincntal minuscule for the Latin portions of 



ì- ..:.:""-;':L-- 
 i ð 
-r 

 } 
 i- 
 
Þ- r:=- r- u- r' 
 

-t-
 :1

 
-t. 
 
 <- J-t:: ..... 
:I cij t- tF 

 
 


fit

S- 

 R 
 
 
 
 r
 S 

 \
 -s -E
 
 
 

 
 
 
 . n <d 
t 1: 
f)
"i fJ- '! 
fi


5 
 f.\
 
 
& 
..=- 
 S 
 ß 
 


 
 f ìf tt:
 J= +-- 
fi:: g 
 
 
 
 ";:ã 1 
;: ß 

 r-<:lj .. 
 
3 X \ 
 """t- E 
 tf 
 

 r- 
":x3 
 E-.ß 
 
E 
 P 
 2 E- Är5 ..
 

 #:J 
 
 p
 
 1 
i:- !}) .. 
 r- 
 

 


_ s:; 

 
 T')j) k f-n..-Ë 
'fJ) .-
 Q j r--
 
 r J 
\
 Z- 
 
 
 g 
 
f
 
 iLJt-
 Jo 
!;- J- 3 
 r-
 á 
 
;:tr- E
 


XH[ 



 
"<1' 
- 


- 
z 


'-' 

 
;::; 
'1- 
..-: 

 


.,.. 
t.
 


THE EARLY EXGLISH BOOK-HA
n 


- 
-' 


399 


- 
o 
:::> 
- 




c=::::
 
f-
 blJ
 
::::-....:..C,,_ 
_ _ Q)'...J 
- 
 
J) r-::: 
Q;) 
..:: rr :::: 
t..( _c....... 
Co) - .- - 

;
? . 
S: 
 rTl 
.
 

 co: 
r.
 
 
::::: 
J)::..-- 
\:: .= .
 -=-
 
-_ ..J c... 
!l'L
 Z: 
S2ë;=::_ 

-E 

..:: ê 
-Q 
 0: :0; 
 
 
en 2 
-::: 
 
 
..;:: a....!::::..-4
 
::O-'0C:::;"':; 
,..., c:,) :... _ 
 
--æ
 :: ?; 
.g -::-4 
 ; :: Ê'L 
ê-
:..(

 


:..--:,... 
rTl ÀÞ0 
-; 

 .: 

Æ
 
-OO::::Q)è.' 
.
" Co) 
 
D C; s: 

 ;::: '5.= 
 Co.i 
t.o ;: 
 \.) 
:.2 
2=--;2-:...1 
::: 
.:: - 
 
.= 0 tD.::: :::...: 
- - - - 
,...-- -- .... 

=/.)ðcQ 
 
;.s 
 ->: 
 . 
:::ft";:::
:: 
.= :.
 
 g 
 

 

 5.
 
(J 
.
 ::,..,.,.. (i) 
 -' 
:: .
 
 Co) \f 7- 
:
.::::
 
r 
 
8 
 .:: B -00"- 
:,... 
 C)":-- 
 
 
".!-.r.I1;:
 a 
<Dè:::-
- 
=-:;..- c:.-S 

 -z
 
(
 
c:; of' 
 _.._'- 
t.o....._ JI0::: 
..... Õ ::.
 3 : 


:
 
 E 
.
. g 
 1 
 
 
Y.;ì- - ...::: 

 
...... CJ 
=

fJ

r-::; 
o '= 
 _.:=; 
 
t;
-=-

 
I-

Qj::>- 
.- a) 
 to t(
 
. ::f' _ <:) - 
.:: t 3 
 1 
 

..::::.;

::: 


í 


H 
;..0; 



 
..... 


7- 
o 

 
--: 
u:.. 
I 
S 


;..0- 
-< 



-l00 


tæEEK AND L\TIX PAL\EOURAPHY 


CH-\.P. 


F.\.C'SDIILE X o. 130 


! p'\'TIt
"\ 111X
'
ll' J,
J.tf 
nT"
 
JU TL\'J
 
U ær. 
, i 1"1.'Q'rt"\: Vtctb.,l.,au ('-r.t{"" .b 1o t T p>nl.'I;wn'1J1Jll 
I f"1
.1!1
l1rl1UO 1nl}Jo.do

n .tmo Iwl(\.Jcr
f' 
I r;..Y{'<<n.JOÚ
l .lnot uo[utn'rr rÿIIar nfCdl1' /te. 
I JJ1fl1" fi t1}
r 111T 11o.1n t1l'l"\l\.\")t'irt111,4t.l t f.\fhCI- 
r.Ilt
 It
a 
tm;hs('. JocrnJl. Jocendo. rlocft1dü. 
aoJkm.Jolklcmf 
 Joct't1Jt.T,{mA hm rr ront-.- 
I C
fl 
r-. JOCC.ftdo l,4.1UO
Tm'f11ð1'" 1C 1Pp.n:r-. rlOCft1Ju 
dt- m. nIt"" 1t l(1üt
ft1n{". tL1
ef pue-rof aJJoct'nJû 
1M'fF 
}
l ry[
 ro læpt'nT1r-. u1f clolliJ 1T{'-. rÿ[r JHl 
1;(\11 r.T-.Q.UJ. Doltu 11Ci11'rrUun kJn.
 lccom.p'l.< 
r'Jp
 n? aS4.'t1 rv enI [iÏ 1-1\1ð111l1 lro enlLü. 
ðtlm 
In''"l.
rum 
rJ
'lroJ{'.rrm 
 'nne.M. ulrlfm 
'Il'
" Cbot:rc dor
l1
O ruerof 
j f" hrÚ';TJ
 
ÜTI't' 1 1Þr 
(\m r,ylbU. Ipf.t mOl1M tf uwíLu
 Jo 
li.">nJo rn
Lt
f,1'" l111nr-c
lU raCd':Ç r

"nt)
 
ä;' 
1n (

f 11 c
ll'tl.lese"nJo doce:Ë un: &Z{
Jø 



-ELFRlC':; GILUDLUt.-E.\.RLY ELE\.E
TH CEXTl:UY 
{Preterito inperfecto docehatur a te . ]Jll ta:.htest nu ær. I Pl'etel'ito perfecto. 
ductum erat a nobis. we tæhton . and swa I foro. Infinitivo modo. doceri a 
me volo . ic wylIe J t:ccan . docel'i a nobis volumus . we w)'llap tæcan . Ac I 
]'ises gemetes nis nan neod . Gerundia æl partici palia verba sunt h
c . docendi . 
docendo . docendum. I doctum. doctu. Tempus cst docendi . tima hit )'S to 
tæ,cenne . docendo IO(lUOr . tæcende ic sprece . docendu1n I est milti . me is 
to tæcenne . Habes pueros ad docendum I ha:fst þu cÿld to lærenne . vis 
doctum ire. wÿlt þu I gan bécan . Doctu veni . fram lare ic com. pa I word 
magon to eallum hadum ll11(l to eallum tÿdum I and to a:.gõrum gptele . (lnd to 
ælcum cÿnne . l\Iultum I ipse laborat docendo puel'os . swS'pe he swÿnc'\'\ I 
ta:cende pam cj-Idum . Ip,;a monialis vigilat do cendo Imellas . se minecenu 
wacaõ tæcende pam I ma
den cÿldum . Legendo docetur vir. et legendo) 



xnr 


THE EARLY EXULISH BOOK-HANI> 


401 


d ,P') 

-
 
 ! j It l 

 ;... ç: ...è 1. 0 -t t!.. 
.
j-!.
 t 

ä as 
.61.; 
 ...è L
-c 
 
..31- è g' 
1.L 
t-g iL ß ßoä g a..!! 
- i 
 
 e B g t'. E- 

'
ã

p :s
a 

 :-å.k 
 !:j Í> g 

I 

 -fr-.t
 r tJ 
 

 t 

 '
 
 
-tV 
 
 
6; 
g s 
 T --& t= t
 
.. 
. 
 . 
 
 
 o. 
 
· 
 a;T 

 È a 
 
 T 
. 
..n 5J 
.....
el 
å 
 ã -tZ 
 t: ÌJ -J '-I 
%
-
t 

 

I 
]-

 tï
. j 
 g r, 

tJltj-iti 


_a 
 


118. 


. - .. Q.,'""::i 
() 
s'"g

rEJ: 
:=Q,;;::":'::b.O;.. 

J)
 
 .--: &: 
Q) 
 ii :: 
"':' 
r-5 cg b.O-S :: Co) 
;... ..... è 0 -- 
:::s s-


 
:; .. ; .
 2 w 
rn S - G"" a .
 
.=;.oC/)-
 
C) 
 of""l s::::- 
t.)
 ?;
_8 
c:..> ..:;:. U2 

E
-

 
.I
 0 C .."- c: 
6 ......a

:::
 
,..., 8c:-_Q...w 
-
 S g tD 
 

 S::.C:_O o 
o t.) E- 
..,: 1:D.$ -.5 9<' 
Eo- ..s ;::
-+-1 =
 
;:J gj.::: 2 3 :> - 
Q tD"'3 a::: U2 . 
 
.Ä_ .,... en 
.......-I s.... c;:....... """'"' 
..::: -_ Q) 
 s:: :::"A 
I. ......,..::;,!:....c;::l 0 
Q)_,....
Q)m 

 s::::õ:::
=
 
;"'""'1 
 
 :::: ::::s = - 

 
òt.Ct;:j:= 

 P-4 
 
 lfl a:: 
2 
-==:::", 
_,_ =>_c: 
è '"Q)Q../..J- 
Q,) _ ,.... 
/.:.J rn 
-- .. õ z 
"m 
 

 b.O
 S.=: .. C) 
- .=
 
-
 .. 
..-. -...",- 
,. ";-
 G 

 

 
::::
êëñð 
. c: 8 ::; _ e" 
S "'
>-
..
 
s:: '" 
-';'
,...,..01 
c =",C)
æQ.) 
< a


U2
 

-:8?
5 
Q) Q,;-- 
t.)...:::
Sè3æ 
c;:
:::-::", 
<li =:.::: ..:: 0 


...c:,...
 lõ.O 

C-:
Õro -..-.. 
2ã
rog
]
 

 
 - 

 ;::;-;::::: 
.... -"'" -- 
-
...:2 
 æ == 2 g 
-Q)
 
tJ)- 
]
æ]


 

 
 
..=

 8s 


Dtl 



402 


GREEK A
D LATIN PALAEOCmAPHY 


the text, an,l in the Anglo-Saxon script for the vernacular. It will be 
observed that he is careful to keep up the distinction even between 
such letters of the two alphahets as might be easily interchanged; for 
example, the Anglo-
axon form of e is ditierentiated from the foreign 
letter only by a small hook at the back of the loop. 
To close our Anglo-Saxon specimens we give a facsimile from a )[S. 
written near the middle of the century and within appreciallle distance 
of the :Korman Cunquest, a copy of the Anglu-Saxon Chronicle (Brit. 

lus.. Cotton, Tiberius B. i) of about the year 1045 (Pal. Soc. i. 2-12). 


x o. 151 


This is a good hand, written with great firmness and regulal'ity, 
and heavier in style than the two previous specimens; with the ten- 
dency to slluare formation and to long limhs ahove and helow the line, 
characteristic of the peri 011. 


With the Norman COlllluest the native English form of writing was 
doomed. From the tenth century, as we have seen, the continental 
minu<;cule had been displacing it as the handwriting for Latin )[SS. 
There remained for it only hooks compo
ed in the native tongue; and 
there it eontinued, for a certain time, to survive, but gradually losing 
its independent character, and being evermore overshadowed and super- 
seded by the new writing of the continental school, until at length the 
memory of the old hand sUlTives in our modern writing only in the 
paradoxical employment of the letter y to represent the old Saxon long 
thorn I', \Ye hreak oft: then, with the period of the Norman Conquest as 
virtually marking the end of the English haUlI of the Anglo-Saxon type. 



CHAPTER XYIII 


LATI
 PALAEOGRAPHY (continued) 


The Minuscule Book-hand in the Middle Ages 


WE have now examined the various national handwritings of 
'Vestern l
Ul'ope, as they were developed within the borders of their 
respective cuuntries. 'Ve have seen how they had their origin in 
different styles of Roman writing, and how they followed their own line
 
and grew up in different forms under difierent conditions. 'Ye have now 
tú gather thc threads together and follow the course of the handwriting
 
of 'Vestern Europe along a new line. One form uf han,lwriting had 
been developed, which hy its adllliraùle simplicity recommended itself 
at once as a standard script. The Carolingian minuscule, which we 
have already found Lrought tu perfection at Tours and at other centres 
of France, was the literary hand of the Frankish Empire, and extended 
its intluence and was gradually adopted in neighLouring countries. 
But at the saIIle time, with this widespread use of the reformed hand, 
uniformity of character could not be ensured. S ational idiosyncrasies 
show themselves as manifestly in the different scripts of different 
peoples as they do in tlllc.ir mental and moral qualities; and, although 
the Carolingian minuscule haw I formed the l.asis of all moùern writing 
of ""estern Europe, which thus started with more chance of uniformity 
than the old national hands which we have been discussing, yet the 
national character of each cuuntry soon stamped it!>elf upon the adopted 
script. Thus in the later middle ages we have again a series of 
national hands, developed from the Carolingian minuscule, and clearly 
distinguishaùle from each other, although in some degree falling into 
groups. 
We now follow the course of the mediaeval minuscule script as a book- 
hand, reserving for a later chapter what we ha'"e to say regarding the 
more cursive styles used in ufficial and legal documents. 
\\"e have already descriLed the final calligraphic moulding of the 
Carolingian minuscule book.hand, the literary hand of the Frankish 
Empire. Its course through the ninth and tenth centuries. particularly 
un the Continent, can 1Je traced with fair precision hy means of the 
excellent facsimiles which have Leen pu1,lishe,1 during recent years. 
Its general characteristics during the ninth century, at least in the 
hetter written examples, are these: the contrast of fine and heavy 
Dd2 



40-t 


GREEK A
J) LATI
 PALAEOORAPHY 


strokes is marked, the old tendency to thicken or cluh the stems of tall 
letters, as in b, d, h, is still maintained : the letter a is often in the open 
u-form, ami the hows of the letter g frequently remain uncloserl, som('- 
what after the fashion of the numeral 3. In the tenth centur
', tl1P 
strokes are usually of less solidity; the cIulll1ing grarlually declines; 
the open a (in its pure form) is less frequently used, and the upper 
bow of g closes. No fixed laws can, however, he laid down for dis- 
tinguishing the .l\[8S. of the two centuries, and the characteristics 
which have been namell must not be too rigidly exacted. As in all 
otheJ' departments of our subject, practice and familiarity are the l'est 
guides; ami, as a considerable number of i\[SS. written in this hook- 
hand have survi,"ed, many of them of classical and other literary value, 
the studpnt will not find the time wa!"ted which he will he"itow in 
acquiring a nearer acquaintance with this form of writing, and in thus 
preparing himself to form a judgement of the ages of the undatell :\15S. 
in the series. 
In dealing with a type of book-hand so widcl
' ditiilsed as \Va.... 
the Carolingian minuscule in "estern Europe, we must expect great 
di,-ersity of style. of personal or local character, among surviving :\ISS. 

aturally we look for the hest written examples within the ],ouwlaril'" 
of France itself, and necessarily a less accomplished style in }J<trts more 
distant, anI I thus more removed from the central influence of the 
reformed hand. Hence in the following series of examples it wiII he 
foulHl that there are nu-iations which are to be cxplailll:,(1 as resulting 
from the abO\"e conditions. awl that one common stallliard is not to he 
set up for 
l

. written in Ilitil
rent districts alllll"ountrips. 
(Jur first example is from a l\lS. of St. Augustine co ntl"(( FtI'u.
t /I J/I 
at Lyons (i\lS. 610), which was presented to the cathedral church hy 
Bisllop Leidrade who helll the see in A.D. 7DH-H14, and which lIlay there- 
fore be placed in the early year,,; of the ninth centm"y (XP7/. Pill. 
Soc. (8). 


Ko. 1j2 
The writing here is of the French type, showing the Carolingian 
minuscule still in a progressive stage hut fairly on its way towards 
calligraphic completion. The old-fashioned form of the letter a wiII be 
noticed in places, when following r; as well as the occasional employment 
of the high-shouldered form of the last-nmned letter. ami the u"e of the 
combined et, both as a separate word ami as part of another worll. It is 
true that &llch surviyals persist even to later times, Lut they becolllP 
gradually more exceptional. 
For the next specimen a )IS. with a curious history is selected. 
This is a volume of Lives of the Fathers Ly Pa
chasius allll others, now 
in the Royal Lihrary of Brussel"i (.!'lIS. K:n 1)-1 !-i). which was commence(l 



, 
'., . 

'\ U \- 
t 
 s: 
 I
 
 ; 
-:I 0;.. 
 j i-t 
 þ 2 

 -!l
 t 
 ';.. t ö- i: t 
 
 
i J -I íl 
 ï 1
 
I
 i É..lij
 r 
1 1 ti 
fA . 
 . E 
t: 1. 
:I g 
ó 
z 
i 
 i !1J II g u 
 t 

 fL.
 :s-S:-Ù Q a :J 

 -d y j E.' E Ij 
 

i tt'
Ei r
 11 
- 
ËJ1i

1
'
 
L
 'I- u- f J 
 3 

 
:s-t; t:s 

 1 tr"1 -'I -i ; .. 
-:i u- 1. u-
 t: '..- _ 
 
 
"t:T' - 


1-0,) 


g

 ê:E
 
.". - 
 - 

...:::
;.:=
:; 
-.,a.;I-C:II)t.n 
=._ ::3 
 w. ,.... 
'2. en c:,) 52 c:,) a 
.8
.Z 

.a 
.= 
 
 
 - ß 
:",-,t.D_= 

-
 :: 
 ?,-.. 
-- (,) .... - ,..., -' .- 

 :: 
.= .:::-''":j .., 
:= - 
 := (1) 
 
 
-.g a õ 
 
 
 

 ..... s:: "'0 
 i: 
.:: 
 
 Q) :=.. 
 
 
S -,.$ en 

 
g ;; .::.
 ê g-æ 
c:,);;:-:-_
Z c:,):;'- 
s ::.
 z .. s 
 
-C;.,a.;I
:...è
 
è"':::2a::3='1-04 
.
 
 t.) :...:=: 
 . 

 

 r.8 
 
-3 
-
è:>:>
-:: 
. è

 
-
 

 .- c: :.J 
 
 ..... II) 
...-4 
í' t(
 
 t) ê >- 
x :::



C,)è 

 15 =: 
 j) =---0 S5 
-1 -
c;""-Orn 
. .= 
 >- 9 = ::3 
 
....-:. 
 -::s 
 
r.n rn -_ 
 t) 
 
..y
 -- c...::... 
._ 
s.; 
>
2='
;: 

 ..5:E c::.3 :;.
 


 
 .
 .
 z 
 == ë; 
--I C,i__....... 
I - - 
 ..- - "':: 
. S

=
êDg 

 
.- Q.; = -::: tL c-t 

 .::;:::: ..a 
 = .. 
:-- .
 Qj.
:.t: - 
 :: 
;L" 
3

-=-.
z 
- 0- _ :... _ _ ;j QJ 
? 

s:::aC"'s 
--J '-' _ _:.... 
 
-< 
 9 .
1J 
 2 
 r.Z 
... ð
<J)


o 
f3. 
=z-g
= 
... j 
 -2 ;; == :); 
-= 9:: 
 -- 3 
 
E
-ë;a-- 
;-.,g a ::: (1).s.
 
-,......,-4 _ -"'C > 

 
 a ;:.::; ::: 
 
.:= 
 =-' s 
 a ë: 

 ..s';:: " å) ::: 
8t::::..s:;.-C"' 
-
...o
 =.. . 
- æ 
 ::: - ...
 
:.. > g - ....
 rn 

rn>-:::
::: 

 = -- .:.1 -0 
 
;>t:.OO
t)o.._ 

o:...=:: 
 
-0 
 E: 
-E:o;::: 

 
.,g 
 tJ 
 .- 
::::'Z en ==-...0 

,..."';':::::
d 
.::4 :::: (1) ....., 
 :::: tJ 

 . è :: -.-I Q.) 
:::
"JY

_= 
.:: 
 :=...:; ;:: t.)- 

 
 -
 g r.2 
 
 



406 


GREEK AX]) LATIX PALAE()I:RAPHY 


CHAP. 


during a military expedition and was completed at the 
\Llley of 
St. Florian near Linz in rpper Austria in A.D. 81a (lY/''1I' Pal. SIIC. 31). 


"X o. 153 


In this exmnple, an instance of a :\[S. written at a distance from 
restraining and correcting" influence. the writing lacks the more perfect 
finish. The letters are of a thinner type; tlu' tall main strokes rather 
meagre. The prentlent, though not uni,"ersa], employment of the Open 
a, rather of the old duuLle-c form, will he noticed. 
Two :USs. written by ar(ler of Baturich, Bishop of Regensl.urg. and 
fonnerly helonging to the mOlHlstery of St. Emmeran of Regenshurg, 
may be taken as illustrating tLp Carulingian minuscule written in 
Germany early in the ninth century. The first is a volume of theological 
and canonical tracts, now in the Royal Library in l\lunich (!'tIS. Lat. 
14468), datd A.D. 821 (Pal. So(". i. 1221. 


Ko. 154 


The lutn(lwriting is of a gootl character, though it does not rise to 
the standard of the hest-written :;\ISS. of France. The clul,hing of the 
tall main strokes is partial: open a is rarely used: an instance of the 
employment of the high-shouldered cursÏ\"e r in conjunction with t will 
be obsen"cd in linp ï. 
The secontl )IS. from Regensburg is the comnlentar:" of St. Augustine 
on the First Epistle of St. J,)hn, now at )Iunich (l\IS. Lat. 1443i), of the 
year 823 (Pal. Soc. i. 123). 


x o. 15;) 


This writing is 1I10re archaic in style than the foregoing e"\"ample. 
The open a is in general use, of the douhle-c type. The clubhing of tall 
main strokes is fairly consistent. An instance of the survi,"ing cursive i, 
drawn under the line after r, will be seen in line i. 
A 1\IS. of the Cupihdlll'ia, or Constitutions. of Charlemagne in the 
Library of St. Gall (Cod. 733) pr()\"i(les our next example. It was 
written in A.D. 8
5 (Pill. ßoc. i. :!O!I). 


Xo. 156 


1'h11\ hand approaches more nearly to the French type in the contrast 
of light and heavy strokes, aUfI in the more ornamental clubLing of the 
vertical main strokes. The two forms, too, of a are used at discretion, 
the open letter, it will be noticed, heing not exactly of the douhle-c type, 
but rather following the Franco-Lomhardic (Corhie) pattern as seen 
aLO\'e in Facs. 128, the first limb IJeing pointed and the second only 
having the curved head of a c. 



:xnn THE LATI
 Ml
TSCl
LE BOOK-HAXD 407 
"- 
" " 'tL 
 s 
 t 
t t è :::: 
 
 
ti .ti :::; . 
 
.l 0'" 
 ::::r-:::; 
-f '"
' 
 
"Zoo.o 


 L 
 
...::a& 

 t 
 c:: ::: 
.. 
 
 
-;....- 

 .. ::"3 0 0 
f 1 .. .. Q.. .
 
 <l) Q.) 
t 
 l UJ. 
 Q,I 0 
\..J 
 o c:: .... 

 c . =.
 
 
:s 'd 
È 
 .
 
 
 ....... 
 . 
a- 
 .. 
 c: 
:2 
:s t \... 
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